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formed in the carth should, upon to rest satisfied with recording the being dug up, be found enveloped fact, and leaving it under all its diffiin a crust different from the rest culties,than to increase its wonders of their substance, and bearing by the addition of a miracle. evident marks of having under- The same remark may be exgone the action of heat in contact tended to those, who have fancied with the air.

that the constituent parts of the The same unquestionable re- stones exist in the atmosphere, and seintlance which prevails among are united by the fire of a meteor, all these bodies, and, still more, or by the electrick fluid. We have the peculiar nature of the pyrites no right to make any such hypowhich they contain, prove very thesis. We have never seen iron, clearly that they have not a volca- silica, &c. in the gaseous state. nick origin. Even if such an hypo- These bodies may, for ought we thesis were liable to no other ob- know, be compounds of oxygen jection, it would be inadmissible and azote or hydrogen, &c.; but on this ground, that we know of as yet we have no reason to think no volcano that throws up so small so. Besides, he who amuses us a portion of matter, and so uni- with this clumsy and gratuitous formly of the same kind. But explication, will probably account though we were to admit the ex- for every other phenomenon by a istence of this volcano, where similar process of creation : He must we place it, that its eruptions may, with equal plausibility, conmay extend from Bengal to Eng- ceive the earth to be formed by a land, France, Italy, and Bohemia ; union of burnt gases, and then conay, from Siberia to Senegal and ver it with vegetables, and people it South-America ? And if we are with living creatures, by a few more forced to admit the existence of a conflagrations and explosions. Such, series of such volcanoes, which however, is the theory most heavare known to us only by these pe- ily expounded by M. Izarn-spun, culiar effects of their eruptions, do with tiresome and unprofitable inwe not acknowledge that we are dustry, into cobwebs, which touch compelled to imagine a set of every fact, without catching it causes, without any other founda- and enveloping in the mist of gention for our belief in them, than eral logical positions, which faintour occasion for their assistance in ly conceal the fundamental postuexplaining the phenomenon ? In late an entire act of creation. short do we not account for one From the whole, we may safely difficulty, by fancying a greater ? infer, that the bodies in question But if it is alleged that the stones have fallen on the surface of the come from

volcanoes already earth, but that they were not proknown, we demand, what volcano jected by any volcanoes, and that exists in the peninsula of India, we have no right, from the known or in England, or in France, or in laws of nature, to suppose that Bohemia ? And if it is said that they were formed in the upper rethese bodies are projected by He- gions of the atmosphere. Such a cla, Etna, &c. to all manner of negative conclusion seems all that distances, we must ask, whether we are, in the present state of our this is not explaining what is puz. kpowledge, entitled to draw. But zling, by assuming what is impos. an hypothesis may perhaps sugsinle? It is surely much better gest itself, unincumbered by any

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of the foregoing difficulties, if we would infallibly reach the earth ; attend to the following undoubted and there can be little doubt that truths.

such forces are exerted by volcaAs the attraction of gravitation noes during eruptions, as well as extends over the whole planetary by the production of steam, from system, a heavy body, placed at subterranean heat. We may easi. the surface of the Moon, is affect* ly imagine such cause of motion ed chiefly by two forces ; one to exist in the Moon, as well as in drawing it towards the centre of the Earth. Indeed, several obserthe Earth, and another drawing it vations have rendered the existowards that of the Moon. The tence of volcanoes there extremelatter of these forces, however, is ly probable. In the calculation beyond all comparison greatest at just now referred to, we may reor near the Moon's surface. But mark, that no allowance is made as we recede from the Moon, and for the resistance of any medium approach to the Earth,this force de- in the place where the motion is creases, while the other augments ; generated. In fact, we have every and at one point between the two reason to believe, from optical conplanets, these forces are exactly e- siderations, that the moon has no qual-so that a heavy body, placed atmosphere. there, must remain at rest. If, A body falling from the Moon therefore, a body is projected from upon the Earth, after being imthe Moon towards the Earth, with pelled by such a force as we have a force sufficient to carry it beyond been describing, would not reach this point of equal attraction, it us in less than two days and a must necessarily fall on the Earth. half. It would enter our atmos. Nor would it require a very great phere with a velocity of nearly impulse to throw the body within 25,000 feet in a second ; but the the sphere of the Earth's superi- resistance of the air increasing our attraction. Supposing the with the velocity, would soon line of projection to be that which greatly reduce it, and render it ujoins the centres of the two plan- niform. We may remark, howets, and supposing them to re- ever, that all the accounts of fallen main at rest ; it has been demon- stones agree in attributing to the strated, on the Newtonian estima- luminous bodies a rapid motion in tion of the Moon's mass, that a the air, and the effects of a very force of projection moving the bo- considerable momentum to the dy 12,000 feet in a second, would fragments which reach the ground. entirely detach it from the Moon The oblique direction in which and throw it upon the Earth. This they always fall, must tend greatestimate of the Moon's mass is, ly to diminish their penetrating however, now admitted to be much power. greater than the truth ; and upon While we are investigating the M. De la Place's calculation, it circumstances that render this achas been shewn that a force of lit- count of the matter highly probatle more than one half the above ble, we ought not to admit one power would be sufficient to pro- consideration, which lies wholly in duce the effect. A projectile, the opposite scale. The greater then, moving from the Moon with part of these singular bodies have a velocity about three times grea- first appeared in a high state of fer than that of a cannon ball, ignition ; and it does not seem eaVol. V. No.1



sy to conceive how their passage franchement, que nous ignorons through so rare a fluid as the ato entierement l'origine de mosphere could have generated a- pierres, et les causes qui ont pu ny great degree of heat, with what- les produire.' ever rapidity they may have mov- If, however, a more extensive ed. Viewing as we do, the hypo- collection of accurate observations, thesis of their lunar origin as by far and a greater variety of specimens, the most probable in every other re- shall enable us to reconcile the spect, we will acknowledge that discrepancy, and to push still farthis circumstance prevents us from ther our inquiries into the nature adopting it with entire satisfaction. of the new substance, a knowledge And while we see so many invin- of the internal structure of the cible objections to all the other Moon may be the splendid reward theories which have been offered of our investigations. And while for the solution of the difficulty, the labours of the Astronomer and we must admit that the supposition Optician are introducing new least liable to contradiction from worlds to our notice, Chemistry the facts, is nevertheless sufficient may, during the nineteenth centuly exceptionable, on a single ry, as wonderfully augment our ground, to warrant us in conciud- acquaintance with their producing with the philosophical remark tions and arrangement, as she has of Vauquelin, · Le parti le plus already, within a much shorter sage qui nous reste à prendre dans period, enlarged our ideas of the cet etat des choses, c'est d'avouer planet which we inhabit.



We are extremely glad to find This large edition is also extremethat proposals are issued for print- ly scarce, and cannot now be proing at the University press, Gries- cured even in England, except at a bach's edition of the Greek Testa- price which few of our clergy can ment, with a selection of the most easily afford. After the theologi. important various readings. The cal world had waited impatientl edition from which the American for the second volume of this is to be exactly copied, was pub- standard edition, as soon as it aplished at Leipsick in the year 1805, pears, it is found that first volumes under the inspection, we under- cannot be obtained ; so that a comstand, of Dr. Griesbach himself, plete set of this valuable Testament and by its size is intended for com- is hardly within the reach even of mon use. His large critical edi- the few, who know how to prize so tion in two thick vols. royal octavo laborious a work. We consider (commonly called the duke of the publishers of this small edition Grafton's edition) is not so con- as rendering a great service to the venient for academies and schools, studious and pious portion of the or for the daily reading of theolo- community, by placing within the gical students, as it is for refer- reach of every student and espeence on the shelves of the library. cially of ministers, a pure text and

select reading, of the Greek Testa- Symbolæ Criticæ and other works ment.

of Dr. Griesbach. Dr. Griesbach's accuracy, fideli- It is also proposed, if this comty, and industry are well known to modious edition should meet with the learned in every part of Eu- the expected encouragement, to rope. He is a Lutheran by pro- publish a supplementary volume, fession, and orthodox it is said in which shall contain an English his religious opinions ; but he has translation of Griesbach's Prolegono where discovered in his few al- mena to his large critical edition, terations of the received text the and the authorities, extracted from slightest bias, or want of impartial- this, for every departure which he ity. Marsh, the learned commen- has made from the received text, tator on Michaelis, and now Mar. and for every reading, which, garet professor of divinity at Cam- tho' he has not ventured to insert it bridge, loses no opportunity of in the text, he considers of equal praising his unwearied labours of authority to the received. Permore than thirty years in this haps also some other treatise or kind of criticism, his scrupulous extracts may be added, calculated exactness, and above all the fair- to awaken a curiosity, diffuse a ness with which he has quoted au- taste, or promote a knowledge in thorities, and the unbiassed judg- biblical criticism. ment he has discovered in his de- There can be no doubt, that evecisions on the relative value of ry man who feels a due respect for readings. His principles of criti- the sacred oracles, and especially cism are to be found stated and every clergyman who must take justified in the Prolegomena to his them for the ground of his publick critical edition, which we have instructions, will be solicitous to mentioned above, & are very nearly have them in the purest form, in the same with those adopted by which they can be obtained by the Wetstein his great predecessor. aid of sober and accurate criticism. But Dr. Griesbach's edition de. Enthusiasts in classical literature rives a value superiour to every spare no labour or expense to obother, from the more accurate col- tain correct texts of the immortal lation, which has been made in authors of Greece and Rome; ang late years of some of the most shall the most valuable of all an important manuscripts, from the tient writings, the books of the - discovery and examination of ma. New Testament, be more incorny others unknown to Mill and rectly edited, than the works of Wetstein, from the aids which bib- Homer and Virgil ?

No man lical criticism has received from would read his Homer or his Virthe various labours of the learned gil in a common sixpenny edition in the last half century, and more picked up at a stall, if he could use especially from the great discove the standard edition of Heyne ; ry, which Dr. Griesbach has suffi- and is it of less importance that ciently substantiated, of the divi- the word of God should be studied sion of MSS. in families, or as he in its most correct state ?* terms it recensiones. Those who wish for full' satisfaction on all

The following extract from Gries:

bach's Prolegomena, contains this sen. these subjects, may consult Mich

timent eloquently expressed. “ Cæteaelis's introduction, as it is enriched rum quidquid ad sacri codicis integritawith the notes of Marsh, and the tem tuendam, puritatemque textui sacre If there be any who fear that a was preferred to that of Erasmus ; degree of uncertainty is thus in. and Erasmus constituted the text duced in the oracles of religious as he could, by the help of very few truth by this representation of the manuscripts, and those of no great importance of more accurate edi. antiquity, without any other critic. tions, than those in common use, al subsidia, than the interpolated it would be a sufficient answer per. Vulgate, and some inaccurately haps to refer to the case of edited Fatbers. Besides ; as the any other work of the antients, text of vur common editions has which has been transmitted to us. not received any publick,much less But it would be worthy of their binding sanction, it rests only on apparent concern to enquire, what the authority of the editors we is the authority of that text, which have enumerated ; and why, at the they have been in the habit of re. present day, when sacred criticism ceiving all their lives, as neither has received so much improver more nor less than the very words ment, we should still be taught to of inspiration, from which it is unconsider as sacred, a text settled lawful to depart. If they enquire, two centuries ago upon much few. they will find, that they are defend- er authorities than we now possess, ing, as the precise language of in- it would not be easy perhaps to spiration, a text, which was given say. Indeed, it may fairly be askus by two printers of Leyden, in ed, who discovers the most rationthe infancy of sacred criticism. al respect for the word of God; Our common editions contain,what the man who persists in consideris called the Elsevir text. This ing a text constituted long ago by was compiled by the Elsevirs from two printers of Leyden, as totithe editions of Beza, and Beza com dem verbis, syllabis & literis the pied the third of Robert Stephens, only, sacred, and unalterable lanexcepting a few changes, which he guage of inspiration ; or the man made according to his own judg. who is still anxiously solicitous to ment, and sometimes without suf, ascertain, by all the established ficient authority ; the 3d of Ste- rules of criticism applied to the phens ciosely follows the 5th of testimony of MSS., Versions, and Erasmus, except in the Apoca- Fathers, what was the original text lypse, and a few other places, of the sacred writings. Nothing Where the Complutensian edition is more generally acknowledged,

than that the essential facts and restituendam pertinet, leve videri debet doctrines of Christianity are in no nemini. Quodsi enim in emaculandis Ciceronis aut Terentii scriptis non sine degree endangered by the alteraaude versata est tot doctorum virorum tions, which just criticism dediligentia, nec quisquam tam ineptus mands in the present received text; est & impudens, ut triobolarem edi. and by very few of the various tionem horum auctorum quamcunque readings is the sense of passages æquiparet optimis editionibus a summis criticis incredibili labore emendatis ; at all affected. It is the glory of quanto magis summa contentione con. this branch of theological study, junctisque criticorum studiis enitendum that it has engaged learned men of est, ut sacrorum librorum editio tandem the most opposite persuasions in aliquando extet in omnibus, minimis laborious contributions to its sucetiam, quantum fieri potest purissima, eta mendis quibuscunque, levioribus cess. Among the collectors of ya, eque ac atrocioribus, expurgata."

rious readings and the editors of rieb. Prel. p. xxxix.) the New Testament, we find the

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