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Editorials...

THE readers of FOREST LEAVES will be inter-

Governor Pennypacker's Address

Proposed Pennsylvania Forestry Legislation..

ested in the plea of Dr. Rothrock for the

New Hampshire's Forests....

The Forest Policy of Pennsylvania............

water-powers of the State, which appears

A Note on Cottonwood......

in another column under the caption “ Our Wan-

California Desires a School of Forestry..

Forest Meteorology......

ing Water-Power."

Pennsylvania Forest Reserves..

Our Waping Water-Power.

That a forest cover has a steadying influence

Forest Resources of Maine...

upon the flow of streams is proven in numerous

The Eucalyptus on the Roman Campagna...........

Birds and Trees...............

instances.

Withdrawal of Forested Public Lands Recommended

Uses of Persimmon Juice.....

It has been our privilege lately to discuss this

New Publications.........

subject with a gentleman who has at command

precipitation and run-off records of a number of

Subscription, $1.00 per year.

streams on the western slope of the Allegheny

The attention of Nurserymen and others is called to the advantages Mountains, in Pennsylvania. Two of these offer

of FOREST LEAVES as an advertising medium. Rates will be fur. , excellent opportunity for comparison, because

nished on application,

they are at about the same elevation above sea-

The Pennsylvania Forestry Association,

level and drain neighboring areas with similar

topographical and geological features. Stream

FOUNDED IN JUNE, 1886,

“A” has a watershed of approximately half

Labors to disseminate information in regard to the necessity and that of stream"B."but about 80 per cent. of

methods of forest culture and preservation, and to secure the enact.

ment and enforcement of proper forest protective laws, both State and

the area drained by stream “A” is forest, while

National,

not 50 per cent. of that drained by stream “B”

Annual membership fee, One dollar.

has forest cover.

Life membership. Fifteen dollars.

Neither the membership nor the work of this Association is intended

to be limited to the State of Pennsylvania, Persons desiring to become

members should send their names to A. B. Weimer. Chairman Member

stream “A” is 25 per cent. greater than the flow

ship Committee, 512 Walnut Street, Phila.

per square mile from the drainage-basin of stream

President, John Birkinbine.

Vice-Presidents, Wm. 8. Harvey, James C. Haydon, Albert Lewis, " B." .

Richard Wood,

General Secretary, Dr. Joseph T. Rothrock.

. But the minimum discharge per square mile of

Corresponding Secretary, Mrs. John P. Lundy.

stream “A” is four times that of stream “ B."

Recording Secretary, F. L. Bitler.

Treasurer, Charles E. Pancoast.

This is based upon contemporaneous records for

Council at-Large, Mrs. Brinton Coxe, Dr. Alfred L. Elwyn, Charles

Hewett,

an entire month during dry seasons.

Finance, W. S. Harvey, Chairman; William L. Elkins, Dr. Henry

M. Fisher, W. W. Frazier, Charles E. Pancoast, and J. Rodman Paul.

The increased average run-off of 25 per cent.

Membership, Albert B. Weimer, Chairman: Mrs. George F. Baer, during the year may be in part accounted for

Edwin Swift Balch, Hon. Lucien W. Doty, Charles W. Freedley.

Joseph W. Johnson, Dr. J. T. Rothrock, W. W. Scranton, Dr. Samuel

by the relatively large and small catchment-

Wolfe, and Hon. S. P. Wolverton.

Law, Hon. W. N. Ashman, Chairman; Henry Budd, Charles

basins ; but this will not explain the fact that the

Hewett, and John A, Siner.

minimum flow from a square mile of a well-

Publication, John Birkinbine, Chairman; F. L. Bitler, Alfred Pas-

chall, and Harrison Souder.

wooded area is four times that of a neighboring

Work, Mrs. Brinton Coxe, Chairman ; Mrs. George T. Heston, Miss stream with one half of the relative amount of

E. L. Lundy, Mrs. John P. Lundy, William S. Kirk, and Abraham

S. Schropp.

forest.

County Organization, Samuel Marshall, Chairman: Eugene Ellicott, This is a practical demonstration of forests con-

James C. Haydon, Dr. J. Newton Hunsberger, and Richard Wood.

OFFICB OF THE ASSOCIATION, 1012 WALNUT ST., PHILADELPHIA. serving water discharge, especially as it affects the

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minimum flow; for it is the minimum flow upon lands, and then with issuing warrants for them, which estimates of power available must be made by which the Commonwealth disposed of its or calculations of the storage required based. ownership in them. If time has shown anything

Every stream in the State cannot be developed as to the true policy now, it is that the old policy into water-power, but there are a number which, must, for the public good, be diametrically reby their large volumes and moderate declivity, versed. The State has been driven to purchase or small volume and rapid descent, can be made these same lands back and must now reclothe available if the water is conserved.

| them with timber (we are tempted to say, at any If one-half of the average rainfall in the high cost), else every interest of the Commonwealth lands of Pennsylvania is available for power, one will suffer. There can be no doubt whatever of square mile will develop a horse-power for eleven this. No political economist, no scientist, no rehours each working day during the year for every | liable observer doubts, or disputes it. three feet of fall utilized; but the expense for im- ! In the accomplishment of this work the State pounding reservoirs to secure the utilization of has already purchased over half a million acres one-half of the rainfall increases with the pros and commenced as vigorously as possible, under portion of the drainage area denuded of forest existing means, to restore the forests. cover ; for the artificial impounding has less aid We are quite confident that there is no sinecure from the surface cover.

or no perfunctory service in the Department of Protection to forests aids in conserving water Forestry as at present constituted. We are equally supplies, and, with the advances in power trans- sure that to get results commensurate with the mission, many streams now flowing to waste may ! importance of the work in hand, an immediate develop power much below the cost of steam increase of the office force is necessary. The generation if a considerable portion of the areas Commissioner of Forestry is obliged, in the abdrained are maintained as forest. J. B. sence of a deputy, to waste more time in going

| from the forests to the office, and from the office

to the forests, than would pay for the salary of a The following excerpt is taken from the Phila- | deputy. In addition to all this, important busidelphia Record of January 29th :

ness, needing early attention, is often held up “A bill to create the office of Deputy Superin- because of the absence, on duty, of the Commistendent of Forestry is another of the endless jobs sioner, and because there is no one in the office to for increasing salaries and sinecures to reward act in his absence. partisans at public expense. For this Deputy Su We know that there is no department of the perintendent of Forestry there is not the slightest State Government more overworked than that of public necessity. In fact, the Forestry Bureau it. Forestry. In it, legal holidays and vacations are self properly belongs to the Department of Internal unrecognized, and, as a rule, the work goes on Affairs, which was created by the Constitution for there from o A.M. until 10 P.M.

ing to such interior matters of administra- We feel that for once the Record is in error in tion as care of the forests and improvement of the its judgment, though we are equally sure it is roads. The attention of Hon. Thomas V. Cooper honestly and unintentionally so, and we hope that is invited to this forestry job." .

the Legislature will grant this much-needed force. It is seldom, indeed, that FOREST LEAVES has been called upon to differ with the editorial opinions of our above-named esteemed contemporary. From first to last the Record has been a firm friend of the forestry movement. From a somewhat intimate knowledge of the workings of the State

The Surcvor says that at a recent meeting of Department of Forestry we are in a position to the Royal Institute of Public Health, held at recognize that it is, under its present organization. | Exeter, England, it was stated that on the 2241 so overwhelmed with work that it is absolutely acres of drainage area from which the water-supply unable to render as efficient service as it desires

of Torquay, Newton, Abbot and other smaller to, or as the interests of the public demand. places is obtained, all the farms had been bought,

As for the statement that care of the forests was the buildings removed, fences erected 200 feet assigned under the Constitution to the Depart from the streams to keep away cattle, and 159,000 ment of Internal Affairs. the only indication that trees planted. It is the intention to plant addiwe can discover that the Department of Internal | tional trees on land not profitable for grazing. Affairs is charged specifically, or by implication, | On outlying portions of the watershed, away with care of forests, is first in the survey of State from all streams, oats, hay, etc., will be grown.

at

Governor Pennypacker's Address. foul streams, cut through forests and destroy home

steads. Often they are mistaken, both as to the M HE inaugural of Pennsylvania's new gov- need and the profit, and this is learned after and

ernor offers encouragement to the friends, not before the harm has been done.

of forestry, for it evidences an interest in! “Eminent jurists have doubted the constituour resources, of which the forests are given ' tionality of the act, and at all events its wisdom prominence.

in this respect is more than questionable. In our In his address, Governor Pennypacker says : ihaste to accumulate we are in some ways in danger

“ Pennsylvania has been very generous and of losing sight of manhood and even of fundabountiful in handling her great natural resources ; mental legal principles. In my view, before any and while, perhaps, this method of treating them i franchise is granted, either by special or general has not been unwise, the query arises whether it law, involving a disturbance of the individual would not be well to give heed to the future. right of property, and before any exercise of the The commercial idea, put briefly and in gross, is enormous power of eminent domain by a private that forests, coal, oil and iron are to be sent into corporation, there ought to be express assent by the market as soon and as rapidly as possible, in the State itself, based upon an ascertainment of order that they may be converted into money, ' the public need. This would mean the employand the men of to-day may live in luxury and ment of a competent engineer to give information enjoyment.

to the proper department. If hereafter, in any “ The duty of the statesman is to look beyond way, the State is to exercise control over public the indulgence of the time, to regard these re roads, there will be further need for such technisources as gifts of Providence, to be husbanded i cal information." with care and used as need requires rather than On behalf of the members of the Pennsylvania wasted or poured upon glutted markets, with a Forestry Association, FOREST LEAVES congratusense that when once exhausted they can neverlates Governor Pennypacker and wishes that his be restored."

administration of the affairs of this great comSuch expression from one about to assume the monwealth of Pennsylvania may be most successresponsibilities of Chief Executive may fairly be ful, peaceful and progressive. assumed as promising continued interest in the ! care of forests.

In another portion of his inaugural, Governor Proposed Pennsylvania Forestry LegislaPennypacker directs attention to the abuses of the !

tion. right of eminent domainan abuse which has done serious damage to our forests.

THESE bills in the interests of forestry have The following extract will be appreciated by i T been introduced in the Legislature of Pennour readers as evidencing the purpose of the new i..

sylvania, and we trust our members will aid governor to protect individual rights :

in securing their passage : “In Pennsylvania, as in all of the other American States, the principles upon which the right of l

House Bill No. 33. eminent domain is based have been too often ne- / Mr. Rahauser, of Franklin County, in Place, Janglected and forgotten. The constitutions of both

uary 22, 1903. the United States and the State protect the citizen! An act directing the Commissioner of Forestry in his individual right of property. But when to erect buildings on the Mont Alto Reservation, there is public need for the good of the commu- or to purchase lands and buildings adjacent to the nity the State may intervene, and, giving him said reservation, wherein to provide instruction in compensation, compel him to surrender his indi- forestry, to prepare forest wardens for the proper vidual right for the general welfare.

care of the State Forestry Reservation lands, and “ The test is the public necessity, and the making an appropriation therefor. thought upon the part of corporations or individ- ; SECTION 1.- Be it enacteit, eti., That the Comuals that if they had his property they could use missioner of Forestry is hereby directed, under the it to advantage is utterly foreign to the inquiry. 'advice of the State Forestry Reservation CommisThere ought to be some means provided for ascer- ' sion, to purchase suitable buildings and land adjataining the existence of such public need before cent to the Mont Alto State Forestry Reservation, franchises are granted giving the right of eminent or to erect buildings on said Reservation, at a cost domain. Yet under our general railroad law any not to exceed six thousand dollars, and to establish nine or more persons may unite upon their own and provide therein and on said Reservation pracjudgment of the profitableness of the venture to tical instruction in Forestry to prepare forest

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