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owned by the State is suitable for any other than / The Forest at the Natural Bridge, a crop of trees. In the hands of private parties,
Virginia. it would be not only a loss, but even a menace to the State, and from the nature of the case, while, M HE Natural Bridge of Virginia is one of in many instances, an individual might make a
those striking geographic features of Amerprofit, it is the State's duty to look after the com
ica which, like Niagara, will in time dismunity's interest, rather than that an individual appear under the action of the agencies of erosion.
should. An individual may grow small timber, The same forces that created will ultimately de· but he cannot be expected to expend his energies stroy them. upon a crop which will not mature for a century The formation of the Natural Bridge and of or more. Under State control the forest will the gorge of Cedar Creek is considered to be as yield its largest revenue.
follows :* Cedar Creek was engaged for a considUnder proper forestry management, the forest erable period in excavating the ravine in the canopy and forest floor are regulated in the best peneplain from the James River (which had lowway possible to have the forest serve its rôle as a ered its channel through the Blue Ridge) to a water conservator. The ground is not allowed to point not far below the present site of the bridge, dry out so rapidly, and the water more easily where a fall appears to have existed, the summit reaches the lower strata of the soil and comes out of which was not far, if at all, below the present in perpetual springs, which will not only supply level of the top of the bridge. About this time, the streams with a constant volume of water, but the water found a subterranean passage in the will also furnish the purest of water for the cities. limestone further up the stream than the present Under these conditions, too, the game, birds and site of the bridge, and through this it flowed and fish are more easily protected and increased. discharged beneath the brink of the falls. The
As recreation grounds for the people, the re- passage gradually enlarged until all the waters of serves must be considered æsthetically. It is not the creek passed through it and the bridge began customary for a physician to prescribe any gloomy its existence. What the length of this subterraand unattractive room for a patient, nor is it to be nean passage was is a matter of conjecture ; it may supposed that an unattractive forest has much have been one hundred or several hundred feet. effect upon the mind of the visitor. All the State All of its roof has disappeared except the narrow reserves are reached by railroads, and a number of span of the bridge, and the abutting walls have them already present attractive locations for camps, been worn back by erosion until the gorge or and from many points magnificent views. As the cañon is much wider than at the bridge. The forestry work is extended, and the hills are once | bridge is massive and strong, and the supporting more forest-clad, the reserves will become more walls rise in solid, almost unbroken, mural faces attractive and, with the extension of roads and to the spring of the arch, nearly two hundred feet trails, more easily accessible. To-day, there are above the bed of Cedar Creek. no better places for sufferers from pulmonary The position of the massive layers of limestone troubles than the Delaware, Hopkins and South at the center of the low synclinal gives them power Mountain reservations.
to resist erosion to a much greater extent than the On the latter reservation, at Mont Alto, there | upturned strata above and below the bridge. The is now a park almost twenty-five years old, and condition of the latter favors rapid disintegration, one that equals any in central Pennsylvania. It and the result is shown in the widening of the is about a mile long, with the whole reservation gorge. The retreating lower level of the stream back of it. There could be none better for a is now at Lace Falls, nearly a nile above the day's excursion. Unfortunately, there is no op- bridge. The gorge below the bridge widens out portunity for a stay of more than a day, but it is more rapidly, owing partly to the erosion caused to be hoped that this will soon be changed. The by a small brook that enters from the north, Cumberland Valley Railroad enters this park, partly to a greater period of erosion to which it making it accessible from all parts of the State. has been subjected. On the northern side, oppoOnly in a few instances would it be necessary to site Pulpit Rock, about twenty feet west of the make any extra expenditures for park purposes, public road, the summit of the bridge is two hunand yet, at times, it may be very advisable. ldred and thirty-six feet above the water, and this
Thus it can be seen that, while the State has part of the arch has a thickness of forty-four feet many interests to be considered in the formation and a span of from forty-five to sixty feet. The of reserves, all these interests can be best sub
--- --- --- served when the reserves are managed from a * Walcott, Charles D., « The Natural Bridge of Virpurely business basis. GEORGE H. WIRT, i ginia,” National Geographic Magazine, v., 1893, p. 59.
western edge is about ten feet higher, and the east- of the cavern which geologists tell us existed ern edge about ten feet lower, than the central here.* Among these rocks, which are mosspoint.
grown and lichen-covered, the following herbs The slopes, or sides of the cañon, as well as the live in the shade of the dominant forest trees : summit, are covered with a forest of some dense yellow puccoon, Hydrastis Canadensis, L. ; wood ness. The forest, speaking ecologically, belongs nettle, Laportea Canadensis, Gaud. ; wild ginto the Mixed Deciduous Forest Formation, char-ger, Asarum Virginicum, L. ; Indian turnip, acteristic of the southern Appalachian mountain Arisaema triphyllum, Jorr. ; walking fern, Campranges. At only one point, that at the elbow of tosorus rhizophyllus, Link; Christmas fern, AspiCedar Creek above the bridge, where the stream, dium acrostichoides, Schwartz ; may apple, Pododeparting from its general southeastern course, phyllum peltatum, L. (not abundant) ; blood root, runs due north and south, is this character of the Sanguinaria Canadensis, L.; Viola pubescens, forest departed from. Here, in the alluvial soil Ait. var. scabriuscula, Torr & Gray ; Viola deposited at the elbow, is found a pure hemlock Canadensis, L., and Euphorbia commutata, Enforest, forming the Hemlock Association of the gelm. Two funguses grow on the rotten logs ecologist. Beneath the dense shade of the hem- here, viz., Peziza coccinea and Caprinus comatus, lock tree, which is here dominant, the botanist Fr. The summit of the south hill along the flatter finds on the ground Mitchella repens, L., the part levels above supports the white pine, Pinus Stroridge berry, which here, as elsewhere, is tolerant bus, L., which is scattered throughout the decidof the dense shade cast by the crown of the hem- uous forest on this side of the cañon. The sycalock trees. Occasionally associated with the more, Platanus occidentalis, L.; the white pine, hemlocks, as secondary species, because they are Pinus Strobus, L.; the butternut, Juglans cinerea, tolerant of shade, the forester finds the beech, L.; the water beech, Carpinus Caroliniana, Wal. Fagus ferruginea, Ait.; the dockmackie, Vibur ter, are trees found along and on both sides of the num acerifolium, L., and the witch hazel, Ham stream. amelis Virginiana, L.
The dominant trees of the north or sunny bank The dominant trees of the Mixed Deciduous are the swamp white oak, Quercus bicolor, Willd. ; Forest Formation will be referred to as they are the tulip poplar, Liriodendron tulipifera, L. ; the found on the north or south slopes of the gorge, hemlock, Tsuga Canadensis, Carr; the sugar In general, the sunlight has full influence on the maple, Acer saccharinum, Wang. ; the black vegetation of the north bank, while the south walnut, Juglans nigra, L. ; the beech, Fagus ferbank is so steep that the sunlight, if it reaches ruginea, Ait. ; the hackberry, Celtis occidentalis, the soil at all, does so at an angle, and, conse- L.; the chestnut oak, Quercus Prinus, L., and quently, its full effect is lost on the plants of the the arbor vitæ, Thuja occidentalis, L. (nearly south and shaded side. The dominant forest three feet in diameter). The undergrowth contrees of the south side of Cedar Creek consist of sists of the witch hazel, Hamamelis Virginiana, tulip poplar, Liriodendron tulipifera, L.; sugar L. ; the dockmackie, Viburnum acerifolium, L. ; maple, Acer saccharinum, Wang. ; hemlock, Viburnum pubescens, Pursh. ; the sassafras, Sassa
Tsuga Canadensis, Carr; walnut, Juglans nigra, fras officinale, Nees, while the Virginia creeper, L. ; Hicoria, Sp. ; the beech, Fagus ferruginea, Ampelopsis quinquefolia, Michx., is a liane hangAit. ; scarlet oak, Quercus coccinea, Wang.; red ing from the dominant forest trees. The herbaelm, Ulmus fulva, Michx. ; ash, Fraxinus, Sp.; ceous plants of the forest on the north side of chestnut oak, Quercus Prinus, L. ; arbor vitæ, Cedar Creek are Verbesina occidentalis, Walt. ; Thuja occidentalis, L.; red oak, Quercus rubra, Chrysogonum Virginianum, L. var. dentatum, L.; linden, Tilia Americana, L. As secondary Gray ; Impatiens fulva, Nutt. ; Cicimifuga racetrees, somewhat tolerant of the shade, are found mosa, Nutt ; Asarum Canadense, L.; Eupatorium red mulberry, Morus rubra, L. ; witch hazel, perfoliatum, L. ; Galium triflorum, Michx. ; EquiHamamelis Virginiana, L.; Judas tree, Cercis | setum hyemale, L. ; Heuchera Americana, L. ; Canadensis, L.; sassafras, Sassafras officinale, Hepatica triloba, Chaix ; Sanguinaria CanaNees. Forming a third and lower stratum of densis, L. ; Mitella diphylla, L., and Mitchella vegetation, the writer noted the dockmackie, repens, L. The rock-faces, exposed on the north Viburnum acerifolium, L. ; Viburnum pubescens, side to the sun, support Heuchera villosa, Michx. ; Pursh, and Sassafras officinale, Nees. Near the Viola striata, Ait. ; Verbascum Thapsus, L., and bridge and extending up stream on the south side Sedum Nevii, Gray. The rock-faces, or walls of for a distance of a hundred yards is a tumbled the bridge proper, are decked with a variety of mass of limestone rocks, which the writer believes may be looked upon as part of the fallen-in roof
* See ante.
At then limit, or, asts original
herbs, among which the writer noted Allium tri- | prehension of ecology as an applied art. He coccum, Ait. ; Aquilegia Canailensis, L. ; Ane- argues that the practitioner is especially interested mone Virginiana, L. ; Solca concolor, Ging. ; | in definite knowledge regarding particular species
Triosteum perfoliatum, L.; and Sedum Nevii, in their adaptations to particular conditions ; he Gray. The 'summit-margin of the gorge on the needs knowledge of the “ silvicultural requirenorth side is characterized by the admixture of ments" of species, which is, and has been for a the red cedar, Juniperus Virginiana, L. ; scrub hundred years his term for ecology. The silvipine, Pinus inops, Ait. ; and linden, Tilia Amer- culturist desires to know the stable and variable icana, L. ; while the arbor vitæ, Thuja occidenta- | factors which influence his crop. The stable faclis, L., hangs out of clefts in the perpendicular tors he recognizes are soil and climate ; the varirock-faces at the bridge.
able factors are certain climatic conditions, plant This tree, the arbor vitæ, is the most note and animal associates and light. Physical conworthy tree growing at the Natural Bridge of ditions of the soil, especially with reference to Virginia. It is distributed from Nova Scotia to water-conductivity and water-storage capacity, are the shores of James Bay and Lake Winnipeg, and the more important edaphic factors. On the southward through the northern States and along other hand, almost the whole art of the silviculthe Allegheny mountains to southern Virginia. turist is based on the recognition of the photic At the Natural Bridge, therefore, it reaches its adaptations of the different species. The relative southern limit, or, as the writer would prefer to tolerance or endurance of light among the tree put it, the seat of its original home, being dis- species within a given climatic range is probably tributed northward in post-glacial times. Below the most important ecologic factor which deterthe arch at the Natural Bridge, and along the small mines the character of any forest association. stream coming from the north and emptying into “ The tolerant, if adapted to climate and soil, Cedar Creek, several trees are found which reach a must ultimately drive out or reduce in number the diameter of three feet and over. These trees have | intolerant, or light-needing, even though perfectly passed their prime and are showing signs of old age. adapted to climate and soil. This accounts for
Several facts are clearly evident from a study of the sporadic occurrence, in the mixed maplethe forest which occupies the gorge at the Natural beech-hemlock-spruce forest, of such light-needing Bridge. One of these facts is, that the forest is | species as the black cherry, the ash, the elm. It younger than the gorge, and the second is, that accounts for the existence of the most intolerant the forest has had a developmental history. In bald cypress or larch in the swamps, where their all probability, after the disappearance of the competitors could not follow. It accounts for limestone roof from the top of the gorge, a the change of forest type, under the influence of xerophytic vegetation occupied the slopes and man, the alternation of species observed on burns hills about it, because the soil was still formed and slashings.” only partially by the disintegration of the rocks The writer, recognizing, therefore, that an and by the action of the stream in the deposit of ecologic study of the relative shade endurance of silt. Gradually, however, the vegetation adapted our important species is the most important need to dry situations was replaced by trees, shrubs and of the forester, has attempted to present briefly herbs adapted to a moister soil and to a greater the results of his studies in this direction by a degree of shade. A mesophytic forest, therefore, consideration of the forests at the Natural Bridge replaced a xerophytic one, and, at the present of Virginia. In a paper, to be published shortly, time, the mesophytes predominate, although, as a more detailed and more exhaustive treatment of we have noted, the xerophytic character of vege this subject will be presented, as it deals with the tation is found, to some extent, on the sunny and forests in the mountainous region of western North drier slopes of the northern side of the ravine. | Carolina. Those interested in this subject will As erosion occurs, and the soil is removed from find a statement of the author's views in a forththe underlying rocks, a xerophytic forest may coming number of The Botanical Gazette. again replace the mesophytic one now found in
John W. HARSHBERGER. the gorge.
University of Pennsylvania, These observations are presented as, in part, a contribution to the problems which confront the American forester, when he studies any forested Failures in tree-planting, aside from natural area from a practical ecologic standpoint. Prof. causes, such as high winds and intense sunlight, Fernow* makes a plea for the more adequate com are due, chiefly, to a lack of care in planting and * Fernow. B. E.; “ Applied Ecology,” Science, n. So, I kinds of trees to plant.
cultivating, and a lack of knowledge of what xvii., April 17, 1903, p. 605.
Forestry Work at Mont Alto. don, be hereafter designated, known and named
as “The Rothrock Forestry Reservation," in THIS spring the forest nursery at Mont Alto | recognition of the faithful service rendered the
was enlarged, and about fifteen pounds of State in the establishment of this and other State
white-pine seed sown. Also some catalpa Forestry Reservations by our President, Dr. J. seed, and two pounds of red-spruce seed were sown. T. Rothrock. On April 3d, about 800 two-year old white pines On motion of Mr. Brown, it was Resolved, were set out into the plantation. Later, 800 more That the Chair be authorized to have kept corwere planted. About 3000 small, two-year old rect accounts of all moneys which may be paid seedlings were transplanted in the nursery. The into the State treasury for sale of timber, lease seeds which were sown last spring and those of minerals, etc., and which, under act apsown last fall are now coming up nicely. Some | proved 15th of April, 1903, are to be available acorns planted in the fall are sprouting fairly “ for the purpose of assisting in defraying the well. All the beds have been covered with necessary expenses of protecting and improving pine-needles, to hold the moisture and to keep said lands or for the purchase of additional lands;'' down weeds. Slat shades will be put up for pro and to make reports to the commission of the tection from sun during the summer.
amount of funds which are available for purposes The plantation which was started last spring is indicated. doing very well, only about 10 per cent. of original number of plants set out having died.
“ The State Forestry Reservation in Juniata, At the consumptive sanatorium, about three Huntingdon and Mifflin Counties, through which
es have been pruned, and now some flows Licking Creek, has been named “Rothpulp-wood is being taken out. From several rock Forestry Reservation. Many times, when places on the reservation considerable cord-wood Dr. Rothrock was a boy attending school at has been disposed of.
Academia, he walked across the hills and mounThe park has just been put in shape for the tains from school on Saturdays to his home in summer season, at the expense of the C. V. R. McVeytown, and when he returned he always had R., under the direction of the superintendent of with him specimen ferns and other blades of the reservation.
grass and twigs of brushes and trees, all of which The site of the old furnace-buildings is just gave evidence of his botanical taste. The boy about cleaned up, and will soon be ready for ivy in his case was father of the man—the distinvines and trees.
G. H. W. guished botanist that he now is. The forest he
then walked through to and from his home to
school is now the Rothrock Forestry ReservaA Well-Merited Compliment. tion.”—Sentinel and Republican.
THE following resolution was passed by the
State Forestry Reservation Commission, A Forestry Course at the University of and after it is inserted an editorial com
Michigan. ment from the Sentinel and Republican, of Mifflintown, Pa.
MONG the new and practical courses now We are sure all our readers will be pleased to
being given at the University of Michigan note this recognition of Dr. Rothrock's services.
is that of forestry. The course is technical WHEREAS, A forestry reservation has been es in character, and open only to graduate students. tablished in the Counties of Mifflin, Juniata and It properly requires six years, including the four Huntingdon, through which flows the waters of years undergraduate work, although it may be Licking Creek; and
possible to complete it in five. Thus far, some WHEREAS, A part of the land embraced within twenty-three students have decided to take up the this reservation were those which were at one work. Arrangements for a laboratory have been time owned by the President of this Commis- made in West Hall. Material for the practical sion, and over which he hunted and fished from | study of the scientific and commercial sides of his boyhood to manhood, and who in every way forestry is being gathered, and will be grown in exerted his utmost efforts to protect the growing the University's new botanical gardens. The forests thereon ; therefore, be it
H. M. Loud Sons Company has kindly extended Resolved, That the Forestry Reservation, now the privileges of its lumber camps about Oscoda, established along and adjacent to Licking Creek, Mich., and permanent arrangements for field-work in the Counties of Mifflin, Juniata and Hunting- / will soon be made. A forestry club is also to be organized. Charles A. Davis, instructor in for- River was first made. In the twenty-one years estry, has been working all summer in and about since, $27,000,000 have been spent on levees, of the State, studying especially the local conditions. which the general Government has furnished Two courses of instruction are being given this $12,000,000. If half this sum had gone to reyear. One is a synoptical review of the science forest the lands around the head-waters of the and the other is a course treating of the laws streams that feed the Mississippi River and in controlling the development of trees and forests | building dams where practicable, the situation and their application in methods of improving, would be much more encouraging than it is now. treating and reproducing forest crops. Other The Mississippi River problem is a national courses that have been planned are: (1) a study problem. It must be worked out on broad, genof trees and shrubs, their identification, structure, eral principles. But, hitherto, the Lower Missisdevelopment, relationship, distribution and uses ; sippi Valley States have insisted that they alone (2) forest mensuration.
should be left to solve the problem, but at the
same time they demanded national aid in doing it. Levees and Reforestation.
And the only plan they would listen to was the
levee plan. If they are now convinced of their THE spring rise in the Mississippi River is error and of the help that can be obtained from 1 subsiding, leaving behind it many broken other plans, a long step has been taken toward the
levees and much land overflowed. The solution of a difficult task, and the end of disasproperty destroyed is not so large in amount as trous overflows of the Mississippi River is in has happened in some previous years, but it is sight.-Philadelphia Press. large enough, and the breaks in the levees are numerous enough to seriously weaken the confi
New Publications. dence of the people of the Mississippi Valley in this method of protection from floods.
A New Method of Turpentine-Orcharding. The encouraging fact in the situation is that Bulletin No. 40, of the Bureau of Forestry, U. S. the spring rise of this year appears to have brought Department of Agriculture. Washington, D. C. a realizing sense of the weak points of the levee 43 pages, 8mo. Illustrated. system to the dwellers along the Mississippi River. This monograph has been prepared by Dr. Charles The Memphis Scimeter says: “What is troubling H. Herty, treating of the present method of turpenthe people of Memphis and many other cities tine-orcharding, describing the box system, with its situated on the tributaries of the great river is the evils, the necessary requirements of an improved result of continued high levees. The higher the system, the new cup-and-gutter system, which he levees and the more that are built, the higher the advocates, together with tables of the results obwater will be forced up into the tributary streams. | tained from the two systems. From the thorough The levees tend to gorge the water in the river and experiments thus far made, the cup-and-gutter make artificially high stages, and the outcome of system has yielded a much larger return in turthe next spring flood is anxiously watched for." pentine and rosin (from about one-quarter more This is exactly the point which has been per- upward) over the box system in both first, sistently pressed upon the Mississippi Valley States second, third and fourth years, and particularly and which has been just as persistently ignored by in the latter years. The product of rosin is also them. Past experience shows that the bed of a said to be improved. The increased yield is river rises by the deposit of silt when it is closely attributed to the fact that the vitality of the tree confined within its banks, and the embankments is not as much injured by the cup-and-gutter that enclose it must be constantly raised also. system as by boxing, although eventually de
But there is a limit to which this method can be stroyed. It would seem that the new system has carried, and a sense of the folly of tempting the fate, much merit and should be generally adopted. Fifwhich trusting wholly to the levees is sure to bring, teen plates and five text-figures aid in an underseems to have been gained from this year's flood. standing of the report. There is more willingness to listen to a discussion Sixteenth Annual Report of the Interstate Comof the merits of reforestation and to encourage merce Commission. Washington, D. C. 12mo., efforts in that way. This change of sentiment is | 352 pages. Bound in cloth. a distinct advance in solving the problem of the This report was made to the Senate and House Mississippi River floods. Had the triple plan of of Representatives for the year ending June 30, levees, dams and reforestation been undertaken 1902, and treats of the amendments to the Laws in thirty years ago, the situation would be under con- Regard to Interstate Commerce, Decisions of the trol to-day. It was in 1882 that a national ap- Commission, Court Decisions, Railway Statistics, propriation for the control of the Mississippi 'etc., for the year mentioned.