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From a small beginning the membership has sylvania is the history of the Pennsylvania Forincreased until there is now on the roll between estry Association, for in every movement it has 1600 and 1700, and the Association has shown its been the leader. The results attained have been influence in the preparation and passage of vari- the stimulus which brought into existence organous State forestry laws by the Pennsylvania Legis izations in other States; and its influence has lature. Copies of the laws now on the statute been felt in forming the national policy of forest books are collated in the Digest of the Game and protection. Fish Laws and the Warden and Forestry Laws of Pennsylvania. The annual reports of the Council We take pleasure in presenting to our readers and officers, and the Constitution and By-Laws, an address made by Mr. Alfred S. Haines before and lists of members have appeared in the various the Botanical Section of the University of Pennissues of FOREST LEAVES.
sylvania. While this treats in detail of the operaThe initial campaign was one of education, and tions on a small tract of timber in an agricultural in 1893 the efforts of the Pennsylvania Forestry district, it will be of interest to others having Association resulted in the appointment of a For | similar woodlands. estry Commission, which made a detailed report to the State Legislature in 1895 on the condition The freshets which prevailed in Pennsylvania and needs of forestry in Pennsylvania. This was during the past winter caused serious injury to followed in 1895 by the formation of a Bureau of growing trees by both water and ice. Swollen Forestry, and in 1901 by a Department of For- streams carried great masses of ice at high veestry, which is a permanent feature of the State ! locity, which, grinding against tree trunks, scarred government.
| them and removed much of the bark. In many The State forest reserves started from the pur instances young trees, and even some large ones, chase of lands at tax sales. Later, authority was were overborne by the ice mass, and the damage granted to purchase three reserves of 40,000 acres done to growing trees along the river banks will each at the headwaters of the three principal river take many years to repair. systems of the State, the Delaware, Susquehanna But while this loss is great, the damage to and Ohio, and later the Forestry Reservation houses, bridges and roads greatly overshadowed Commission was authorized to purchase any lands the injury to trees. Thousands were driven from which it thought advisable for forest reserves, pro homes, and many of the buildings rendered uninvided such purchases were approved. Under habitable or entirely destroyed. Great masses of these various acts over 622,000 acres have been ice far inland from stream beds and much above secured by the State, which is being rapidly added the ordinary freshet level long withstood the softto, but by law not to exceed $300,000 can be ening action of spring winds and the sun's rays. spent for this purpose in any fiscal year. Lately, We venture no opinion as to whether a larger a Forest Academy has been started at Mont Alto, percentage of forest cover upon the drainage Pa., to educate young men to take practical charge basins of the streams would have materially altered of the different State forestry reservations. Sani- | freshet conditions. We have passed through a phetaria have also been established to aid the afflicted nomenal winter, with unusual snow-fall and long to renewed health. The saving or the prolonga- continued cold creating abnormal conditions. We tion of life will of itself amply repay the State know that snows melt more slowly in the forests for any expenditures made in the preservation of than in the open, that water absorbed by the its forests.
forest flow passes off more slowly than from cultiThe Pennsylvania Forestry Association is the vated fields, and that the partial shade even from largest and most powerful of the State Forestry | leafless trees retards the snow melting from the Associations, working on practical, intelligent sun and winds. and systematic lines. Having no quarrel with A generous forest cover may be expected to those who use forest products, but protesting ameliorate freshets, but we are not prepared to against all misuse or waste, it has persistently and accept the theory that this would prevent occasuccessfully exerted its influence to reduce the sionally severe overflows. Probably a considenormous sacrifice of value, which each year is erable proportion of the damage resulting from attributed to forest fires, and will continue to be ice-gorges will be traced to the wholesale denudaaggressive in this particular. It has secured and tion of forested areas in years gone by, which enrecognizes the co-operation of women's clubs in couraged severe scouring of the surface soil, the its efforts to popularize the work to which it is detrital matter being deposited in the beds of committed.
streams to form bars and obstructions to a free deThe history of the forestry movement in Penn- | livery of water,
We do not intend the above expressions to be Arbor Days, April 8 and 22, 1904. interpreted as minimizing the influence which liberal forest cover exerts upon the run-off, either THE Governor of Pennsylvania has issued from rain or snow. We believe thoroughly in this T his proclamation, which appears in this influence, and attribute much to the protection
column, fixing as Arbor Days Friday, given by trees from sun and wind, to the absorb- April 8th, and Friday, April 22d, and urges a genent character of the forest floor, and to the limita- eral observance of these days by tree-planting, etc. tions which this offers to obstructing underground “Winter lingering in the lap of spring" may inchannels. But we are satisfied that the claims terfere with accepting the earlier date, which was upon public appreciation which the protection of intended to meet the climatic conditions of the forests can present are so strong and unassailable, southern and lower portions of the State, and the that we do not need to assume any problematical latter date may even be too early for some of the conditions to prove that forestry is as essential to | mountainous sections. But the Chief Executive, our well being as agriculture.
J. B. making no claim to be a weather prognosticator, * * * * *
selected the two dates which he believed would In accordance with the proclamation of Gov- | best suit the conditions in different portions of a ernor Pennypacker, the Hon. John Weaver, State having an area of 46,000 square miles, and Mayor of Philadelphia, has notified the heads whose surface varies from sea level to 2800 of the various departments and the public school | feet above this. Should either of the days seauthorities that Friday, April 8th, would be cele- lected by the Governor prove unfavorable, no brated as Arbor Day in this city. This is the true friend of the forest will be deterred from first time the Chief Executive of Philadelphia observing other more suitable days, and we are has officially recognized Arbor Day.
satisfied that Governor Pennypacker would rec
ognize the importance of following the spirit Forest Fires.
rather than the letter of his proclamation. He is
too good a friend of the forests to do otherwise. Watch the rays of the sun and warm spring
These recurring Arbor Days keep the forest bewinds dry the leaves of last fall until they are
fore the people of the State. If we cannot plant ready to blaze at the touch of fire.
trees, we can take part in exercises which instruct Watch for the careless hunter, the thoughtless
others, or advance our knowledge as to tree growth. youth, the grasping grazer, or the spark from the
They impress upon the young that trees and forunprotected locomotive stack, which may furnish
estry are of sufficient importance to demand recogthe ember or flame to start a fire.
nition from the highest State official, and in this Watch for the tiny flame or the thread of smoke, way instil an appreciation of their value. J. B. which if not promptly controlled may develop into a forest fire-ravaging many miles of timber land and checking the growth, if not entirely de
Arbor Day Proclamation. stroying trees, which can only be reproduced after many years.
In the Name and by Authority of the CommonWatch the county officers who are sworn to ob
wealth of Pennsylvania. Proclamation. serve the laws, and whose duty as set forth in these laws is to secure aid to combat forest fires. If The preservation of the forests of a country is they fail in their duty advise the Pennsylvania essential to all of its life. When they have been Commissioner of Forestry at Harrisburg promptly. destroyed the water-supply disappears, and lands
Pennsylvania has now ample legislation to limit, capable of sustaining vast populations become if not entirely prevent, the destruction of her for desert wastes. Beauty and utility are both found ests. All that is needed is to have these laws en- among the trees. forced, and officials recreant to their sworn duty The Forestry Reservation Commission of Pennshould be reported so that they may be dismissed sylvania have secured up to the present time six and punished. The State has now 622,000 acres hundred and twenty-two thousand five hundred of forest reserve; they belong to the people and and seventy-six acres of land, and are zealously every citizen has a proprietary interest in them. engaged in the work of preserving and renewing They are not to be damaged either by carelessness our forests. Their efforts ought to be encouraged or design, and the offenders should be promptly | and supplemented by those of every thoughtful and severely dealt with. Other forest areas be- citizen. Many an arid and barren piece of land long to citizens, our neighbors, and their property may be made attractive and profitable by the is also to be protected.
J. B. planting of trees.
In order that all may have the opportunity to hill district of northwestern Nebraska, and the participate in this grateful and laudable duty, tracts selected are as nearly typical of sand hill
I, Samuel W. Pennypacker, Governor of the conditions as it was possible to find. Two months Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, in accordance after the proclamation was issued a party of six with law, do hereby designate and proclaimmen were sent out by the Bureau of Forestry to Friday, the eighth day of April, and Friday, the | survey and plat a portion of the reserve for seed twenty-second day of April, A. D., 1904, to be | beds, for the extent of the operations proposed observed as Arbor Days throughout the Common- make it necessary that the foresters grow their own wealth.
seedlings. This has the added advantage of giving Two days have been designated because of dif them acclimated trees for their planting experifering climatic conditions in different parts of the ments. State, and in order that a selection may be made Planting of seed was begun last year, and the between them.
nursery sheds at the reserve headquarters now Given under my hand and the great seal of the contain long rows of bristling, prosperous lookState at the City of Harrisburg, this fourth day of | ing pine seedlings, at least a million in number, March, in the year of our Lord one thousand nine that are to go into the ground next spring. Some hundred and four, and of the Commonwealth the go to the nursery now, for further growth before one hundred and twenty-eighth
being finally transplanted, and others to take SAMUEL W. PENNYPACKER. their chances out on the hills in the forest row. By the Governor :
Jack pine from the sandy regions of northern FRANK M. FULLER,
Michigan and Wisconsin, western yellow pine Secretary of the Commonwealth.
and the native red cedar are the varieties that offer the best chance of success, and these will be
most extensively used. Next spring, besides An Interesting Forestry Experiment in transplanting some of the year old seedlings to Nebraska.
the hills, attempts will be made to grow trees
direct from the seed in tree rows out on the hills. THEN the Government set aside two tracts There are reasons to think that this can be done.
of land in the sand hill region of Ne There is but one object in this attempt to es
braska, to be used to demonstrate the tablish forest conditions in the sand hill country, possibility of foresting, nearly everybody pro and that is to supply timber and fuel for local use nounced the idea an unrealizable dream. In the and to improve the condition of the country by sand hill country especially the idea was laughed adding another resource to its wealth. to scorn. Some, who a few years ago stood firm All this work, however, has not gone far enough in the belief that winter wheat would not grow to prove beyond doubt that forests can be made in western Nebraska, that alfalfa could not be to grow and thrive on the sand hills. The soil made to grow successfully in the eastern counties, has sprouted the seeds and produced thrifty year that it was foolishness to plant fruit trees anywhere old seedlings, and that is all. Were this all that but along the Missouri River, and that cotton- were known it would be too early to express more wood was the only shade tree that would ever than a hope that the experiments may prove sucgrow successfully, are now doubtful of the wisdom cessful. Fortunately, however, there is a forest of spending money to start pine forests in the reserve in the sand hills that has been established sand hills, and shake their heads dubiously at the long enough to prove more than this. This is mention of the matter.
the twelve year old pine grove of Bruner Brothers While two years is not a long enough time to in Holt County. In 1891 they planted exposed demonstrate anything definite as to the chances sand hill land thickly to pine seedlings, every of success or failure, there is a combination of in- alternate row being the northern Jack pine, the dications that leaves little room for doubt that the other rows different varieties of pines that it was adaptability of the sand hills to timber-growing thought might do well in the region. The tract will ultimately be proved.
was fenced off to protect the trees from live stock, On April 16, 1902, two forest reserves were was guarded from fire by plowing around it and created in the State of Nebraska. The Dismal | was then left to its fate. That was twelve years River reserve includes an area of 86,000 acres, ago, and now this half acre of pines is a forest lying between the Loup and Dismal Rivers ; the that people go miles to see, so dense that one Niobrara reserve includes 126,000 acres near the entering its shades for a few feet can find or see centre of Cherry County, lying between the Nio- nothing to indicate that he is within a thousand brara and Snake Rivers. Both are in the sand miles of a prairie, a sand hill, or any sign of civilization. It has begun to reproduce itself, and country and to its value as a stock country. The scores of seedlings are coming up under the shelter afforded to stock will be an important elelarger trees and in the vicinity of the grove, ment, and the shelter to crops and grass will probwhither the cones have been carried by the wind. ably add still more to the value of the land. More The ground under the trees is a heavy mat of pine than that: when the forests attain an average of needles.
ten or twelve years, they will require a large In 1903 a forester from the Department at amount of labor to perform the necessary thinWashington surveyed this grove, made accurate ning, a process which pays well for itself in the measurements of the trees and estimated the per- wood produced. Mr. Scott estimates that a few centage of the original seedlings that were planted thousand acres of timber to the county would in a and lived. He found that the living Jack pines few years afford employment to several times more amounted to the surprising proportion of 73 per people than now inhabit the same counties altocent., a percentage that the most enthusiastic be gether, thus adding heavily to the population of liever in the sand hills as a forest region would those districts. hardly have dared to hope for. The measure The Government experts who have been in ments showed results fully as pleasing. It was touch with the work express the greatest confound that the half acre contained 626 trees that fidence that the outcome of their work will are over nineteen feet high and have a diameter of revolutionize conditions in that wide stretch of three inches or more, having made a growth of Nebraska country that has always been called de1.6 feet a year. Besides these there are 930 trees risively the sand hills, and that in time much of that average sixteen feet in height and two inches the land that has by common consent been given in diameter, and 828 that had been outstripped over to the range steer, at the rate of about twenty by their companions and were too small to be acres per steer, will be as valuable as any in the taken into consideration. Best of all, there is State, producing a crop that has always been not a diseased or dead tree in the tract.
among the great needs of the west. —Nebraska The conditions on the whole are considered to State Journal. have been as unfavorable as can be expected to be met anywhere in the sand hill region, and the 1 Perpetuate the Hardwoods. remarkable growth and condition of the grove would seem to be all the proof that can be desired N R. C. A. SCHENCK, Director of the Biltof the adaptability of the sand hills to the grow D more Forest School, at Biltmore, N. C., ing of pine trees in any quantity
6 says that outside the United States primeThe cost of an acre of pine trees set at inter val supplies of the hardwoods exist only in the vals of four feet, including trees from a nursery, Amur valley of northern China, in some Austrian plowing, planting and mulching, is estimated at dependencies drained by the Danube River, and $20.60. At this rate it takes nearly 3000 trees to in the Spessart Mountains of Bavaria, qualifying the acre. Estimating the cost of the land at the this statement by remarking that these foreign reGovernment price of $1.25 per acre, the total sources are limited in quantity. Thus it seems investment in an acre of trees amounts to $21.85. that the main world's dependence for the most In twelve years the Bruner tract of one-half acre available hardwoods is on the United States. Of has produced wood at the rate of fifteen and one course, there is an unknown quantity of birch, third cords per acre, which is worth $60.80, esti beech, maple and a few other hardwoods in the mating it at the reasonable price of $4.00 a belt of Canada north of the settled portions, but cord on the stump. The investment at the end that resource is not extensive and will be needed, of twelve years, allowing 5 per cent. compound and more, for the supply of Canada alone. interest, amounts to $39.34, leaving a net surplus Dr. Schenck proceeds to declare that our movalue, including the original value of the land, of nopoly of the hardwoods covers the world, and it $22.71. To put it another way, the land has paid seems to him that the time has come for the foran annual income of 5 per cent., and nearly $2 est owner to realize his lucky position and to draw an acre a year besides, considerably better than the necessary conclusions as well as the incident high-priced farming land can usually be made to financial benefits from his happy supremacy. As do. And it is just at the beginning of its pro- showing how valuable hardwood timber may beducing stage..
come, Dr. Schenck ascertained from the foresters The direct financial benefit to the tree planter managing the remnants of the primeval white oak is not the only object sought for, however. The found in the Spessart Mountains of Bavaria that growing of large tracts of trees over the sand hills the owners are now obtaining for the stumpage will add wonderfully to the attractiveness of the alone from $100 to $400 a tree, the trunks meas
uring from two and one-half to four feet in diam- , that State is seriously menacing not only the hemeter. Hence, Americans being excellent finan- lock growths, but some of the hardwoods, especiers, the owners of hardwood stumpage cannot cially elm. He says that where turnpikes are cut be an exception to the rules of good economy. through by lumbermen or the township authoriThey must see the advisability of curtailing their ties the side ditches seem to drain off the moisture logging and milling operations, or, which is the from the bordering lands, which has a peculiar same thing, the financial sagacity expressed in the effect on the trees. For some distance on either two words—conservative forestry. Such a con side of the roads the hemlock begins to die and servative attitude and practice must pay best un- become wormy, and a like effect is seen in some less the soil on which the trees stand is of high of the hardwood trees. Thus settlement and value for farming purposes, or the trees are threat civilization seem to be fatal to the forests, as they ened by rapid decay from old age.
are to the wild Indian when his native fastness is In the last words of the foregoing sentence is broken into by the inroads of the pale face. the gist of the whole matter. Forestry is an ad- It is a common experience with the farmers of mirable science, and it should and can be practi- the northeastern States that their cherished woodcally applied where economical conditions favor lots, when isolated by surrounding clearings, sufit. In mountainous districts, on lands too rocky fer loss by decaying trees, and eventually the or too light and thin for agriculture, in sections wind finishes the work of destruction. Conseremote from transportation and where the land is quently, many a holding of that kind is slaughtcheap a wise forecast should dictate a conserva- ered, in order to save the wood and convert it tion of hardwood forests by all the known means, into money before the loss shall become comand it should receive the encouragement of own- plete. In the deep, rich soils of the Ohio River ers, economists, the State and the nation. But and further south the isolated timber stands betwhen it comes to wooded lands on small holdings ter, and it is here that the forests should be prein comparatively well settled localities, especially served to the utmost. where the land is fertile and timber and farm Wherever soil and climatic influences are favorcrops both command a good price, the question able, every farm of any size should have its woodof tree preservation becomes one that the indi- lot, and no desire on the part of the owner for vidual owner must be left to settle for himself. speedy profits should induce him to cut away all
Then there is the question of climate and char- his woods. In New England and the Middle acter of soil and timber to be considered, with States, though it may be wise to cut all the old reference to the possibilities of preservation. On growths, there is an abundance of second growth the deep rich soil of Ohio, Indiana, southern Ill springing up that should be economized and preinois, parts of Kentucky and the river bottoms of served as far as possible ; for this young growth the south, the trees root deeply, are continually will thrive for many years and furnish good renourished by the rich soil, and can be preserved turns to the owner. It is doubtful, however, if a from century to century. But on the thinner soils like preserving process would work as well in the of the lake region and northern New York and northwestern States, where the land is level, the New England the older growths, left exposed by soil less favorable to young growth, the climate clearings, are inclined to deteriorate and break severe and the winds sweep over the landscape down by the winds.
with the ferocity of a hurricane. In Maine, New In localities where the hardwoods are inter Hampshire, Vermont and northern New York spersed with coniferous timber there is always a spruce timber will stand and reproduce in spite liability to destructive and wide sweeping forest of all climatic or other opposition, and forests of fires. Without doubt, any attempt to preserve that kind can be maintained. pine, hemlock and cedar in the northern sections But aside from all discouraging features, local, involves too much risk to make it justifiable in an climatic and economical, the forestry idea should economic sense. Holders of such timber are in- be put into practice wherever there are favorable clined to cut it as rapidly as the market will bear, conditions. Dr. Schenck's advice that the oaks, because the risk of letting it stand is so great. ash, poplar and other woods should be held on How often has it happened that pine has been the stump, for a future rise in values should be burned over and the owners have been forced to heeded. In the Ohio River and tributary valcut it the following winter to save it from dam leys, in the lower Mississippi country, and on the age by worms and rot, and possibly by a succeed rivers that run into the gulf, timber can be preing fire?
served without much deterioration. It is in such A leading hemlock operator in Wisconsin stated | parts of the country, embracing the greater supply that even the opening up of turnpike roads in of the world, that conservatism in cutting should