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Books Reviewed.

On the Treatment of Diseases of the Throat and Air Passages by inhalation, with

a new inhaling apparatus. By Emil Siegle, M. D. Translated from the second German edition, by S. Nickles, M. D. Cincinnati: P. W. Carroll & Co., Publishers. 1868.

The treatment of diseases by inhalation of medicated vapors has, since its introduction, found many warm and enthusiastic advocates, some of whom are receiving it as a grand accession to our therapeutical means. The present volume is a careful resumé of the history, mode of administration, and the diseases which may be treated by inhalations. It also describes a new inhaling apparatus, of which steam is the motive power. This apparatus, which has been improved by Messrs. Codman & Shurtleff, of Boston, by an addition of a shield for the protection of the patient's face from unpleasant contact with the medicated vapors, is said to possess the following advantages over similar instruments: 1st. In producing the finest spray of atomized fluids. 2d. That it is not easily obstructed, and 3d. There is no disproportion in the force of the spray, a thermobarometer being connected, which will indicate the exact amount of pressure. The author of this work has been intimately associated with the history of inhalation, and by his efforts and perseverance this plan of treatment has been materially advanced.

Annual Report of the Surgeon General United States Army, 1867.

This document, after presenting a summary of the financial condition of the department, enters upon some interesting statements connected with the health and mortality rate of the army, the mean average strength of which, (white troops) during the past year is stated at 41,104 men. The number taken on sick report, for disease, was 111,660; and for wounds and injuries, 10,104, a total of 122,121 sick-reports, or nearly three entries for each man. The constant sickness rate, from all causes, was a little less than 6 per cent. There occurred during the year 1,527 deaths from disease, or 3.7 per cent, mean strength, and from wounds and injuries 155, or 3 per cent. mean strength; a total mortality from all causes of 1,682 men, or 4 per cent. Seven hundred and twenty-three deaths resulted from epideinie cholera, which, when deducted, the per centage of death from all other causes will be reduced to 20 per thousand mean strength, or 2 per cent. The proportion of deaths from all causes, to cases treated, was one death to every seventy-three. The average strength of colored troops is represented at 6,561; number entered on sick-report for disease, 18,800; for wounds and injuries, 894; total of 19,694, or thres entries for each man. The constant sickness-rates was 4.3 per cent. for diseases, and 2 per cent. for wounds and injuries, or a total of less tban 5 per cent, The deaths from all causes was 12 per cent., mean strength, which is reduced to 3.9 per cent. upon deducting 7.1 per cent., or 536 deaths from epidemic cholera. The proportion of deaths from all cases treated was one death to every twenty-five cases.

During the year, the histories of 45,551 men were entered upon the surgical records, making a total entered upon permanent register of 207,941. The department is sparing no effort to ascertain the ultimate results of both operative and conservative progeedures, and through the coöperation of Surgeon Generals of States, private practitioners and various other sources, has been eminently successful, the result of no less 6,373 amputations having been learned from manufactures of artificial limbs. The literary contributions from this office for the year have attracted universal attention, both on account of their great intrinsic value and style of execution. Assurances of continued activity are extended, and the early publication of the first volume of the Medical and Surgical History of the War may be expected, the necessary revision and correction of statistical data for the same being nearly completed. The succeeding volumes are also in construction, and it is designed to push the work forward as rapidly as is consistent with accuracy, and the importance of the faithful record of the medical and surgical experiences of the war.

The deaths of three surgeons, six assistant-surgeons and seven acting assistantsurgeons are recorded for the last year. Five of these died of yellow fever and three of Asiatic cholera.

Mechanical Therapeutics. By Philip S. Wales, M. D., Surgeon U. S. N. Phila

delphia: Henry C. Lea. 1867.

Although our various surgical works generally describe more or less the different surgical appliances and dressings, nevertheless a volume offering to the student and practitioner a systematic and careful description of the mode of application and uses of surgical appliances, an unbiased discussion of their respective advantages and disadvantages, and an avoidance of the embarrassing generalities usually employed in the description of the different steps of surgical dressings, cannot but be regarded as a valuable acquisition to medical literature. These indications the work before us fulfills in the highest degree, embracing within its teachings the art of applying surgical dressings, practice of minor surgery, treatment of fractures and dislocations, orthopraxy, etc. The plans of treatment suggested and described, have mostly been subjected by the author to actual trial, either in hospital or private practice, and, to convey a better understanding, the subjects treated have been illustrated by nearly seven hundred engravings, drawn from the latest surgical appliances and from various surgical works. The publishers have rendered the work in a most acceptable style, the typographical execution being clear and distinct, while the illustrations are very good and add greatly to the value of the work.

Books and Pamphlets Received.

On the Signs and Diseases of Pregnancy. By Thomas Hawks Tanner, M. D., F.

L, S., Member of the Royal College of Physicians, etc. From the second and enlarged London edition; with four colored plates and illustrations on wood.

Philadelphia: Henry C. Lea. 1868. Breed, Lent & Co. Annual Abstract of Therapeutics, Materia Medica, Pharmacy and Toxicology, for

1867; followed by an Original Memoir on Gout, Gravel and Urinary Calculi. By A. Bouchardat, Professor of Hygiene, in the Faculty of Medicine, Paris. Translated and edited by J. M. De Rosset, M. D. Adjunct to the Professor of Chemistry, University of Maryland. Philadelphia: P. Lindsay & Blakisten.

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ART. 1. — Address delivered before the Graduating Class of the Med

ical Department of the University of Buffalo at its Annual Commencement, February 25, 1868. By J. F. MINER, M. D.

Gentlemen :-Receiving your diploma is very far from ending your labor; it only opens to you another course of education, more pressing in its obligations, and which, in this life is without end. If the diploma has been your object, you are unfitted for the duties of a profession, which imposes upon its members the most sacred obligations to preserve life, and to relieve pain, suffering and sorrow. If your object is to acquire fortune, or honor, or ease, you are as unfit for the profession as the profession is for you. You must look for reward, to the consciousness of being qualified and able to do your duty, and in having done it, even though misjudged and censured, by those you have benefited, and who are incompetent to form any idea of your capabilities, or of the long and anxious labors by which they have been reached. You now belong to a profession which gives you frequent opportunities to practice upon the command, “Do good to those who despitefully use you," and are expected to give up all control.of your time, and be constantly prepared for the most momentous and trying emergencies. You must expect to pass anxious hours and sleepless nights from the responsibilities which rest upon you,

VOL. 7, No. 8~-36.

In every

and the consciousness that the lives of others are dependent upon your skill and judgment. And yet, after all this, you will find very many, from the lowest and most ignorant, to the highest and most learned in other respects, advancing positive opinions in opposition to your own, and recklessly undertaking the care of the sick, and prescribing for their diseases, which is to you such source of mental anxiety and care,

“As fools rush in

Where angels fear to tread.” Such are the contingencies of the new life you have now entered, that

you will gladly listen a moment to the reflections and observations of one who has preceded you in the experiences of professional labor, who has met the discouragements and been subjected to the opposing influences to which you will be exposed.

To one educated in the profession of medicine, a very different and much more expanded view is presented, than others, not acquainted with it, are able to gain. He sees in it the various divisions of labor and vast arrangements for it, spread out over the whole civilized world, acting with all the power which can be derived from an aggregation of the highest order of intellect, disciplined and strengthened to the utmost for its work. one of the various departments of his profession, the medical student sees a collection of distinguished individuals, whose mental power demands the admiration of all who can appreciate their labors—labors to which nothing short of the greatest intellectual strength is adequate, studying man in health and disease, from the microscopic elementary atom of each organ, up to his full development, and arrangement into families, tribes, and nations. Medical chemists, day and night, amid the machinery of their laboratories, hunting nature in her hidden recesses, and exposing the principles and laws of combination; medical microscopists finding beauty of form and structure, where the naked eye sees not at all, or sees only a confused speck; observing changes in texture and growth, and developing principles and systems, as wonderful in their minuteness, as that of astronomy in its magni. tude. The Anatomist, the Physiologist, the Pathologist, concentrating all their powers and observations upon the various subdivisions of these extensive sciences. These men are occupied in gathering in discoveries, in trying supposed truths, with every precaution against fallacy, and then sending forth the proven results of their investigations.

The medical science of the present time, is distinguished from the practice of the earlier ages, by this fact, that it has been joined to, or proceeds from the natural sciences. What is it that has corrected our medical teaching and practice and given such impetus to our medical progress, that has revolutionized our systems and started us anew in the study of diseases, and their modes of cure, carrying away the dogmas and isms of past gener. ations, and subjecting the present principles of medicine and surgery to the critical tests of experimental research? You are all now ready to the answer. Careful and intelligent observation of nature, has taught us all, or nearly all we know, and since we have discovered the fountain of real knowledge and have improved our instruments and modes of observation, we have truly grown much wiser, more clearly understanding what is truth, and the great care necessary to abtain it. Physiology is comparatively a new science, but it has already added to our knowledge of disease and its modes of prevention and cure, many of ihe most important facts, establishing principles of paramount value, and undermining false theories which had long been cherished. The study of life in nature, may be regarded in the practice of medicine, as the compass, rudder, and chart in navigation, showing the dangers of the sea, and guiding 1o the polar-star of truth. Anatomy has long been recognized as the basis of medical and surgical knowledge, and its necessity is too obvious to admit of comment. It is readily apparent how surgical practice depends upon it, and how medical knowledge also derives from it much of its accuracy and force. Chemistry also furnishes not only principles in medicine, but our means of curing disease~is at once the source of our principles and practice of medicine. Thus it is seen how legitimate medicine is founded in the natural sciences; how it stands by no assumed or supposed truths, but is truth itself, and much of it as capable of demonstration, as are the problems of mathematics.

In the survey of his profession, the physician sees yet other important aids and appliances. What railroads, steamships and telegraph lines have done for commerce and trade, the arts of printing, photographing and electrotyping have done for medicine. Associations are now issuing annual volumes of their transactions, giving permanent record to every established fact, and to all subjects worthy of further investigation; medical conventions and

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