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beds, by avoiding soil which is too fresh and therefore an early tilling of the soil is of especial moist, and, therefore, more inclined to give full advantage; in no case should the weeding be sway to grass and weeds.

postponed until the weeds have started to bloom, Weeds will have to be fought most energetically their extermination before that time should be on soil heretofore used as fields, which offers the | the principal effort. advantage that its first cultivation is easy and, If possible, the weeding should be done while therefore, cheap, a fact which must be con- the soil is wet, so that the roots of the weeds may sidered, where expenses are of great importance, be torn out with the stems and not broken off, whereas woodlands, freshly cleared, have but few which in many cases results in the immediate of these disturbers, less than clearings which have regrowth of the weeds. If the weeding has to be been lying unstocked for some time.

done during dry weather, never do it without If the country surrounding the forest nursery first loosening the soil. This loosening should shows an abundance of weeds, the seeds of many never be left undone, for it is an absolute necesof them will be carried to the seedbeds, and sity to fertile growth. double watchfulness and care will be necessary. The depth of loosening depends upon the Attention must be directed to the prevention of material. Beds with stronger and older saplings too rapid growth of weeds by weeding during the will have to be loosened to a greater depth than repeated tilling, by doing away with the sprouting those with conifer seedlings. In dry weather it roots by heaping heavy layers of ground over the will often be sufficient to leave the weeds lay grass to further its decomposition and transforma- | on the surface, after having extracted them from tion into fertilizer, and to prevent its growing the raked and loosened soil, and to let the sun through, for patches of grass, not properly covered dry them up. For this reason, if for no other, which force their way to the surface, are the most the loosening of the soil in dry weather is to be difficult to exterminate.

recommended. How often this has to be done It is recommended that the cultivation of the depends upon the condition of the soil, the soil should begin as early as possible in the spring, weather (rain of long duration forms one solid before sowing, to destroy the seeds of the weeds crust of the surface of the soil), and upon the lying on the surface which may have begun to necessity of extracting the weeds. It is an old germinate, working them into the ground with an and practical maxim, that it is better to loosen iron rake and bringing other similar seeds to the soil too frequently, rather than too seldom ; the surface, exposing them to the sun, furthering of course, the cost comes into consideration. their growth, for the purpose of treating in a like | Under all circumstances must the soil containing manner, and destroying them after sowing. clay be loosened several times during the year.

The spreading of weeds has been successfully How long shall this weeding, begun in the prevented by covering the space between the rows spring, be continued ? The last weeding should of growing seedlings with moss, dry leaves, inex- be done towards the latter part of August, or pensive slats or with split sticks, which are even | during the first few days of September, for in cheaper. By these means the growth of weeds is a later loosening there is danger of the freezing stayed mechanically. Beds with stronger, trans- of the soil. planted plants have been covered entirely to the If, after this last working, weeds appear again to depth of two or three inches with the leaves of any extent, they may simply be extracted or oak or beech trees, and thereby suffocating all cut off on the surface; sometimes this must be germs of weeds. Even little slabs of stone, if such resorted to at an earlier date, if during a period may be found in the immediate neighborhood, of drought, which prevented weeding, some and obtained at almost no cost whatever, have weeds have grown so strong that there is danger been used for the same purpose with great suc of extracting the seedlings along with the weeds. cess. All these coverings at the same time prove | Weeding, work which ought to be done by infavorable to the preservatiom of humidity, prevent- expensive labor only, in most cases is done ing evaporation.

best by hand, or with the assistance of an old In spite of all these preventives larger or knife, when the deeper roots may be lifted out of smaller quantities of weeds will appear in every the ground, or cut off low down in the ground, if seedbed, and will increase in the course of time, the entire taking out should be impracticable. and their extermination will now be dealt with 1 The best tool for this purpose is a two-pronged

The following rules, if observed, will prove | fork, the so-called “weeder," such as used by useful :

gardeners. Previous loosening of the ground Timely weeding in springtime is the best with a hoe greatly facilitates the task, especially means to eradicate the germs of the enemy ; in ground containing clay, and in dry weather it

should be done immediately before weeding. If

Forestry in New Zealand. the work is to bring any results, it must be executed thoroughly.

D UT little is heard in this country in regard This refuse, the weeds taken from the beds or D to the forestry work being conducted in from the paths between them, which naturally 6 New Zealand, where operations were first ought to be kept as clean as the beds themselves, started by the Government in September, 1896. should not be thrown away, but gathered in a The principal effort thus far has been in the heap, where it will decay and form a compost or establishment of nurseries, which are utilized in dung hill. In reference to this a few words may raising trees to be transferred to the different be said about the formation of manure-piles. plantations. The unskilled labor required is furThe manure consists of the different organic and | nished by the prisons. mineral substances; the former have to decom According to the report of Mr. Henry J. pose, before they can be used, and to that end the Matthews, Chief Forester, for the year ending latter is a great aid.

March 31, 1903, there are five principal nurseries, Weeds of all kinds, especially those taken out known as Eweburn, Tapanni, Rotorua, Starborough in weeding the seedbeds, then foliage, mixed and Haumer Springs, containing on March 31, with the mire of ditches and quicklime, form the 1903, respectively, 964,671, 2,531,640, 2,770,material of the compost-pile. To strengthen the 294, 862,150, and 265,450 young trees, making a manure ready for use, it may be mixed with ashes, grand total of 7,394,205 trees; in addition, some lime and other mineral fertilizer.

trees were raised on the various plantations; the Naturally, the quality and efficacy of the grand total raised on both nurseries and plantamanure depends, in a great measure, upon the tions from 1896 to March 31, 1903, was 11,649,more or less careful preparation and upon the 423, of which total 3,936,107 trees were raised degree of decomposition of the organic sub- in 1902-03. Many of these trees were transferred stances. Good compost is an excellent, and at to eight plantations; the total area planted being the same time inexpensive, fertilizer.

1,43872 acres, containing on March 31, 1903, A manure-pile is best prepared in the following 2,908,156 trees (including 133,632 trees placed way :

on Government reserves, the acreage not beChoose a shady place, admitting plenty of ing given); of which 61934 acres, containing fresh air. To the different materials, gained in 1,165,404 trees, were set out in 1902–3. The the cleaning of the beds, add foliage from both total expenditures from September, 1896, to March soft and hardwood trees, and form a pile of any | 31, 1903, amounted to £37,691, while the trees length desired, about three to five feet high. in stock, tools, buildings, and value of all imThe pile must be turned over two or three times a provements is placed at £ 57,514, certainly a year, and in dry weather sprinkled with water. | gratifying increase, If the decomposing does not progress as rapidly The best results in seedling trees were obtained as desired, burnt lime should be added in layers from Abies Douglasii, Abies excelsa, Catalpa while the pile is being turned over. This addi speciosa, Pinus Austriaca and Larix Europea. tion of lime, however, must be limited, otherwise | The different plantations may be briefly dethe decomposition will make quicker progress scribed as follows: than desired. The pile itself must be covered with Naseby Survey Paddock Plantation, in Otago, earth, carefully laid on, so that warmth, humidity has a total area of 125 acres, of which 10534 and ammonia will not disappear. After about acres has been planted, containing 288,505 trees. five or six weeks the pile, started in the spring, During the year the trees are said to have made must be turned over. This must be repeated two excellent growth, the loss being about 2 per cent. or three times at corresponding intervals. In the The Dusky Hill Plantation, in Otago, contains following spring the pile will furnish a most ex- 845 acres ; on 552 acres of which 1,228,588 trees cellent fertilizer, ready to spread over the seedbeds have been planted. The growth of trees was and be gently worked into the ground. It is of quite satisfactory, notably the larch, many of considerable advantage to place a thin layer of which show over 30 inches of vertical growth for compost over the beds before every sowing. the season. The success of planting acorns in

Paul E. ARNOLD. place was pronounced.

The Raincliff Plantation containing 20634 The most effectual way of reclaiming sand | acres, on which are 50,000 trees, was leased for dunes is to plant on them hardy grasses and trees, grazing purposes, but the trees are stated to have the results at Cape Cod, Mass., being quite en- shown a good growth. couraging.

Haumer Springs Plantation has an area of 600 acres, 284 acres having been planted with 97,- | we have an open growth of branchy and crooked 400 trees, all but 6,900 being set out in 1902–03 ; trees. After many years of vigorous growth, as the older stock made a good growth.

| these approach maturity, they may make a nearly The Whakarewarewa Plantation comprises 817 i perfect cover again ; but then it will be too late acres, of which 31734 acres have been planted for nature to prune them into good timber trees. with 615,423 trees. The loss in transplanting In short, to get an evenly distributed regenerawas about 4 per cent. The trees are reported as tion after “ clean cutting" chestnut and tulip, vigorous and hearty.

the gaps between the widely spaced mature trees The Waiotapu Plantation contains 207 acres must be filled with seedlings. The presence of of young trees, the total number being 450,333. dogwood makes this impossible. The dogwood The loss was about 5 per cent.

is (by its slow growth and low value) a relatively The Kaingaroa Plantations of 25 acres have on worthless species seriously interfering with the them 44,275 young trees; all but 4 acres having reproduction of the lumber crop; hence it is a been planted.

plant out of place in the wood lot,-a weed. Work on the Conical Hills Plantation of 1,050 acres, and the Gimmerburn Plantation reserve of 1 Last spring we planted in an old neglected pas420 acres, was started in 1903, but no trees had as ture 1800 white pine trees. These were purchased yet been set out.

the year before, and had grown one year in our Mr. Matthews recommends the reservation of nursery. When set where they are to grow they large areas for planting purposes, and also provi- | were from six to eighteen inches in height. The sion for acquiring picturesque spots on native lands. planting was done by boys and mattocks who

opened the sod, and by other boys with trowels Westtown Forestry Notes.

who set the trees and stamped the earth about

them. The present condition of the trees is eviM HE small area from which the aspen was

dence that they were good trees and well plantedI cleared in 1902 (see FOREST LEAVES,

over 95 per cent. have survived the first season. August, 1902) is now densely covered

Next spring we hope to extend the pinery by with a growth of sprouts from six to fifteen feet

setting 10,000 more trees. These we get direct high. An interesting feature of this regeneration

from a western nursery. ALFRED S. HAINES. is that the sprouts are root-suckers, not stool shoots, as stump sprouts are properly called. Such suckers

National Forestry. make stronger rooted trees, because they are not affected by the decay of the stump; and, besides,

MR. GIFFORD PINCHOT, Forester of the coming from all parts of the root system, they V Department of Agriculture, has made cover a wider area than did the original stand. 6 his report for the year ending June 30,

1903. The great progress made in forestry durI am very fond of the dogwood. There is no ing the year is dwelt upon, especially in the more beautiful ornamental tree native to our Western States, where the sentiment in favor of woods. Heretofore I have believed it as harmless forest preservation is conspicuous. as useless. [The great quantities of spindle blocks The report states that : from this wood shipped to England are from the “Decidedly the most important development south, where the cornus does not grow so hard as of the year in forestry has been the awakening here, and in consequence is less liable to “check" of the great lumber interests to the necessity for in seasoning. Except in very small quantities practical forestry and the hearty co-operation for mallets, there is only the cordwood market they have begun to give to the efforts of the locally. ] Just lately I have been impressed with Government for forest perpetuation. the idea that in our woodland the dogwood is a “Only less important is the recent tendency pernicious weed. Of all our tree species it is the of the railroads of the United States to consider most tolerant of shade. Under chestnut and tulip, the future of their timber-supply, and to take it thrives. Where these are cut the stumps are measures for its perpetuation. Railroads are far apart; some fail to sprout. The dogwood among the greatest consumers of timber in the suckers promptly take possession of the interven- United States, and the preservation or destruc. ing space, and completely shade out any desirable tion of vast areas of forest will depend on the seedlings that have just started or may start. The attitude they assume toward this question, which is scattered stools of chestnut and tulip soon tower not less vital to them than to other users of wood. above the dogwood; they then have no competi- “A marked feature of the year is the increase tion except among themselves, and, consequently, I in State co-operation with the Bureau of Forestry. “The widening of the field for practical useful- | kinds, and at the same time maintaining the presness of the Bureau in co-operation with private ent proportion of chestnut in the mixture, which owners was shown by the growing number and is desirable on account of its good market value, the eagerness of such demands. In meeting them its rapid growth and its capacity to reproduce it is the public, rather than any private, interest from the stump." which is at stake. It is plain that a great oppor- Commercial investigations of turpentine ortunity has presented itself at a critical time. charding were made by the Forestry Bureau and

" The making of working plans for the hand published ; dendro-chemical experiments carried ling of small tracts of forest, such as wood-lots, is on; investigation made of the basket willow and a part of the most important educational work. | maple sugar industries; many planting plans were The results of such work are by no means con- | prepared ; seeds collected ; forest fires studied ; fined to the area or even to the neighborhood examinations made of the shifting sands and sand immediately concerned. Every such plan is a dunes; as well as arrangements perfected for a plain and practical demonstration of what is needed number of timber tests. on similar holdings in the same region, and as such is of use to all those who wish or who may

The Forests of Hawaii. be brought to wish to manage and improve their own woodlands."

MTHE Hawaiian Islands contain scarcely any Forest plans for the management of public I forests capable of yielding any timber of lands are dwelt on, as well as those for private 6 value for lumber. parties. One tract was in Pennsylvania, where a The forests are largely confined to the rainy detailed working plan was prepared for an area side of the mountains, and are necessary as a proof 2321 acres, west of the Susquehanna River, tective cover, to keep the ground from washing about fifteen miles above Harrisburg. The re from the slopes and the rain from: rushing back sults being as follows:

too rapidly into the sea. The presence of the “ The forest has been clean cut, all of it once, forest cover, since it makes the stream-flow regular, and some of it twice, for charcoal wood. The preventing both foods and periods of low streamstand consists of second-growth hardwoods, among Aow, is indispensable to the success of irrigating which chestnut, chestnut oak, white oak, black projects. The value of this forest consists not so oak and scarlet oak are the predominating trees. much in the trees it contains for they are freThe owner intends to hold the property as a per quently low, crooked and sparsely scattered—as manent investment. As the land is unfit for agri- ' in the impenetrable mass of undergrowth beneath culture, and contains no deposits of coal, iron or them. This undergrowth, composed of vines, other minerals, its capacity to yield returns lies | ferns and mosses, is of so dense a character that only in the production of wood.

| it shades the ground absolutely and holds water “A thorough study was made of the forest and like a sponge. It is, however, exceedingly deliof the silvicultural characteristics of the more im cate and easily destroyed. Let cattle into such a portant trees. The local market for wood and forest and they will speedily eat or trample down timber of the sorts obtainable from the tract was the undergrowth till the bare ground is exposed. investigated with a view to the disposal of the The soil then rapidly dries out and becomes hard, material from thinnings and improvement cut. and the trees soon die. Grass, insects and wind tings. Data were collected for a detailed map usually hasten the destruction. Cattle and goats showing the distribution and character of the have ravaged the Hawaiian forests without hinforest, and the location of the more important drance for many years, and have worked further streams and roads. It was found that on 1659 each year into the heart of dense tropical growth. acres the growth is still too small to be mer. / The Hawaiian public lands consist of 1.772,640 chantable, but that on 662 acres the forest will acres. All of these lands, which are in forest, now furnish telephone poles, railroad ties and fire- and many forest areas privately owned, which wood. The market permits this material to be the Government can gain possession of by excut at a profit. The purpose of the working plan, change, will be put into forest reserves, cleared therefore, was to determine how cuttings yielding of cattle and goats, fenced and preserved. Some salable material could be made with the best re- compensation must also be made for the great sults in improving the quality of the stand. Since areas of forest already destroyed. It will be part the land is capable of producing white oak and of the work of the forester to plant to valuable yellow poplar, cuttings are recommended with trees large areas of this denuded land upon which the object of gradually replacing inferior coppice | forests are of most vital importance to the agrigrowth with a seedling forest of the more valuable cultural interests.

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