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Montana :

The Yellowstone Forest Reserve (see N
The Bitter Root
The Flathead
The Galatin
The Lewis and Clarke
The Madison
The Little Belt Mts.


691,200 1,382,400

40,320 2,926,080

736,000 501,000

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Note.-Total of the Bitter Root Forest Reserve in Idaho and Montana = 4.147,200 Acres.

Total of The Priest River Forest Reserve in Idaho and Washington - 645,120 Acres,

Total of the Black Hills Forest Reserve in South Dakota and Wyoming = 1,211,680 Acres.

Total of the Yellowstone Forest Reserve in Wyoming and Montana = 8,329,200 Acres.

Regarding the area of forest reserves in the insular possessions of United States. A summary of such information as now available is as follows:

Hawaiian Islands ; total area of 8 forest reserves, 259,857 acres. (a) Hawaii Island ; total area of five reserves, 226,478 acres. The first reserve was created June 17, 1902, by E. S. Boyd, Commissioner of Public Lands ; area, 74,000 acres, more or less. This is the only reserve of which there is any data regarding date of creation and area. Area o the other four reserves, 152,478 acres. (b) Maui Island ; total area of 3 reserves, 33,379 acres, approximately.

Porto Rico. The Luquillo Forest Reserve was | created January 7, 1903; area, 65,950 acres.

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The Forest of Texas.

The “river-bottoms” comprise the fat plains

| along the Sabine, Netches and Trinity rivers, as SUCH has been said about Texas cotton, far inland as they are periodically immersed by

cattle, oil and rice. Less mention has the overflow, which is seldom more than a few 6 been made of the “forest,” which is miles. During the expansion period these streams valuable on account of the quantity and quality of deposit a rich calcareous sediment, which they material produced, ease of exploitation, conver- derive from limestone regions farther north and sion and transportation, and its proximity to the hold in suspension until their velocities are imtreeless plains.

peded and their carrying capacities diminished. A few individuals have in their possession 80 By a continual repetition of this process, the per cent. of all the long-leaf pine in the State river-bottoms have become remarkably fertile and (1,250,000 acres). These lands were purchased capable of sustaining a hardwood forest, which, if at a comparatively low rate, and the company is not very valuable at present, is destined soon to now realizing a big profit on its investment from become so. its extensive lumbering operations.

An excursion to the Netches will at once reveal Within the last few years it has become a ques the character of the forest. The river is “up,” tion whether the productivity of the forest keeps as they say. The banks are full, the current even pace with the increasing demands made upon it and swift ; all along as far as the eye can see, by the mills. How can the two, production and which is only a short distance (for here the river consumption, be made to equalize, and a constant turns), occur massy oaks, gums, cypresses, etc., supply of material derived ?

all clothed in hoary polypod (Polypodium incarThis information has been requested of the num) and draped and festooned with long moss Bureau of Forestry, which has sent a number of (tillandsia usucoides). This gray mass is again men into Texas, who are spending the winter offset by the deep green foliage of magnolia upon the tract, making an exhaustive study, and fetida. gathering the necessary data for a complete Over to the left there is a bayou, across which "working plan." For the present, a description the fisherman paddles his canoe in silence, while of the forest, apart from commercial and economic from the thickets emanate the varied songs of considerations, will be appropriate.

birds. Soon the retreating sun will awake the The tract is situated in the eastern part of the dormant alligator and arouse the sluggish mocState, between the Sabine river on the east, the cassin. Trinity on the west, with grassy savannas on the The river-bottoms furnish a fertile field for the south and cultivated fields on the north.

student of trees, shrubs, plants, insects and aniWithin these bounds occur two decidedly dif mals; but for the free-air disposition, for the lover ferent forest types, each of which has long ago of the park-like arrangement, there is nothing to selected its' own territory, and has since main equal the piney woods. tained it inviolably. Soil requirements have here,

J. M. FETHEROLF. as elsewhere, been the main consideration in determining whether the forest should be one of "pine" or of hardwood.

The native soil is of low fertility, being of a light, arenaceous character, underlaid with a

The following interesting statement is copied clayey subsoil, and decidedly deficient in calca- | from the Report of the Forest, Fish and Game reous matter, an element essential to soil fertility. Commission of New York State, which was transThis soil abounds everywhere except in the river- mitted to the Legislature of that State on January bottoms. It occurs in broad, low swells, which 30, 1903 : are only interrupted by gentle depressions along smaller streams, known as “bay galls,' in which | Classified Acreage of the Adirondack Park, the proportion of clay to sand is slightly greater,

January 1, 1903. and second-class hardwoods and thickets occur. These broad, sandy swells, then, are the chosen Class.

Preserves. Companies. home of the celebrated long-leaf pine. Here


455,415 257,186 375,453 1,088,054 Lumbered.

592,630 there is a dense, uniform stand of tall, straight,


5,301 clear-boled, cylindrical shafts, which rear their Denuded.

15,739 13,555 27,388

56,682 crowns high above the grassy, brushless plains ;

Wild Meadows. nothing but grass and graceful trees which never Water.........


32,254 tire, although seemingly monotonous.


Individuals or







15,793 23,247


48,551 43,165







22,529 100,980 125,044







Forestry and Lumbering.

plication of common sense to the problem of for

est preservation. It is a method of protecting A T the Annual Meeting of the National | the lumber industry, and without it the industry 1 Wholesale Lumber Dealers' Association, cannot be protected. It is a method to bring

held in Washington on March 4th and about a new crop on the ground. It is eating 5th, Mr. Gifford Pinchot, Forester of the Depart your cake and having it, too, in a very real sense. ment of Agriculture, made an address on the re It is treating the forest as a crop and not dealing lation between forestry and lumbering, from which with it as with a mine. When you dig the minthe following is excerpted :

eral out of a mine it is gone for good; when you The invitation which came to me to-night to take the timber out of a forest, if you apply the meet you here reflects the most potent scene in methods of practical forestry to the land in a the whole field of forestry progress in the United simple, common-sense way, that is going to bring States; not for what it is, but for what it portends. results ; and it is all based on the primary quesIt is rather curious that the great movements of tion, will it pay? this kind run in cycles ; curious that this forest If forestry will not pay then it is absolutely no movement into which we are just reaching, plan- use talking to you or any other body of business ning for effort and accomplishment, began with men about the application of forestry in the the landing of the Pilgrims at Plymouth Rock. United States. We have got to show that forestry They came from a country where forests had been will pay. In order to show that, we have got to protected, where the value of woods was known, I get certain effects in particular forests which are and where the whole tendency was to look out not now valuable. Suppose one of you gentlefor the resources ; and as soon as they landed on men who owns an area of forest-land made to the the shores of this country, with nearly 3000 miles Secretary of Agriculture a request for assistance of forests in front of them, one of the first things along the lines he spoke of a few months ago. they did was to regulate the size of timber to be What you would want to know would be what cut for cordwood and to preserve the remainder. stands on your land ; what your land will produce Then came the great spread of our pioneers all under certain definite methods of management ; over the west, the movement which, following what those methods are, and whether the result at the Civil War, carried railroad building through the end of a given number of years will pay taxes our country as never before. The old feeling for and interest and a profit on investment. Let us the forest died out, because there was no apparent take a single acre as an illustration. We find out justification for it, and then the greatest area of on this tract how many 5-inch spruce, how many forest destruction man has ever seen began. That 6-inch, how many 7, 8, and so on up there are on area is now culminating in the United States, but the average per acre. It is found that the averhas not reached its culmination.

age spruce tree grows slowly, say an inch in di· When persons interested in forestry first began ameter in seven years. The department uses a to adopt the subject of forest preservation in the basis of an 11-inch tree and decides that it will United States they were a long way ahead of the | recommend to you to cut off all trees above II economic movement of the day. They began by inches in diameter. You will know then that calling upon the lumberman of Bangor to suppress you can get, say, 2500 feet to the acre. You his greed, not thinking at all, as the foresters of have a definite number of 9, 1o and u-inch trees the present day, that the lumberman is a business left. In so many years these trees will have man, engaged in an honorable calling and swayed grown; in twenty-one years, say, a 9-inch tree by the same motives. We understand now that will have grown to be a 12-inch tree, an 8-inch as forestry methods will be applied in this day tree will have grown to ir inches, and you know they will be worth while from a business-point of how many there are, how many are likely to die, view. These early pioneers advocated the intro- , and you know, approximately, what the price of duction of German methods in this country and spruce is going to be at that time, figuring on the proposed and exalted things that every lumberman i present basis. Then you have the proposition of knew were absolutely impossible. They directed a simple mathematical calculation. In twenty their attention to replacing the forests, that had years we will say your crop has reached 2 500 feet, been destroyed, along lines with which we have to in thirty years, 3500 feet. There you have the take account, but not along our line of keeping essence of the whole thing. the forests from being destroyed when lumbering. I believe that agriculture is simply a higher

There are just a few things that can be said of use to which the soil should be put; that agriculthe forest movement in a very few words. In ture would be of more use to the country on the the first place, what forestry is is simply the ap- fat lands and in the valleys than forestry.

You know far better than I do the conditions of class. We are the axe that does the work; you the forests of the country as to supply and de- are the helve which serves to give it direction. mand. The white pine industry in the northwest If we cannot work with you, who own 50,000 ern states reached its culmination about 1890, square miles of timber-if we cannot work with and has been sliding down ever since, and mill- you in preserving that timber and keeping it promen and men of the west and south have had a ductive, then we shall not work effectively for the big stimulus in the production of yellow pine. preservation of the forests of the United States. In the extreme west the production has been If we cannot work with you, if our proposition largely depreciated by fire. It has been estimated does not commend itself to you, and if we cannot that in western Washington 20 per cent. has been have your support, we may as well stop. We can cut and 22 per cent., or 46,000,000,000 feet, has attend to the forestry of the government or of the been burned, a dead loss absolutely to everybody. States, but first or last the great bulk of the forest The introduction of practical forestry means the lands of the United States passes through the use of timber, instead of its destruction by fire or | hands of the lumberman, and upon their attitude the equally reprehensible destruction by unintelli- depend the huge interests of this country in the gent lumbering. I have no interest whatever in protection of its timber-supply. the protection of the forest per se; a standing Gentlemen, I have been asked, in addition to forest, unless it serves some useful purpose, serves these remarks about forestry, to say a word or two me not at all, except from the purely esthetic about forest conditions in the Philippines. I was side, but I want it distinctly understood that our fortunate enough to have a six weeks' trip out position is that forestry protection is a means and there. I found a heavy area of timbered lands, not an end, as the President said in his message productive forests, running down to the water's in 1901 ; and if our forests are of no use then edge, most of it in admirable condition for lumforestry is of no use. Forest preservation is not a ; bering, and easily accessible. The demand for fad. The saw-mill has built up the country, and lumber in the islands is so great that there is a if it has done harm in one direction, it has done very large importation from the Pacific coast. enormous good in another. But we are reaching The Philippine lumbermen are not able to a point of time where progress in production can supply their demand. There are timbers not no longer be fed for any length of time by the only of great value for cabinet-wood, but for use of new species as substitutes, as the hemlock construction purposes, including some of the best succeeded white pine in Pennsylvania, as red pine ship-building timbers in the world, and some of has been substituted for white pine in Michigan. the finest cabinet-woods. There was one table That proposition is no longer tenable, and we have made of valuable mahogany, which was about 18 to look squarely in the face the question of whether feet long and 16 feet wide-one slab. There or not the lumber industry is to be preserved. is ebony-wood, which corresponds with rosewood

I need not tell a gathering such as this how and other hardwoods peculiar to the islands, a vital to the interests of a country a timber-supply very large proportion of which sink in the water is. We know something from practical experi - when they are green, --so much so that a regular ence what a coal famine is; we shall not learn for method of lumbering is to drag these logs down at many years what a wood famine is, but we are low tide, unhitch the caribou (water-buffalo) and enormously overcutting the production of our let them lie until the lighter can come along and forests. East of the Mississippi we have just pick them up. about half of the product of timber-lands that we ! There is an enormous opportunity for lumberhad when the country was settled, and the only ing in the islands as soon as the conditions of the thing which can be relied upon to protect your country will permit it. At present, the lumberindustry and the enormous interests which depend men who are there are unable to get as much upon it is forestry. We have to consider from timber as the supply demands, because of the now on that the forest is a crop ; that methods of death of the water-buffalo-90 per cent. of the renewing it are just as vital to you, who are inter- | draft animals and the unsettled condition of the ested in cutting it down, as to those interested in islands ; but when these conditions shall be pacibuilding it up. You have got to eliminate, as we fied and the water-buffalo come back, when the foresters have already eliminated, the differences Filipinos have learned to work, as they learn rapin the points of view between lumbermen and idly under the instructions of the Americans, foresters, and it is one of the great delights of there is going to be an enormous expansion of the my work to find that you understand, as we do, lumber trade out there, and it is going to be cointhat the lumberman is much nearer the forester, cident with the addition of wire-rope and maand the forester the lumberman, than any other chinery in the islands.

Another thing they have started out there. the total acreage on January 1, 1903, 1,436,686 Instead of barring the methods of forestry, they acres, most of which is in the Adirondack preserve. are being used in all the cutting of timber that Special attention was paid to forest fires with goes on in the Philippine forests, and are carrying gratifying results, as in 1902 only 21,356 acres it out under the regulations of the Bureau of were burned over, of which but 4345 acres were Forestry there. Here we are going to have not forest land, the balance having no merchantable merely one of the most productive pieces of timber on it. The total loss to standing timber forest region of the globe for our own markets, was estimated at $9150. A tract of about 700 but for all the markets of the east, right at our acres in Franklin County in the Adirondack predoors, for the most valuable kinds of woods, all serve was planted in the Spring, with 500,000 of it conserved by practical forestry. It is the seedlings; the entire cost of the seedlings, cartage finest opportunity for practical forestry that I have and planting was $2496.22, less than one-half ever had anything to do with.

cent per plant. The seedlings have grown well,

the percentage of loss being very small. The New Publications.

Commission has also established a nursery in

Ulster County in the Catskill reserve, and selected Pennsylvania Department of Forestry. Report a site for another at Saranac Inn Station in the for 1901 and 1902. 12mo., 158 pages. Illustrated,

Adirondack reserve. A list is also given of the bound in cloth. Harrisburg, Pa.

prominent Adirondack Clubs, with the amount of Forestry Commissioner, J. T. Rothrock, calls

land controlled by each. Forester A. Knechtel attention to the fact that when Governor Stone

contributes a monograph on “ Dead and Deceased was inaugurated in 1899 the State owned but

Trees in Flushing and Port Jefferson, L. I.'' 10.805 acres of forest preserve, while at the close Forester Clifford R. Pettit on “The Gathering of of his term it is more than half a million acres.

Spruce Seed.” Forester Ernest A. Sterling on The text of the late laws establishing the Depart

“Chestnut Groves and Orchards." The book ment of Forestry, the location by counties of the

closes with the reports of the Chief Game Proforest reserves acquired, and the forest fire problem

tector and State Superintendent of Shell-Fisheries. are treated at length. The various forestry laws which were amended in 1901 are given in full.

The Report of the Superintendent of Forestry for The use of the forest reserves for sanatoriums, out

Canada (1902) has just been received Note ing-grounds and as a source of water-supply are

is made of the benefit derived from extensive treated of. Dr. Byron D. Halsted contributes an

posting of notices warning the public against the excellent paper on “Fungi Injurious to Forests,"

careless use of fire during the dry seasons. It George H. Wirt, State Forester, on “ The Mont shows the zeal of the authorities that even the Alto Estate-Past, Present and Future,'' “ Forest

Peace and Mackenzie River regions had been Valuation,” and “Propagation of Forest Trees

reached with these warnings. The fire-rangers Having Commercial Value and Adapted to Penn

had also successfully protected five hundred miles sylvania." There is also a good paper on the

of exposed railway belt in British Columbia “ Manufacture of Chestnut Meal.” Dr. Rothrock

| against fire, while other parts of the province and illustrates the use of the Black Willow as a pro- adjacent States suffered. “Experience has shown -tector of River Banks. The report closes with

that an efficient (fire] patrol system is by all odds tables showing that timber cut in 1901 was much

| the most effective and least expensive.”. less than in 1900, indicating the exhaustion of the

It is especially worthy of the notice of this State timber resources.

that, at her experimental farms, Canada has 2,266,The forest fire losses in 1900 were $834,203, 500 trees growing for, or ready for, distribution. while in 1901 they amounted to $238, 374.

How long before we shall be able to make a It would be well for all of our members to

similar showing? It is estimated that 6,000,000 apply to their members of the Legislature at Har

trees will be required in Canada for the planting risburg for a copy of this report, as it contains

of 1905. “It has been shown by the way in much valuable information in regard to the pres

which the settlers are taking advantage of the ent status of forestry in Pennsylvania.

co-operative scheme that it is a very popular un

dertaking, which, aside from the fact of its great Forest, Fish and Game Commission of New benefit to the country as a whole, if only systeYork, Eighth Annual Report, 1902. 164 pages, matically carried on over a sufficient length of 8vo. Illustrated. Albany, N. Y.

| time, should warrant an appropriation which According to this report, 28,505 acres were would enable the work to be carried on in an added to the Forest Preserve in 1902, making efficient manner.”

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