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In order to learn exactly what had been done paratively healthful ? In one word--cultivation. and the present status of the experiments, an in- When the Campagna was not only the back yard terview was sought with some officer of the Italian but the garden of Rome, the marshes were Agricultural Department, and through the cour- drained, the ground was worked, and crops were tesy of the U. S. Consul-General I was intro- raised. The malarial mosquito, or whatever is duced to Professor Giuseppi Cuboni, Director of the true spreader of the disease, had little place the Bureau of Vegetable Pathology : the latter to breed and work. When Rome decayed, so did stated that the government was not satisfied with the works on the Campagna, and the place was the results of the experiments, and had lately de- almost deserted. It is inconceivable that an estab)clined to support them further. In reply to lishment as important as Tre Fontane should have another question the professor said that the ex- been built in a place so unhealthful as it undoubtperiments had not been based upon a study of the edly was for many generations. Rather must one local climatic and soil conditions in connection assume that the place was founded when the land with those of the native habitat of the trees, and was cultivated, and the locality, therefore, healthy. that, so far as he knew, no other trees than vari - .' The Trappist monks have brought about the same ous species of eucalypts had been planted. Pro- condition again by draining the marshes in the fessor Cuboni further said that the general opinion usual way and planting gardens. They now work is that Senator Torelli, who had interested him- 30 or 40 acres thoroughly and systematically, and self in the matter, and had induced the govern- find a ready market for the produce in Rome. ment to aid the experiments, was over-enthusiastic, Let it not be inferred from these statements and had announced results beyond what the facts that the eucalyptus plantations are failures, nor warranted.
that they are not good things. They occupy After this interview I went to Tre Fontane. ground at present unavailable for agriculture, and As the monastery is approached, it is seen to lie in, they furnish the basis of an important industrya nest of little hills, with all the buildings on the the manufacture of eucalyptus oil, liqueur, etc. low land in close proximity to areas that, without With reference to the broad question, What drainage, must become marshes or stagnant pools influence have eucalypts upon the healthfulness of when the water of the Tiber backs up. One can a place? no conclusion is yet warranted, as Profeseasily believe that the situation might become so sor McClatchie says in his paper. It is, however, unhealthy that it would have to be abandoned. I quite possible that the rapid growth of some of It apparently was abandoned for a long time, al- the species when planted in wet ground causes a though the statement that “the members of the quick transference of soil-moisture to the leaves, old brotherhood died at the rate of forty or fifty and from them to the atmosphere in that way, a year” is doubtless an exaggeration.
entirely mechanically, and may serve to lessen The present community of Trappists is said to the unhealthfulness of a locality. In other words, have taken up the place in 1868, and the first any tree in the condition of active growth is a sort eucalypts to have been planted a few years after. I of pump steadily taking up water through its The brothers willingly showed me around the roots and giving off by its leaves, as water-vapor, place, and one who was said to know all about what it does not require for its internal activities. the trees freely answered my questions ; but it If, as is commonly the case, this process be supwas soon apparent that he really knew little. plemented by a generous consumption of carbonic Briefly, the situation is this: there are perhaps, acid out of the store set free by decaying vege50,000 trees (my brown-robed brother said 150, tation in a moist place, the planting of trees in 000) of all ages up to 25 or 30 years and of vari - such situations must be a distinct advantage. How ous species, but chiefly E. globulus. They are much better eucalypts are in this respect than standing, not on the marsh, as all the world sup- other trees is yet to be shown; it can only be poses, but, with the exception of a few along the said now that the rapid growth of some of them avenues, on the hills ! This fact disposes of the ' is presumptive evidence of their fitness for this claim that the eucalypts have drained this marsh. | work. The extent to which that fitness may be What they can do is another matter.
counteracted by other qualities—the position of With reference to the healthful odors said to the leaves in checking transpiration, for instance be exhaled by the trees I can say nothing. If -is a point yet to be determined. there is anything of the kind, the body of growing | One or two other facts in connection with the trees is large enough to produce some effect. Roman plantations remain to be noticed. The first
But if the value of the exhalations is doubtful is that many of the trees suffer severely from frost : and the trees have not drained the marsh because clearly, some of the species planted there are unfit they are not in it, what has made the locality com- on that account, and would be even more so on
cold, swampy ground. Second, the root system : spread of towns and villages and their outlying my guide at Tre Fontane told me “the roots go suburbs has converted much primitive woodland thirty feet into the ground and suck up the water." | and swamp into lawns and meadows, and birds I found, in fact, plenty of windfalls where the that venture into these precincts have a long way roots were as shallow as those of spruces. How to go to find the native shelter that is a necessity far this condition might have been determined by for their happiness. This, to my mind, is the underlying rock I could not fully decide, for some principal cause in the decrease of our birds. The of the roots exposed the rock and some did not. English sparrow does his share by occupying all Undoubtedly, the trees will develop their roots to available nesting sites about our buildings and some extent according to the composition of the driving away all intruders. Stray cats are also a soil; but if the valuable species are characteristi- serious menace, and small boys with rifles and cally shallow-rooted, the fact should be published, air-guns come under the same class; but, if the for it would be unfortunate to set out plantations air-rifles could be turned on the English sparrow's and have them fail because the soil could not hold and cats, and the township constable brought to a the trees against a strong wind. The windbreaks clear understanding of his duties under the present and groves in California are not entirely safe State law, all these influences would be checked. guides, for they generally stand upon firm ground. Now, in reply to the frequent question, How Third, the rate of growth on the Campagna is by shall we bring back the birds ? what trees shall we no means phenomenal. In one of the best-looking plant ? the answer is, Turn every available corner groups I found about 225 trees to the acre (a good into a retreat for the birds. Berry bushes and spacing), learned from some stumps that their wild cherry trees are excellent things, but there age was 25 years, and by measurement that they must be primitive thickets and bunches of cedar averaged 10 inches in diameter and 70 feet high. | bushes and thick shrubberies in the corners of the When it is considered that for many purposes garden. These are what the birds must have. A eucalyptus-wood is less valuable than pine, the catbird is positively unhappy unless he has a question is inevitable whether the native Stone tangle of bushes into which he can dive and into pine or the Austrian pine might not as well have which you cannot follow him, and he must be been planted.
able to find a few dead leaves and twigs on the In conclusion, if eucalypts cannot be made to ground to turn over in search for possible grubs. redeem the Campagna and render it comparatively Just as soon as the idea of converting our healthful, the thing that will do it is within easy grounds into unending lawns with graceful shadereach. If none of the species are entirely at trees and closely-trimmed, ornamental bushes home there because of the frosts, some of them shall cease, then we shall find the birds returning can still be grown with a measure of success ; or, i to the vicinity of our doorstep. It is not implied other trees better suited to the conditions may be that slovenliness is a necessity. Lawns may be planted. Italy needs forests throughout its whole trimmed, but here and there leave a thicket as area, and properly-made plantations can scarcely | Nature made it. Have somewhere a grove of fail to pay.
cedars or other evergreens; it need not be in a ALFRED GASKILL. conspicuous spot, but anywhere so that it will
serve as a winter shelter for various native spar
rows and other birds, which will soon get in the Birds and Trees.
way of coming there to roost. Then a row of
i wild cherry trees and some dogwoods and mulTTE hear many complaints nowadays of the berries scattered about, and in some sheltered and V decrease in our wild birds, and va- inconspicuous place establish some roots of poke
rious theories advanced to account for berry; if there are birds anywhere in the neightheir scarcity.
borhood you will surely have them. Another Some of the stories that find their way into important feature, which will be much appreciprint are gross exaggerations ; but, leaving out ated by the birds, is a place to bathe in. A shalof consideration the birds of the wilder parts of low dish can be sunk in the ground and kept full the country districts, the fact remains that about of water and surrounded by bunches of various many a modern summer place there are to be plants or small shrubs. found but a remnant of the birds that thronged Leave here and there in the orchard a dead the gardens and orchards of the old homesteads tree or a dead branch or two. Woodpeckers and of a generation ago.
nuthatches must have them, and if you rigidly There are, doubtless, many changed conditions cut them off, just so surely you drive away these that influence the abundance of birds. The most valuable birds.
Many attractive bushes or trees besides those / While the work of this office is confined to the mentioned will doubtless occur to anyone who care and disposal of public lands, the fact must will take the trouble to watch the birds at home not be lost sight of that a proper care of the forin some of the wilder patches of woodland and ested portions of such lands should so expand the swamp.
work at that point as to extend its benefits far The main point, however, is to preserve a por- beyond the limits of the public domain. It tion of this "wild land” close to our country- | should, accordingly, in connection with forested seat, or else make some patches of dense shrub- lands, be placed in a position to work upon a bery which will answer the same purpose.
policy as broad and far-reaching as the needs of Anyone who thus draws the birds about him the communities affected thereby, which interests will have cause to be thankful for the return they clearly demand that the beneficence of the govwill make him in destroying thousands of his ernment shall not be confined to providing for the insect enemies.
disposal of its lands, but shall be equally maniBut this opens a new subject, which needs an i fested in the retention of the fee of a portion article to itself.
thereof. WITMER STONE. The future of such vast areas depends, in fact,
upon our saving the remainder of our public forests, that every acre of what may be rightly
termed “forested” land should be saved and Withdrawal of Forested Public Lands
applied to forest purposes. Recommended.
To work upon narrower lines would be to re
duce a so-called national system to serving, to a D7 ROM the Annual Report of the Commis- large extent, merely local purposes, at various
sioner of the General Land Office to the points where bodies of land may be set apart as o Secretary of the Interior for the Fiscal forest reservations. Under existing legislation Year ended June 30, 1902, page 113 et seq., we the condition of affairs at this time presents the copy the following, which we think is important anomaly of the government setting apart certain enough to command the attention of every citi- isolated tracts of land and bestowing upon them zen. Passage quoted of course refers to the rational protection, while abandoning the great public lands belonging to the United States. sweep of its forested area to waste and destruction
from every source. WITHDRAWAL OF ALL FORESTED LANDS.
Unchecked confiagrations and the inroads of
lumbering companies are rapidly sweeping bare Irrigated agriculture, as representing the lead- these unreserved lands, while, with full knowledge ing industry in the future of a vast portion of the
of the fact, this office stands powerless to check country, and, in particular, of the arid regions, is
the evil. rapidly forcing to the front the question of irri
And, clearly, until the policy of withdrawing gation as one of the great national issues of the lands and placing them under a forest force is day, since without water there can be no agricul
adopted, such must continue to be the case. ture ; and in like manner the need for irrigation
Conflagrations, which could be prevented or is equally forcing to the front the question of
checked in their incipiency by forest guards, are forest preservation, since without forests there can now, in the main, given full sweep, while corbe no water. Forests are an essential factor in
porations and others have practically little or no any scheme of irrigation of sufficient magnitude
limit placed upon their spoliation of public timberto contemplate the reclamation of our sixty or lands. more millions of acres of irrigable lands which
The proved efficiency of a forest system in are now arid.
protecting and administering the reserves that And, moreover, the area which would be bene
have been set apart, leaves no room to doubt the fited by the preservation of our forests is by no
advisability of extending such a system as will means confined to these 60,000,000 acres, which
protect all our forested lands. form, in fact, but a small part of the vast regions
1 In the face of the known facts respecting the dependent largely upon such natural reservoirs.
waste from fire and pillage and other sources that The lands already settled upon in southern Cali
is rapidly reducing our forested area, there should fornia, for instance, need such provisional care on
be no delay in authority for withdrawal of such the part of the government to facilitate their de
timbered regions as the Secretary should deem velopment as truly as do the arid public lands of
proper. Arizona to make possible their settlement.
- --- - Uses of Persimmon Juice.
that we have none too soon commenced the work
of forest protection and restoration ; and the THE juice obtained from the unripe fruit of chapter on the Forest as a Condition will well
the Japanese persimmon (Diospyros kaki), explain the relations of the forest to climate, soil,
is called kaki-shibu, and, according to M. , water flow, and to public health, for Professor Tsukauroto, in the Bulletin of the Agricultural | Fernow has thoroughly sifted the many-sided College of the Imperial University, Tokyo, is doctrines which have been advanced. used for preservation of fish-nets and lines, and as The portion devoted to Forest and Forestry is an application to packing-papers, tubs and wooden interesting, and might be studied with advantage vessels, etc., making them less penetrable by water. by many of our propagandists who fail to discrimiThere are two varieties of persimmon or kaki nate between forestry and horticulture, civic tree tree in Japan. In one the fruit becomes sweet, ' planting, etc. · while the other remains astringent, and is rich in In this country we are, naturally, most contannin, yielding a large quantity of juice desirable cerned with the results obtained by governments for making kaki-shibu. When the fruit of the which have long had an established forest policy. latter variety is fully grown, it is crushed, mixed | Especially interesting in this connection is the with water, and allowed to remain three or four following condensed statement of Professor Ferdays in large tubs, when a kind of fermentation | now. See page 327, et seq. sets in, accompanied by the evolution of gas. 1 “ Judging from the results of the State adminThe juice is usually prepared in August, and may istrations, it can be assumed that Germany probe applied fresh or after standing for two or three duces annually wood values equal in amount to years. In contact with the air, the solution England's consumption, namely, somewhat over leaves, on evaporation, a film, insoluble in water, $100,000,000, or $3.00 gross and probably $1.75 that fills the pores of fibers and woods, diminish- i net per acre, from soils that are mostly not fit for ing their water-holding capacity and preventing ' any other use, and which by being so used conthe entrance of destructive fungi. The industrial | tribute to other favorable cultural conditions. value of kaki-shibu is claimed to be due to the , This net income, figured at 3 per cent., would tannin (containing about 372 per cent.), which make the capital value of soil and growing stock differs from other tannins in being insoluble in nearly $60 per acre, and the value of the entire water and alcohol and soluble in dilute acids. forest resource of Germany 2000 million dollars.
The revenues have apparently risen with the inoo
crease of expenditures. In 1850, when Prussia New Publications.
expended only 37 cents per acre, her net income
was 46 cents ; in 1901 her expenditure had inEconomics of Forestry. By B. E. Fernow, creased to $1.43, and her gross revenue to $2.87, LL.D. 520 pages, 12mo. Thomas Y. Crowell & although wood prices for the entire Prussian cut Co., Publishers. $1.50.
of 300,000,000 cubic feet have in that period The above title tersely states what manner of advanced only 37 per cent. ; while Saxony exbook this is. No one will be misled by the title. pended 80 cents per acre in the beginning of the Furthermore, it is a useful book, which has ap- , century and netted 95 cents, to-day she spends peared at the proper time.
į three times the amount and has increased her The forestry wave now rolling is so strong that revenue nearly fivefold. every one who takes note of popular movements “From this brief outline it will be apparent that must recognize the incoming force. The student forestry in its modern sense is not a new, untried of forestry will find the book helpful, though it experiment in Germany, but that care and active will, as a matter of fact, be less so to him (because " legislative consideration of the forest wealth dates he has his other professional literature) than to back more than four centuries ; that the accurate the publicists or the legislators who must direct official records of several States for the last one thought and law making, and who are anxious to hundred years prove conclusively that wherever a do it aright. There are grounds upon which we systematic, continuous effort has been made, as might differ in some minor details with Professor in the case of all State forests, whether of large Fernow, but this is not the proper place to air or small territories, the enterprise has been sucthese doubts, because, as a whole, the book is i cessful ; that it has proved of great advantage to eminently trustworthy, and cannot fail to be use- ! the country, furnished a handsome revenue where ful to those who should read it.
otherwise no returns could be expected, led to the The chapter on the Forest as a Resource is one establishment of permanent woodworking induswhich must bring the conviction to all who read it tries, and has given opportunity for labor and
capital to be active, not spasmodically, not specu- , diameters from 6 to 60 inches. He has comlatively, but continuously and with assurance of pared them in a series of tables and described success. This rule has, fortunately, not a single their origin and mode of use. The Scribner, exception."
Doyle and New Hampshire rules are printed in The chapter devoted to Forest Conditions aims full; the rest appear, in part, in the comparison to describe, as exactly as possible, the condition | tables. Descriptions are given of the methods of and quantity of timber which we still have re- estimating standing timber in use by timber maining in the country. It is the author's aim cruisers in different parts of the country, and of to make approximate estimates. He especially the method adopted by the U. S. Department of calls attention to the fact that in the absence of Agriculture. The Handbook contains also an exact statistics exact conclusions on his part are outline for a forest working-plan and descriptions impossible. Nevertheless, we think his approxi- of instruments of use to the woodsman. mate estimates are especially helpful.
The second volume of the Handbook, which is A very liberal appendix ends the volume. To to be published shortly after the first volume, will the statistician and close student the appendix contain detailed directions for the study of age will be very valuable. Mr. Fernow's book merits and growth of trees, including diameter, height a full, careful analysis and an extensive reading. and volume growth. A most valuable feature
will be a compilation of the tables of growth, Eucalypts Cultivated in the United States.
yield tables and volume tables for all the trees Bulletin 35, Bureau of Forestry, U. S. Depart
that have been systematically studied in this counment of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 8vo,
try. The defects, strength, durability and fuel 106 pages. Illustrated.
value of timber, the amount of tannin in bark, This monograph was prepared by Mr. Alfred
specifications and weights of logs, and weights of James McClatchie, agriculturist and horticulturist
lumber will be discussed. In addition, the of the Arizona Experiment Station, and treats
second volume will contain compound interest only of the larger eucalypts which, during the
tables, tables for converting metric to English past forty years, have been planted in various
measure, and areas of circles, parts of the United States, especially in the southwest. In his description Mr. McClatchie North American Fauna. No. 22. Biological points out the usefulness of the eucalypts, the Survey. U. S. Department of Agriculture. Washornamental feature being only incidentally men- | ington, D. C. 8vo, 140 pages. Illustrated. tioned. Information is given concerning the
This monograph gives the results of a biological characteristics of forty-one different species, their
| investigation of the Hudson Bay region by Edclimatic requirements and their uses, together ward A. Preble. Assistant Geologist, made to obwith directions and suggestions as to preparation, tain a representative collection of the mammals culture and identification. Ninety-one plates and birds of Hudson Bay, for purposes of comillustrate these different species. In many cases the parison with related forms from other parts of growing tree, seedling, leaf, flower, seed-case and Boreal America, especially Alaska. Mr. Preble bark are shown, thus enabling the student to gives an interesting account of the region traversed, readily distinguish them ; while still other views and of the tree growth, together with an exhaustshow the various uses to which the trees can be ive description of the various mammals inhabiting put. The eucalypts are stated to have been first this little-known region. planted in California in 1856, making rapid prog
--- - ress, and their use extended into New Mexico, Arizona, Texas and Florida, also into Mexico, i The celebrated “ Charter Oak,” at Hartford, being well adapted to the soil and climate of these ! Conn., was blown down in 1856. In a hollow of sections of the country.
this tree the royal charter guaranteeing certain
rights and liberties to the Connecticut Colony was The Voodman's Handbook. Part 1. Bul
concealed, lest it should fall into the hands of the letin 36, Bureau of Forestry, U.S. Department of
British Governor, Andros (1687), who had comAgriculture, Washington, D. C. 16mo, 148 pages. manded that it be delivered to him. The Vice
This volume, which is of convenient pocket President's chair at Washington, D, C, is said to size, will be of great value to lumbermen and for- have been made from this Charter (ak. esters alike. Its author, Henry S. Graves, Director of the Yale Forest School, has made the : Mr. Adolph Sutro, a former mayor of San Franattempt to collect all the rules in this country and cisco, and a prominent Californian, gave over Canada for finding the contents of standing tim-sixty thousand trees to the school children of that ber and of logs 12, 16 and 20 feet in length, of city to plant in the parks and around their homes.