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Pennsylvania's New Forestry Legis- tion. Said officers shall further be empowered, lation.

and it shall be their duty, immediately upon any

such arrest, to take and convey the offender or F the three acts mentioned in the last issue offenders before a justice of the peace, or other

of FOREST LEAVES as being introduced magistrate having jurisdiction, for hearing and trial

into the Legislature, H. R. Nos. 44 and or other due process of law ; Provided, further, 47 were passed, signed by Governor Pennypacker That this act shall extend only to the case of and are now laws. The texts of these bills are as offences commited upon said forestry reservations follows:

and lands adjacent thereto, and the powers herein H. R. Bill No 44.

conferred upon said officers shall not be exercised An Act conferring upon persons employed beyond the limits thereof, except where necessary under existing laws by the Commissioner of For- for the purpose of pursuing and arresting such estry for the protection of State forestry reserva- offenders or of conveying them into the proper tions, after taking the proper oath of office, the i legal custody for punishment, as aforesaid. same powers as are by law conferred upon consta- Sec, 2. All acts or parts of acts inconsistent bles and other peace officers, to arrest, without herewith be and the same are hereby repealed. first procuring a warrant, persons reasonably sus- / Approved March 11, 1903. pected by them of offending against the laws pro

SAMUEL W. PENNYPACKER. tecting timber-lands, and also conferring upon them similar powers for the enforcement of the

H. R. Bill No. 47. laws and rules and regulations for the protection An Act authorizing the Governor to appoint a of the State forestry reservations, and for the Deputy Commissioner of Forestry and an addiprotection of the game and fish contained therein, tional clerk in the office of the Commissioner of and further conferring upon them power to convey Forestry. said offenders into the proper legal custody for SECTION 1. Be it enacted by the Senate and punishment; this act to apply only to offences House of Representatives of the Commonwealth committed upon said reservations and lands adja- of Pennsylvania in General Assembly met, and cent thereto.

it is hereby enacted by the authority of the same, SECTION 1. Be it enacted by the Senate and | That on and after the passage of this act the House of Representatives of the Commonwealth Governor be and he is hereby authorized to apof Pennsylvania in General Assembly met, and it point a Deputy Commissioner of Forestry at a is hereby enacted by the authority of the same, salary of twenty-five hundred dollars per annum, That the persons employed under existing laws by and an additional clerk in the office of the Comthe Commissioner of Forestry for the protection | missioner of Forestry at a salary of fifteen hunof State forestry reservations shall, after taking | dred dollars per annum. the proper official oath before the clerk of the Approved March 26, 1903. court of quarter sessions of any county of the

SAMUEL W. PENNYPACKER. Commonwealth, be vested with the same powers as are by existing laws conferred upon constables

Proposed Legislation. and other peace officers to arrest on view, without first procuring a warrant therefor, persons detected

Two bills, not heretofore mentioned in FOREST by them in the act of trespassing upon any forest

LEAVES, are :

H. R. Bill 138. or timber-land within this Commonwealth, under such circumstances as to warrant the reasonable 1 An Act to limit the amount of money expended suspicion that such person or persons have com- each year by the State Forestry Reservation mitted, are committing, or are about to commit, Commission in the purchase of lands for the some offence or offences against any of the laws Commonwealth. now enacted, or hereafter to be enacted, for the SECTION 1. Be it enacted, etc., That from and protection of forests and timber-lands. Such after the passage of this act the amount of money officers shall likewise be vested with similar powers expended by the State Forestry Reservation Comof arrest in the case of offences against the laws, mission in any one fiscal year shall not exceed the or the rules and regulations enacted, or to be sum of one hundred and fifty thousand dollars, enacted, for the protection of the State forestry Provided, That contracts heretofore made for the reservations, or for the protection of the fish and purchase of land by the State Forestry Rerservagame contained therein, Provideil, That the above- tion Commissioner shall not be affected by this mentioned rules and regulations shall have been act; but no land, except that heretofore contracted previously conspicuously posted upon the reserva- for, shall be purchased or contracted for before

June 1, 1904. All proceeds derived from the ! This has passed the Senate, and is now being lands purchased by the said Commission shall be considered in the House. paid into the State Treasury, and shall be held as House Bill No. 33, given in full in the last a special fund, and shall be paid by the State issue of FOREST LEAVES, providing for the erecTreasurer to the said Commission, from time to tion or purchase of buildings near Mont Alto, for a time, upon warrants drawn by the Commissioner school for instruction in forestry for forest wardens, of Forestry, and countersigned by the Auditor-, is still in the House Appropriation Committee. General for the purpose of assisting in defraying the necessary expenses of protecting and improving the said lands, or for the purchase of ad Government Forest Reserve Notices. ditional land.

Sec. 2. All acts or parts of acts inconsistent THE General Land Office of the U.S. Departherewith are hereby repealed.

ment of the Interior has prepared two This Bill has passed the House, and is now

posters for use on the Government Forest before the Senate.

Reserves, one setting forth the object of the

reserves and regulations governing them, the Senate Bill No. 329.

other a forest fire warning, which are as follows: An Act making an appropriation for the erec

THIS MARKS THE FOREST RESERVE tion and fitting of a sanatorium, and for the main

BOUNDARY. tenance thereof, on the State Forestry Reservation

DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. at Mont Alto, in Franklin or Adams Counties, and authorizing the Commissioner of Forestry to

GENERAL LAND OFFICE, make and enforce rules and regulations governing

WASHINGTON, D. C., August 18, 1902. the same.

OBJECT OF FOREST RESERVES. SECTION 1. Be it enacted, etc., That, immedi- i ately after the passage of this act, the Commis- ! The object of setting this land aside as forest sioner of Forestry shall select a suitable site for reserve is : the erection of a sanatorium for poor consump 1. To protect a growth of timber on land which tives within the bounds of the State Forestry | is not fit to grow other kinds of crops. Reservation located near Mont Alto, in Franklin

2. To keep a growth of vegetation, especially County. He shall have authority to select and of timber, on land which would otherwise wash decide upon a design for said sanatorium, and the and gully. material out of which it shall be constructed, and ! The timber and other vegetation protects the shall have full power to make contracts for its ground against this washing, and thus it does two construction ; but he shall make no contracts in things : excess of the appropriation herein named. The ! It prevents the rain and snow-water from rushtotal cost of the said sanatorium and its mainte- ing off as fast as it otherwise would, and thus nance for the two fiscal years, beginning June 1, | prevents floods. 1903, shall not exceed the sum of $8000.

It maintains a pervious layer of earth, into Sec. 2. For the purpose of carrying out the which the water can soak and be stored up for the provisions of this act, the sum of $8000 is hereby | summer months, when, in most western States, it specifically appropriated out of any moneys in the is needed for irrigation. State Treasury not otherwise appropriated, the said 3. It is for the welfare of the people of this appropriation to be paid by the State Treasurer particular region, more than that of other localiupon warrants drawn by the Auditor-General, ties, that this reserve is created ; it is for the set from time to time, as the work progresses, upon

tler and homebuilder of this region that the specifically itemized vouchers, approved by the National Government expends large sums of Commissioner of Forestry and the Governor. money to insure his home the benefit of future

Sec. 3. That after the completion of the said supplies of timber and water, and a protection sanatorium, the same shall be under the control against flood and drought. and management of the Commissioner of Forestry, who is hereby empowered to take control of!

Regulations. said sanatorium and make and enforce such rules The following are among the principal regulaand regulations in relation thereto, and the use tions governing forest reserves : thereof, as in his judgment shall be deemed best 1. Agricultural settlement of any kind and and proper.

| under any claim is forbidden.

2. Timber may be obtained as follows: ing floods and producing a more regular flow of

(a) Under the “ free use" permit, any settler water for irrigation and other useful purposes. or prospector can obtain timber free of charge for To prevent the mischievous forest fires Conhis own use.

gress passed the law approved May 5, 1900, (b) By purchase. Application for timber is which made to the supervisor of the reserve.

Forbids setting fire to the woods; and 3. Persons wishing to graze stock, other than Forbids leaving fires, camp-fires and others, riding, pack or team animals, and persons wishing without first extinguishing the same. to cross the reserve with herds of sheep, cattle or This law provides a maximum punishment, inhorses, should apply for permit to the supervisor. | A fine of $5000, or imprisonment for two

4. Persons wishing to erect and occupy build years, or both, if a fire is set maliciously; and ings, for purposes of carrying on any kind of busi A fine of $1000, or imprisonment for one year, ness other than mining, should apply to the super- or both, if fire results from carelessness. visor or to the Secretary of the Interior.

It also provides that the money from such fines 5. Prospecting and mining is permitted any- be paid to the school-fund of the county in which where in the reserve ; but it is forbidden to take the offence is committed. up land as mining-ground and use it for other Directions. Since so many fires start from nepurposes than mining.

| glected camp-fires, the public is requested as 6. Rangers and other forest officers are game follows: wardens within the reserve, as the law requires 1. Do not build a larger fire than you need. them to assist in the enforcement of the local 2. Do not build your fires in dense masses of game laws.

pine-leaves, duff, and other combustible material, Fire Iarning.

where the fire is sure to spread. The law of May 5, 1900 :

3. Do not build your fire against large logs, Forbids setting fire to the woods; and

especially large rotten logs, where it requires Forbids leaving fires, camp-fires and others,

much more work and time to put the fire out than without first extinguishing the same.

you are willing to expend, and where you are This law provides :

rarely quite certain that the fire is really and A maximum fine of $5000, or imprisonment

completely extinguished. for two years, or both, if fire is set maliciously ;

4. In windy weather and in dangerous places

| dig a fire-hole and clear off a place to secure your and A fine of $1000, or imprisonment one year, if

fire. You will save wood and trouble. the fire is due to carelessness.

5. Every camp-fire should be completely put It also provides that the money from these

out before leaving camp. fines goes to the school-fund of the county in

6. Do not build fires to clear off land and for which the offence is committed.

other similar purposes without informing the Any person desiring information concerning

nearest ranger or the supervisor, so that he may forest reserves should address

assist you. The Commissioner of the General Land Office,

These warning notices are posted for your beneWashington, D. C.

fit and the good of every man in and near this W. A. RICHARDS,

forest, and it is hoped, therefore, that every one Approved : Acting Commissioner.

will see that they remain intact and useful as long Thos. Ryan,

as possible. Acting Secretary of the Interior.

Binger HERMANN,
Commissioner of the General Land Office.

Approved :
FOREST FIRES! WARNING !

E. A. HITCHCOCK,
DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR.

Secretary of the Interior.
GENERAL LAND OFFICE,

WASHINGTON, D. C., June 27, 1902. Large areas of forest, public and private, are 1 During 1901, there were 133,595 acres of timdestroyed each year by fire. This destruction is ber-land cut over in Pennsylvania, yielding 96,an injury to every one, and is a great damage, 811,000 feet of white pine, 858,774,000 feet of especially in all mountain countries, where a reg: hemlock, 726,734,000 feet B. M. of other woods, ular flow of the streams is of vital importance. 491,012 cords of bark, and 96,947 cords of pulp The forest is the most effective means of prevent | wood, besides wood-alcohol, acetate of lime, etc.

Acres.

33,598
5,799

32,679

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Tioga,

Pennsylvania's Forest Reserves. I In Pike and Monroe Counties the State is now

in actual possession of 39,546 acres. “Lumbered THE forest reserves of Pennsylvania are being off” once, there still is much timber remaining,

constantly added to from time to time, but chiefly yellow pine.

the following table taken from the Report There is a large body of land lying in Union, of the Department of Forestry, 1901-02, will show Centre, Mifflin and Huntingdon Counties whose the location by counties of the lands already ac point of greatest development is in the Seven quired, and those in process of acquisition at that Mountains, or in the prolongation of these ranges, date :

comprising, approximately, 140,000 acres, which Counties.

might appropriately be designated as the Central Adams and Franklin, . . Bedford,

Reservation. Once well timbered, there is over . Cameron, . .

18,395

most of it a fine young growth coming in. Centre, · ·

In addition to the above there are smaller Clearfield,

18,882

bodies, about as follows : Clinton, .

100, 190 Cumberland,

Licking Creek, Mifflin County, ..

7,500 Dauphin, . .

8,629

. Trough Creek, Huntingdon County,

7,500 Elk, . .

2,263
.
Martins Hill, Bedford County,

5,000 Franklin, .

7,447

Tioga County, Huntingdon, .

10,094 . 39,509

.

Wyoming County,
Juniata and Mifflin,

14,662
Clearfield and Elk Counties, .


Lackawanna,
2,854

20,277 . .

Dauphin County, . 23,671

. . . .

. Lycoming, .

3,354 Lackawanna County, .

. . 2,854 Mifflin and Huntingdon,

24,857 Monroe,

Lycoming County,

6,735 8,282 .

. Pike, .

42,382 Potter,

51,620

All of the above, except the portion located in

10,094 Tioga County, has, in addition to much old timber Union, Mimin, Centre and Snyder,

124,872

remaining, a considerable growth of young forest, Wyoming, · · · · · ·

1,177

part of which could be made now a source of

572,722 revenue to the State by “improvement cutting," One body of land situated in Clinton and Centre

i.l., thinning out. Counties, in the valley of the West Branch of the

Of the large bodies of land owned by the State

that in Pike County has the least altitude above Susquehanna river, has been officially designated

the sea-level. It lies to the east of what is known as the Hopkins Reservation, but its boundaries have not yet been exactly defined. In a general

as the Pocono plateau, and is probably on the

average six hundred feet lower. way it might be said that it extends from a mile below Renovo, up the West Branch on the southern bank of that stream, to about four miles above Keating, and it runs back for probably, on Trees and Plants Used by Birds for Food. the average, six miles from the river toward and including part of the Beech Creek waters. It in TN the February issue of FOREST LEAVES, Mr. cludes land known as the Slaymaker, Pardee and Witmer Stone described generally the kind Boudinot, with a few other smaller tracts. This has 16 of trees and shrubs to be planted in order to been lumbered off, but in parts much good timber, bring back our native birds. principally yellow pine and hemlock, remains. This question was taken up at the Westtown,

In Cameron and Potter Counties there are sev- | Pa., school, where one of the pupils prepared the eral tracts of considerable size, but as these have following list, taken from a bird-chart prepared by not yet been consolidated no official designation Helen A. Ball and published in “ Nature, Study has been conferred upon them. There are in and Life.” This list will convince anyone of the these counties 53,934 acres actually in possession thickety nature of many of the species preferred of the State. This has been closely lumbered off, by birds as mentioned by Mr. Stone: so far as the hemlock and pine are concerned, but Choke-cherry, black-cherry, elderberry, Junethere is yet considerable hardwood remaining. berry, Virginia creeper, dogwood, virbunum,

In Franklin, Adams and Cumberland Counties mountain ash, strawberry, bitter sweet, hackberry, the State is now in actual possession of 27,687 bayberry, pokeberry, cedar, frost-grape, barberry, acres. This is known officially as the South spice bush, buck thorn, greenbriar, juniper, wild Mountain Reservation ; at times cut over for char-grape, holly, hawthorn, blueberry, huckleberry, coal making, but now in great part covered by bush cranberry, partridge berry, sarsaparilla, falsethrifty young growth of chestnut, rock oak, etc. spikenard, euonymus, blackberry, mulberry, mast. Short-Leaf Pine. Yellow Pine. (Pinus Its flakes are thinner, and hence the bark is Echinata, Mill. ; Pinus Mitis, Mich.) smoother, and the color is lighter than that of the

pitch pine. Often, indeed, the bark resembles IT is not always easy to distinguish one species that of the red or so-called Norway pine, and, 1 of our pine trees from another.

indeed. this very lot of trees seems once to have The short-leaf pine seems to have been been mistaken for the red pine. first botanically named in 1768, and distin So far as the character of the wood is conguished from its neighbor the pitch pine (Pinus cerned, the logs of this particular grove of shortrigida).

leaf pine vary much in the relative proportion of A century ago Michaux found a grove of it near sap and heart wood, just as we see in the pitch Chambersburg, in Pennsylvania (see Michaux, pine. They are, however, distinctly larger, and “Sylva," vol. ii., page 252, edition of 1819). | the bark is thinner. Logs of two feet in diameter Our later botanists appear to have lost sight of it, are common, and I am informed that those of or confounded it with the pitch pine.

two and a half, or even three, feet in diameter are Prof. Charles S. Sargent writes me: “I am not rare. glad to see your specimen of pinus, which cer Thus far I have not been able to measure the tainly seems to be Pinus echinata, although the height of the trees. I venture, however, to say cone you sent me is unusually small. It is inter that a height of ninety feet for the largest would esting to have found it in this new station. Il not be far from the truth. should be glad to get some seeds from these trees The short-leaf pine, as a rule, prefers either a sometime, if you can manage it, as Pinus echinata warmer climate, or one nearer the seaboard. It is is not very hardy here (Massachusetts). We are to be remarked as a singular coincidence that anraising trees now from Staten Island seed, but I l other seaboard and southern tree, namely, the think your Franklin County plants would be sweet bay (Magnolia glauca), is found in the hardier."

| South Mountain, but a few miles away; and I am It is very fortunate that the woodland con- of the opinion that there are other instances of taining these short-leaf pine trees fell into posses seashore plants being found within easy reach. sion of Mr. Benjamin George, of Mont Alto, Pa., Michaux says the tree is sometimes called a liberal-hearted, philanthropic man, who refused | spruce pine, because of the tendency of the to sell his trees for lumber, simply because he did higher branches to become more erect. I could not need the money, and he did love the trees. ¡ not recognize this peculiarity in the trees of this

The principal characters which distinguish the particular grove. short-leaf pine from the pitch pine, its nearest The short-leaf pine wood is stronger than white associate, are as shown in the following con- oak, and very much stronger than that of the trasting columns :

pitch pine. Short-leaf Pine.

Pitch Fine.

The physical properties of the wood may be

| stated thus: Bark nearly smooth at 20 Bark distinctly rough at 20 feet above ground. feet above ground.

Specific gravity, 0.6104; percentage of ash, Leaves not stiff, usually two Leaves stiff, usually three in 0.29; relative approximate fuel value, 0.6086; in a sheath ; dark green. a sheath ; rather light weight in pounds of a cubic foot of dry wood,

green.

38.04. In order of strength in the woods of the Cones rather less than 2 Cones rather more than 2 inches long; prickle on inches long; prickle on

United States it stands 48th, and in order of scale of cone rather weak. scale of cone rather stout. strength among our Pennsylvania trees it stands

23d. The term short-leaf pine has but little signifi It would be well if these trees could, in some cance here, because its leaves are oftentimes as way, be perpetually saved from the axe. long as, or longer than, those of the pitch pine,

1. T. ROTHROCK. but, as compared with the leaves of the southern yellow pine, it is quite distinctive. The leaves of the short-leaf pine seldom are more than five inches long; often they are less than three ; President Roosevelt, in speaking of forest pres. whereas the leaves of the southern yellow pine ervation, said, “you must convince the people of may be fifteen inches long.

the truth—and it is the truth-that the success of If one notes the character of the bark of the home-makers depends, in the long run, upon the short-leaf pine some distance above the ground he wisdom with which the nation takes care of its will see at once that the tree differs from the pitch forests. That seems a strong statement, but it is pine. The bark of the former is less deeply cleft. none too strong.'

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