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prevail. Without doubt there will be money in tion of the problem may be expected. The region such conservation. The advisability of moder- is located along the borders of the Counties of ated cuttings should be urged persistently, until Blair, Bedford and Cambria in the very heart of it shall become fixed in the minds of timber the Alleghenies; the country is badly burnt and owners and lumbermen, because it involves profit offers average inducements for pasture. As a rule, in the accumulating value of the stumpage and the animals thus pastured are young stock taken that of sawed product; for conservative cutting back to the mountains in early May and returned will prevent the overloading of the market for to the farm in October; they are often branded lumber.-- American Lumberman.

in western style in order to establish the owner's claim. It is also customary to establish a salt lick; this once done, the herd is easily located. Lately,

in looking up some wild land, correspondence Correspondence.

and interviews with a number of owners of lands

| of this description convince me that public sentiN various occasions I have called attention ment in many of the farming districts, after the

to the practice of pasturing cattle on un timber is cut off, is to burn the land on account

seated lands, believing it be one of the of its pasture possibilities and for huckleberries. chief incentives to forest burning. To convey a Pasturing cattle on our mountains has become quite proper idea of the extent of this industry in Penn an industry, and is followed to a more or less exsylvania I would say that recently, while in southern tent in every section where unseated lands exist. Cambria County, I was informed by a reliable

J. G. DILLIN. party that last summer one man, who may be styled a herder, had under his charge during the season more than goo head of cattle, the property

The President on Forestry. of many farmers who paid this herder a certain sum per head for caring for them during the graz M HE Annual Convention of the National ing season. Although wood-pasture is, at the best, Wholesale Lumber Dealers' Association poor, cattle and sheep will live, and farmers find

was held at Washington, March 2, 1904. the enterprise profitable enough to warrant the The members called at the White House, where undertaking. Observation will soon convince any they were received by the President who made a reasonable person that a forest fire will cause a brief speech, as follows: growth of wild grasses and tender shoots that “I take a peculiar interest in the industry repreotherwise would not exist ; in a word, without the sented here to-day, not only because it is a great fires wild pasture would be practically out of the industry in itself, but because through its very question. Now, as to the responsibility for this nature it is of consequence to all our citizens. form of incendiarism, I will say this, the men who | The lumber interest stands entirely apart from the own these cattle, like others, are after the mighty mining interests—a gold mine, coal, iron, whatdollar ; some of them are honest, conscientious ever it is; all you have got to do there is to take citizens and would not be guilty of, nor accessory it out of the ground; once out, it is out; you are to, any criminal act; others are different, or to use through with it. I hope more and more our a common phrase they represent the several ele- people will grow, under the lead of this organization, ments of society, good, bad and indifferent; and to understand that that must not be so with our would it be unreasonable to suppose that some of forests; that it is not a case of cutting a forest down the latter would be found in the ranks of our sys- and being through with it; that it is a case where, tematic forest burners ? for, like the huckleberry if we are to make our lumber interests permanent, man and dead wood merchant, they, too, are after as they should be made, that our object must be the sheckles. In conclusion, I will say that my to conserve the forests by wise use. I have welopportunities for gathering forest data have been comed every opportunity to try to put the forestry exceptionally good, and I do not hesitate to say that experts of the government into closer touch with it is my firm belief that, as above cited, a consider- you gentlemen, because you are practically enable percentage of our mountain fires are due to gaged in this great business, because I hope that deliberate burnings by a class of people whose ob from their association with you will come a little ject is the creation of cattle pasture; and, further, furthering of the indispensable process which is to I truly believe that the sooner the handful of our result in making this industry a permanent inearnest workers in the cause of forestry will recog-| dustry in the country, instead of having it one nize this cattle industry as a serious menace to which represents the skinning of a certain quantity their work of reform, the sooner satisfactory solu- of forest and then moving elsewhere."

The Illustrations.

proportion of these entries were upon timbered

land. The law was enacted to meet the demands TN the earlier history of Pennsylvania it was of settlers, miners and others for timber and stone 1 practically covered by forests, and although for building, mining and other purposes. There

the great timbered areas of the State, which is much evidence, however, going to show that have been rapidly diminishing in size, are many entries have been made for purposes not now usually found in the Allegheny and Blue contemplated by Congress. The Commission beMountain Ranges, or the great Allegheny Upland, lieves that Congress did not intend that this law there are numerous instances of fine pieces of should be used for the acquisition of large tracts woodland still remaining in agricultural sections. of valuable timber land by individuals or corpoSome of these are found in or near the large cities, rations, but it has been used for such purposes. being preserved for æsthetic or other purposes. Carefulness and vigilance in its administration

As indicative of the beauty of some of these cannot prevent its being so used. detached bodies of timber, two illustrations are “Some means should be provided by which the presented in this issue. The first shows a forest matured timber upon the unreserved public lands road, paralleling for a short distance and leading may be sold, not only for the use of individuals, but to Ridley Creek just below Media.

also to supply the demands of commerce. There The second view was taken in Fairmount Park, is now a provision of law for the free use of timber on the East Bank of the Wissahickon Creek, in in limited quantities for domestic and mining purthe city of Philadelphia, showing a beautiful walk poses which meets the requirements of those needbelow Indian Rock. The grove of pine trees with ing small quantities, but there is no provision for their dense shade making this a favorite resort the sale of timber except from forest reserves. for thousands during the heated term, where all “ The Commission is of the opinion that the can enjoy some of the beauties of nature.

Desert Land Law should, for the present, at least,

be allowed to stand, with a few changes in detail. Reform in Public Land Laws. With the experience of the past for guidance, it

is possible to enforce this law so that its essential IN October, 1903, President Roosevelt ap- provisions shall be complied with. When this is 1 pointed a Commission to report upon the done, it is evident that the entryman will have

condition, operation and effect of the pres- earned a patent at an expense too great for specuent land laws, and to recommend such changes as lative purposes. are needed to effect the largest practical disposi- | “However carefully the boundaries of forest tion of the public lands to actual settlers who will i reserves may be selected, it is practically inevibuild permanent houses on them, and to secure in table that more or less agricultural land should be permanence the fullest and most effective use of included. Such land usually lies in the narrow the resources of the public lands. This Commis- valleys of the rivers. Its occupation for agriculsion consists of the Hon. W. A. Richards, Com tural purposes is in the interest of the region in missioner of the General Land Office, Chairman ; which it lies and of the settlers who would make Mr. F. H. Newell, Chief Engineer of the United homes upon it. The presence of the latter in the States Reclamation Service; and Mr. Gifford reserves would, under wise laws, operate distinctly Pinchot, Forester of the Department of Agricul for the protection and general advantage of the ture. From the preliminary report of the Com reserves. It is essential to the prosperity of the mission the following excerpts have been collated public land States both that the forest reserves for the information of readers of FOREST LEAVES : should be maintained and that all of the land

Most of the laws and the departmental prac within their borders should be put to its best use. tices which have grown up under them were " To open the reserves to homestead entry withframed to suit the lands of the humid region. out restriction would be, in effect, to abolish them. The public lands which now remain are chiefly It is therefore recommended that the agricultural arid in character, hence these laws and practices character of the lands should be officially ascerare no longer well suited for the most economical tained, as has been the habit hitherto in the case and effective disposal of lands to actual settlers. of agricultural and mineral lands.''

"Under the Timber and Stone Act, there has The Commission recommends methods of procelately been an unusual increase in the number of dure to secure the best results to the Government entries, which cannot be accounted for by an and appear to be in the direction of sound forest increase in the demands of commerce or by any protection. The Council of the Pennsylvania For unusual settlement of the localities in which the estry Association has formally endorsed the repor greater part of the entries were made. A large to the members of Congress from Pennsylvania.

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