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fire; there a careless prospector leaves glowing munities are short-sighted enough to prefer to see embers behind him ; in still another case the cow- their flocks grazing for this year and their mines boys fail to quench the coals of their branding unvexed by the lumber question for this year, and fires.
to let next year's grass and timber take care of From causes as insignificant as these have started themselves. great conflagrations that have twisted from moun. West of the one hundredth meridian, moreover, tain top to mountain top like a mammoth snake disputes are still sometimes settled by the oldof fire, and have finally, after inestimable de fashioned argument of the first shot. struction and damage, died down, leaving the ! Experience has proven that irrigation can acsurface of the earth utterly bare and barren. complish marvels in the arid West. In the San
To be always on the lookout for fires is, there- Francisco forest reservation, in Arizona, the whole fore, the forester's first duty. To pounce upon the character of the valley about Phoenix has been neglected branding-fire or the abandoned camp- changed. Not many years ago this was a barren fire, and to reduce their glow to gray ashes is his desert ; now it is actually fertile and supports a chief business. To bring persistent offenders in prosperous community. In Colorado and Utah this regard, if he can find them, to justice is one there are famous examples of waste plains reof his chief pleasures. If, in spite of his watch- claimed through irrigation. fulness, a fire starts in his district, he has to fight So far the government, in its forestry work, has it with all the weapons at his command—which tried mainly to save the natural vegetation of an are few in the waterless regions.
arid region, to regulate its water-supply, and to Next to the ravening flame, the placid sheep is aid irrigation. There have, however, been some the forester's chief trial. The sheep industry is , experiments in the artificial cultivation of trees. a very important one in the forest reservation Ten years ago the Department of Agriculture sent region. There are some forty million of these out certain varieties of pines for planting in the animals in the United States, most of them in the far sand wastes of northwestern Nebraska. These, West, where a capital of nearly seventy million dol without care or cultivation, have flourished in a lars is invested in the business. It is extremely diffi way which indicates that they are especially cult to persuade the owners of this property, or adapted to desert lands, and the experiment is the communities of which it is the chief wealth, likely to be tried in other regions of the West.-that the grazing of herds on public lands is a thing Munsey's Magazine: not to be tolerated. Sheep eat the young trees, on whose growth the future of the forests depends, as soon as they put shoots above the ground. A Lumberman Recommends Forestry. One of a forester's most important duties, and one of those which do most to render him unpop- M A R. R. L. MCCORMICK, president of the ular, is to see that no sheep are grazing on any
V Mississippi Valley Lumbermen's Assopart of his district.
o ciation, and secretary of the WeyerThe sawmill is a contraband industry which haeuser Timber Company, in a recent interview flourishes on reservations in the mining districts. defined clearly and forcibly the intimate relations Mines require a great deal of heavy timber, and, i between forestry and lumbering. Mr. McCorof course, it is desirable to obtain this near the mick's views are especially interesting as expressmines, rather than to import it from long dis- ing the very cordial and friendly attitude toward tances. The government grants permits which forestry so generally felt by lumbermen. authorize mills to operate for a certain length of “Every man in the lumber business to-day, time, and to cut timber in a certain limited area whose dealings are of sufficient extent to be subof the forest reservations. The offences of which ject to influences beyond those of purely local the lumbermen are chiefly guilty are cutting tim- demand and supply,” said Mr. McCormick, ber beyond this area, or after the period for which “ realizes that the lumber industry is in many their permit has been issued. The forester's regions confronted by a growing scarcity of availpleasant duty is to descend upon the mills from able timber. Statistics point to it. Estimates of time to time and to report violations of their timber resources still remaining point to it also. licenses. If he finds lumber cut beyond bounds, But the strongest proof lies in the conditions he summons the sheriff and there is a sale, the which already affect our industry. United States, in the persons of the blue-bloused “It is just cause for congratulation that, so far young ranger and the sheriff, acting as salesman. as the actual harvesting of timber and its manu
All these things scarcely endear the foresters to facture into lumber is concerned, American lumthe communities into which they are sent. Com- ! bermen are far ahead of those of any other country in enterprise, ingenuity and skill in which are significant, based upon information sufmethods and machinery. But in spite of the ficient to sustain them. I wish to call your attenmoney saved in lumbering by better methods, we tion to a few of these facts. are obliged to charge more and more for our lum 1 “ There is probably no forest in the world so ber, in order to manufacture it at a profit. In every immense, so accessible, so easy to lumber, and so operation in the woods and in the mill, rigid regular in the high quality of its timber, as was the economy is necessary now, instead of the loose and i great pinery which occupied the region of the lavish methods under which it was possible, for- Great Lakes and of the Upper Mississippi. The merly, to make lumbering a profitable business. forests of Michigan, Wisconsin and Minnesota We have gone so far already that it is probable we originally contained a stand of about 350,000,cannot materially lower the cost of manufacturing 000,000 feet. Of this, Michigan had about 150,our product in the future. Labor-saving devices 000,000,000, Wisconsin 130,000,000,000, and can never in themselves prove an adequate remedy. Minnesota about 70,000,000,000 feet. LumberThe trouble lies not in the cost of manufacture, ing began in Michigan and Wisconsin during the but in the dwindling supplies of the timber itself. 30's, and was of small importance until the early
"It is not necessary to turn to statistics for 70's. Since then, the great pinery has been cut proof that the supply of certain kinds of valuable over in a way unprecedented in lumbering. In timber trees of the United States is rapidly fail- | 1873 the cut was about 4,000,000,000 feet. It ing, of others is practically gone, and of still reached high-water mark in 1892, when it was others has entirely vanished, as a factor in the over 8,500,000,000 feet. Since then, it has lumber market. For example, ten years ago the steadily fallen, until for 1902 it was a little over use of balsam in the manufacture of paper-pulp 5,000,000,000. To the enormous total of about was practically unknown. The eastern hemlock , 188,000,000,000 feet cut in the last thirty years, is now valuable for its timber as well as for its there must be added about 28,000,000,000, or 15 bark. A more modern instance is the gradual per cent., for laths, shingles and minor produce, rise in importance of the western hemlock, until making a total of 216,000,000,000. Fifty billion very recently altogether discredited as a timber feet were probably cut prior to 1873, which would tree, although, in fact, of great commercial im- bring the total product of the Lake States to about portance. The red fir of the Northwest and the 265,000,000,000 feet. As the estimate of the southern pines are rapidly invading markets for- original stand amounted to about 350,000,000,000 merly controlled altogether by the white pine of feet, it would seem that after the cut of 1902, the North Central States, while species of peculiar exclusive of second growth, there were 85,000,value, such as black walnut and black cherry, 000,000 feet standing. There are, however, by have practically vanished from the market in the careful estimate, not more than 35,000,000,000 grades which once were common. The southern feet of merchantable timber, which also includes, pines are being destroyed with a rapidity which undoubtedly, a considerable amount of second finds its parallel only in the case of northern growth. Of the vast discrepancy, only a part white pine. It is true that the list of commercial can be put down to error, since we know enough timbers lengthens from year to year. Just as the of the fire history of these States to ascribe the balsam is taking the place of the spruce, so are loss of 60,000,000,000 feet to fire. These figures substitutes coming in for other woods which no show that it is a safe and conservative statement, longer exist in sufficient quantity to supply the that the end of the white pine is near, and that demand. But neither can this prove a sufficient ten years will see it disappear as an important facremedy. The supply of the substitutes will be tor in the lumber trade. exhausted in its turn, and the final situation will be “ The present stand of yellow pine in the worse than that which confronts us now. It is no southern States has been stated by Mr. R. A. longer a question of methods, of manufacture, or Long, in a paper read before the annual meeting of substitutes for exhausted supplies. The time of the Southern Lumber Manufacturers' Associafor us to look after the trees themselves has in tion, to be about 137,000,000,000 feet. About many cases already arrived.
163,000,000,000 feet have probably been lum“Statistics of the merchantable timber still bered already. For the census year of 1900 the standing in this country are difficult to make, be total cut of yellow pine was given as nearly 10,cause the forest area is vast, and for large portions 000,000,000 feet. These figures show that at the of it we are without accurate knowledge. But in present rate of consumption the present stand of Mr. Henry Gannett's reports upon lumber, in the longleaf yellow pine will be exhausted long before Twelfth Census of the United States, he has made a second crop can be produced to take its place. good use of the data at hand and presented facts “It is not necessary to multiply instances. It
would merely be to provide you with facts, of
Forestry at Biltmore, N. C. which you have a keen realization already. The lumber industry ranks fourth among the great in ORESTRY on George W. Vanderbilt's Biltdustries of the United States. It has, in my more Estate implies the development of a judgment, done more to develop this country than
comparatively large realty investment. any other private enterprise except the railroads, | There are obviously two ways of utilizing a forest and the rapid growth of the latter would in many and its products economically, namely: cases have been impossible without the parallel The owner either removes any and all trees development of lumbering. But in lumbering, as which have value, leaving only the decrepit and in all other great private industries, the necessity worthless specimens on the ground (destructive for care is not seen until the harm has been done, lumbering), or else the owner gradually brings and until the results of it are bitterly felt. We have about a condition of affairs allowing him to draw reached the point now when we are often unable a steady annual revenue from the forest (conto supply the enormous demand for lumber which servative lumbering). we have fostered. We must look to the produc | The case of the forest owner is not much diftion of a second crop upon lumbered lands, or ferent from that of a farmer owning a cow. The prepare to stop lumbering when the first crop is farmer may either kill the cow and sell it to the gone. In the old days it was easy to lumber one butcher for her meat, or else might prefer to milk forest and then turn to another. To-day, how- her for a number of months. ever, we cannot count upon new fields to turn to. Whether the destructive or the conservative use We must make the best of what we have, and of a forest is more remunerative depends on the wherever it pays we must lumber conservatively. financial standpoint held by the owner. If the
“Practical forestry means conservative lumber owner believes in the gradual increase of stumping. The question whether conservative lumber- age prices ; if he believes that trees of small size, ing pays depends upon whether the value of the and of a species now considered worthless, will second crop upon lumbered land is sufficient to gradually develop into money-makers; if he make it a profitable enterprise to foster and pro- further believes that this rate of growth will yield tect it, and in many cases the time has already a sufficient interest on the assets now at hand in come when practical forestry is a good business the forest, then, obviously, the best course for investment for lumbermen. We have received a him to pursue is a conservative use of the forest good deal of abuse for what has been called our resources, withdrawing only such trees at the vandalism—abuse which was unreasonable and present moment as, by their annual growth, do which was not accompanied by pertinent sugges- | not furnish a sufficient interest on the capital tions for reform,—but now the question of conserv- / value represented by them. ative lumbering is put in a way which makes it Real estate investments, generally speaking, are worthy the attention of lunibermen. It is the not productive of a high rate of interest. The attitude, that forestry and lumbering are allies, not forest owner, consequently, whose lands are burenemies, and that the interests of one depend di- dened by large mortgages, by heavy indebtedrectly upon those of the other. Forestry is not ness, is, in the majority of cases, forced into the claimed to be the panacea for every lumberman's practice of destructive lumbering. troubles, nor that it is now applicable to every | The owner of the Biltmore Estate has faith in timber tract in this country. It simply holds it- | the rise of the prices of hardwood, and the facts self in readiness to assist lumbermen in applying of the last ten years have certainly proven the practical forestry to their holdings in those cases wisdom of his financial foresight. in which it is evident conservative lumbering will Yellow poplar trees, which ten years ago sold
at 50 cents, are now worth $3. [If the conditions are as stated above by the | Chestnut, which ten years ago was a worthless Forestry Division, and the lumbermen are being weed, is now salable at a small margin. interested, we have reached a stage where forestry Tan bark, for which ten years ago no market will rapidly progress.— Ed.]
existed, is now a highly-valued product of the
forest.' S. Pasco has been arraigned in the Warren No wonder, then, that the Biltmore Estate conCounty, N. Y., court, charged with starting twen tinues on conservative lines, removing only such ty forest fires in June, also stealing timber, and trees as are not productive of interest and as, in other crimes. If convicted, it should aid in pre- the opinion of the forester, do not promise to venting lawless people from firing woods for their partake in the future rise of values. own profit or out of revenge.
It is, however, not only on the wood resources
of the forest that the Biltmore Estate relies. the previous lumber product of the State was Considerable revenue is obtained from the sale of doubled. pasture rights and farm leases, and might be ob Great destruction has been done to the pure tained from a lease of the hunting and fishing pine forests by the injurious method of “boxing" privileges over part of the vast domain. The trees for turpentine, thus killing the older growth mineral resources of the woodlands have not been and allowing fire to prevent reproduction. touched so far.
Because of the increasing demands upon the The management is gradually building up a State's forests and the general attention which the system of well-graded dirt roads traversing the subject of forest protection has received, interest main valleys of the forest. Where the bottoms has lately been aroused in Florida for the protecalong the river-courses broaden out, the land is tion of the forests, and in the need of additional leased to tenants who, at the same time, form the foresť legislation and enforcement of existing crews of forest workers, furnishing the labor re laws. The most urgent needs are for an adequate quired for cutting and milling the trees.
fire law. A number of houses are built annually to accommodate the rising demand for farm lots, and
Afforestation of a Watershed. thus, gradually, a local market is created inside the forest, which will consume a large amount of
ORESTRY on the watershed of the Higby the farm and forest products without entailing the
[ Mountain reservoir, Middletown, Conn., expense of carrying such products over a long dis
is being carried on along scientific lines, tance to the railroads.
according to the 1902 report of the water comThe development of forestal resources neces
missioners. State Forester Walter Mulford, who sarily takes decades of years. It would be ex
visited the watershed early last spring, made a tremely unwise, although human patience is badly
proposition leading to a written agreement bestrained by waiting, to hasten the development of
tween the Connecticut Agricultural Experiment the Biltmore lands beyond the prospective de
Station, at New Haven, and the Board of Water mands of the immediate future. On the other
Commissioners, of Middletown, by which a carehand, every measure taken in their development
ful study of the lands owned by the city, and not must keep in mind the requirements of the time
at present wooded, will be made, and a planting at which the trees now in the sapling stage will
plan for the afforestation of these lands prepared. be ready for the axe.
Detailed plans for the management on forestry In connection with the administration of the
principles of the Higby Mountain watershed forests at Biltmore, the “Biltmore Forest School"
will also be made. In return for this work, on trains young gentlemen for forestry as a profession.
the part of the experiment station, the city agrees
to expend $200 annually for a term of five years, The Forests of Florida.
beginning January 1, 1903, in execution of the
planting plan; and also to pay the board and HE forests of Florida are one of the State's traveling expenses to and from New Haven of one
greatest sources of revenue, a revenue that man while engaged in this work. Mr. Mulford
is being consumed with great rapidity. has undertaken the work contemplated in the Parties from regions farther north have lately been agreement (which was ratified by the Common buying and cutting large areas of forests in Florida, Council on May 5, 1902) and has investigated and the timber supply is greatly diminished. the existing conditions on the various tracts of
In reply to inquiries concerning Florida forests, land. Steps have also been taken to improve the Mr. George B. Sudworth, of the Bureau of For forest growth by thinning out some of the trees estry, has supplied the following information: on certain tracts. In pursuance of the proposed
The wooded area of the State is estimated at planting plan, nurseries have been established, 37,700 square miles, or 70 per cent. of the total where there are already under cultivation 30,000 area, much of which is occupied by merchantable plants of white pine and a considerable number timber. Florida forests have not suffered greatly of black walnut, red oak, shagbark hickory, and from fire in the past, chiefly because much of the catalpa trees. There have been obtained for State was uninhabited and unfit for agriculture or planting this spring several bushels of acorns of grazing. Moreover, numerous streams and swamps the red and yellow oaks and a quantity of seed of intersecting the pine forests greatly lessened wide- | the white ash and the tulip. It was desired to spread danger from fire.
obtain a supply of chestnut and white oak seed, The greatest increase in the cutting of timber but this was not done, as the seed crop of those in Florida appeared from 1890 to 1900, when I trees was a failure.
Pennsylvania Forestry Association Coun- A vote of thanks was extended to Col. R. cil Meeting at Ganoga Lake. Bruce Ricketts, Miss Jean Ricketts and Wm. R.
Ricketts for the hospitable and generous enter
tainment given the Council, as a whole, and the Council of the Pennsylvania Forestry
members individually. Association as guests of Col. R. Bruce
The two views which appear in this issue give Ricketts, at Ganoga Lake, in Sullivan County,
an idea of the natural scenery at Ganoga Lake. Penna., were full of interest and enjoyment.
The first illustration shows one of a number of The evenings of June 9th and 10th were de
falls, while the second depicts a pretty stretch voted to, business meetings in the parlors of the
of one of the glens, with its timbered surGanoga Lake Hotel, and in front of the open roundings. fire-place at Lockhurst.
The days were spent in viewing impressive Minnesota Forestry in 1902. water-falls and cascades, which are numerous in Ganoga and Leigh glens ; in roaming through TN his Eighth Annual Report, Gen. C. C. Anforests, parts of which are primeval ; in noting the I drews, chief fire warden, states that the damage done by tornado, by forest fire and the 16 number of forest fires—mostly on brush and evidences of how the fire ravages have been cut-over land-reported by local fire wardens in checked by judicious management. From points | 1902 was 34, doing damage to the amount of of vantage grand vistas were had of long stretches $3820; while 46 prairie fires caused a loss of of forest-clad mountains, for Ganoga Lake is on $12,318. Most of the fires occurred in April the main Allegheny Mountain range, 2300 feet and May, when dry weather prevailed. above ocean level, a beautiful body of water of The forest fires that have occurred in Minneabout one square mile area surrounded by dense sota in the last eight years have generally done forest.
more damage by burning hay and wood, that would The consensus of opinion was, that many be valuable for fuel, than in the destruction of Pennsylvanians journey to distant points, do- timber. Such fires often run for many miles, folmestic and foreign, when there are fewer natural lowing meadows, and there have been cases where beauties than are centered about Ganoga Lake. all forage has been destroyed, making it necessary The magnificent specimens of hemlock (sixteen for the settler to dispose of his only cow, the feet in circumference), beech, birch, cherry, still means of sustenance for his children through the standing; the wealth of younger forest growth winter. The most dangerous fires are caused by which is being cared for; the efforts made to the inexcusably negligent habit of firing to clear prevent the start and spread of forest fires and land in dry and dangerous weather and letting the their extinguishment, were all interesting features. fire run. The extent of forests was no more attractive The last legislature gave the chief fire warden than the abundance of water as seen in the placid increased power, and made twelve amendments lake, the rambling brook, the dashing cascade or to the law which he asked for. By these patrols the impressive cataract.
are provided for in dangerous weather : fire warBut our purpose is not to attempt a description dens to warn people they think liable to be careof the twenty-five square miles of forest on the less with fire ; to immediately prosecute offenders Ganoga Lake tract, but to chronicle briefly the where there is evidence to warrant; to immediproceedings of the Council.
ately report cause of fires to the chief fire warden ; After the transaction of routine business, during to promptly comply with his instructions. If which forty-nine new members were elected, Dr. | local authorities fail to prosecute offenders, the J. T. Rothrock described the work of the State chief fire warden may expend $1000 a year in Forestry Department, especially with reference to prosecuting; teams used in extinguishing fires the practical results which were being obtained at may be paid for; helpers may be paid for ten the Mont Alto Reservation, Dr. Moore, of Somer-days' service instead of five, two-thirds of local set County, spoke of the forest conditions there. expense to be paid by the State ; accounts may President Birkinbine, Dr. Dean, Mr. Hancock and be verified before a fire warden or town clerk; others discussed the subjects of fire protection and county commissioners to be more prompt in auditthe possibilities of using our forests as sanitaria. ing fire warden accounts. Col. R. Bruce Ricketts, by invitation, described Gen. C. C. Andrews states that three hundred the reserve which he had established, and men- miles northwest of the Twin Cities, and in a region tioned interesting circumstances attending the covering twenty townships, east and southeast of combating of forest fires.
Red Lake, is one of the largest and richest forests