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tection, will be more difficult and always more ex- | frequently met with in the well-regulated forests pensive.
of European countries, but at present the preventFinancially, the condition may be stated as fol- | ive measures concern us most. The old adage, lows: The State has made an investment which "an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of is expected to yield a return indirectly for the cure,” is doubly true in regard to the case of welfare of the State and one directly that will forests. equal the return from any other safe investment. The best authorities on forest protection unaniAt the present time the indirect returns are scarcely mously declare that the first protective measure to possible, or at least not to their maximum degree, be taken is to have a well-defined and permabecause that is possible only when the land presents nent demarkation" of the forest boundaries. true forest conditions, and as long as forest land When this demarkation is done under the direcis allowed to be burned over on an average of once tion of a competent and trusted surveyor, usually in twenty years forest conditions can never be the county surveyor, all disputes as to the ownerbrought about. On the other hand, the direct ship of the land are ended at once and for all returns are very small-barely enough to pay ex. time. This is very important in some localities, penses. A very good example showing the posi- for as long as the people advance the slightest tion of the State would be that of a man who has claim upon certain land, they have an excuse for decided to go into the grocery business, and who trespass and for committing some depredation. buys a fine large building, but lays in a small While it is true that our reserves may still constock, mostly undesirable to the people of his tinue to change boundaries, yet it is very necesneighborhood. The result is he has a very small sary that, just as rapidly as it can be accomplished, trade and does not make a profitable income on more permanent marks should be established on his investment. He decides, finally, to double the boundaries than the old-fashioned “corners,' his investment by purchasing a large and desir- which are loose piles of stone that can be easily able stock of goods. Trade increases and profits moved, scattered or buried. Various means are are made rapidly. The result is that he makes a possible for this purpose. In some sections a good high rate of interest on a much larger investment. road or trail could be made on the boundary. The reserves correspond to the store with a small In other sections large stones or iron bars could and undesirable stock. Now, it is necessary for be set up at intervals. the State to increase its investment by increasing After the limits of the reserves have been deand bettering the stock of trees. Since it is pos- termined, the next step is to create an efficient sible to do this merely by protecting the land and force of forest wardens. These men must be existing growth from fires and other depredations, trustworthy, sober, fearless and not political it is surely the most practical course to follow. henchmen. As a rule, it is better to locate a
This state of affairs cannot be used in argu- stranger in each district, of from one thousand ment against the policy of the State, but rather in to five thousand acres, according to the locality. favor of it. Forest land well stocked and well cared Their duty will be to learn every minutia of for is performing its economic rôle, whether in the their districts, roads, streams, location of difhands of the State or of an individual, but it is ferent aged growth and desirable trees, the peopreferable to have such forests under private con ple who frequent the districts, their needs and trol. At least, when such is the case, the State habits, etc., and to protect their forest areas from has no right to interfere with private rights or any injuries which come under their control. private enterprise, as long as it is in no way detri Their greatest work is in guarding against trespass mental to the community. On the other hand, and fire, the latter being the most important. the large areas of land owned by private individ- | Damage from fire alone should be reason enough uals that have been denuded of tree growth and for having a large force of good men on each that are uncared for are a menace to the commu- | reserve, and especially during the two fire seasons. nity. From the nature of the case the private | It is a great deal cheaper for the State to expend citizen neither wants to protect the land nor has twenty-five cents an acre per year, than to lose the necessary money with which to do it. It five dollars an acre in one year, pay for extinguishfalls to the lot, then, and is the duty of the State ing the fire and for reforestation. Or, in one into purchase such tracts and care for them. The stance, it would have been better to have expended State can afford to wait a future return, even if it two thousand dollars and saved ten thousand, is a small one.
rather than to expend two hundred and lose not Protective measures, being practically the same only that but the ten thousand in addition, and for State or individual, are of two kinds. They then have the expense of reforestation. That is a are either preventive or remedial. The latter are business proposition, and if forestry is a business,
business propositions must be considered. We | From a protective standpoint, scarcely anything must have wardens as the first preventive measure more could be desired. The thing necessary to against fires.
put all these laws into effective operation is to In addition, as a preventive measure against the educate public opinion until the moral and forests' worst enemy, fire, there must be a com- financial sides of the question are apparent, then plete network of good, clear roads and trails. the expenses necessary for proper forestry manThese open places will decrease the area burned, | agement will be approved and even demanded. will afford safe and effective lines from which to ! This may take time, but that such a condition will fight fires and by making the forest readily access- | come is inevitable. ible in all its parts, together with a force of
GEORGE H. WIRT, wardens, will not only lessen the area burned
State Forester. over, but even the number of fires. There are numerous reasons for having a system of roads, Railroads Take up Forestry. and if this is complete it is unnecessary to have what are called fire lanes. At any rate, the expense THE Bureau of Forestry has continued this for clearing fire lanes about equals that of road l year on a far larger scale the experiments repairs, and at the same time the area devoted to
in timber seasoning and preservation for that use is unproductive ground. If the principle, the railroads, which it began last year under Dr. that each acre of ground should yield its maximum Hermann von Schrenk. This summer the work return, is tenable, then our fire lanes should not will be carried on in many States-East, South be fire lanes alone, but serviceable roads also. and West—and will be broadened in scope. This
The only practical measures which we can take, work will be done for the New York Central, the at present, against damage done by insects is to Erie, the Baltimore and Ohio and the Pennsylvafavor insectivorous birds and the enemies of in- | nia railroads in the East; and for the Illinois jurious insects. One of the best ways to do this Central, the Santa Fe, the St. Louis and San is to prevent fires and allow the forests to regain a Francisco, the Missouri, Kansas and Texas ; the normal canopy. Using trap trees, or trees in which Northern Pacific, and the Burlington in the South insects may gather and then be burned, is a practical method. Even camp-fires are serviceable in The scarcity of valuable timbers is felt by no attracting moths, etc., and destroying them. class of consumers more keenly than by the railAnother means, serving as well against fungi, is roads, which use every year 110,000,000 ties to keep the forest clean of weak, deformed or merely to renew those worn out and decayed. dead trees. With few exceptions do insects or The price of timbers has risen in some instances fungi attack healthy trees.
to a figure which makes their use prohibitive; in Protection against atmospheric influences and other cases the supply is so nearly exhausted that various diseases, as far as is possible, must be the roads have been compelled to look about for looked after by foresters, as best they can. Some new timbers. times a change of species or of management is The practical and simple suggestion is that the advantageous.
railroads, instead of continuing to use expensive, A very necessary part in forest protection is that high-grade timbers for railroad ties, shall use the afforded by laws. Our State has laws making it cheaper woods. For example, to the complaint of an offense, punishable by fine or imprisonment, to the New York Central, that it finds it more and more set fire to the woods, also giving a reward of fifty difficult to secure longleaf-pine ties from Georgia dollars to the prosecutor, if conviction is had. at the price it can afford to pay, it is suggested Constables have been made ex-officio fire wardens, that the road use the beech, maple and birch of and provision has been made to pay men for fight the Adirondacks. The complaint that the timing fire. Detectives may be appointed to ferretbers rot very quickly when laid in the ground is out the cause of fires and to bring the guilty to answered by the suggestion that they should be punishment. Laws have been passed protecting seasoned and preserved, just as beech is seasoned insectivorous birds. The Commissioner of For and preserved in France. The Great Eastern railestry "is empowered to employ such detective road of France has succeeded in making beech service, and such legal or other service as may ties last thirty-five years by impregnating them be necessary for the protection of the forestry with tar oils. The unseasoned longleaf-pine ties reservations, provided such service is approved used by the New York Central last only five years ; by the Forestry Commission and the Governor. and the beech if laid green, without seasoning or All forest officers have been given constabulary | preserving, would in many cases last no more than powers, with power to arrest without a warrant. three years. The substance of the proposal made to the railroads, and which the railroads has / St. Louis and San Francisco railroads seasoning thought so well of as to adopt, is that experiments experiments are in progress on swamp, red, pin, be made to determine whether cheaper timbers and cow oak, beech and gum. may be treated with preservatives, at a cost so low The experiments in seasoning the lodge-pole and be made to last such a long time, that it will pine, carried on last year for the Burlington railpay to substitute them for the more expensive road in Bear Canyon, Montana, and Sheridan, timbers now employed.
Wyo., have been continued this year. Last year The railroads will not only carry on under the it was found that 39 per cent. of the weight of Forestry Bureau's direction the necessary experi- the ties was lost by open-air drying, which resulted ments in seasoning and preserving, but have en- in an enormous saving in freight. gaged its help in learning where cheap timbers for Work of a similar nature to the railroad experities may be obtained. In other words, the railroads ments is being carried on for the American Telehave decided that if they can be convinced that it graph and Telephone Company, which used last will pay to season and preserve cheap timbers for year 150,000 telephone poles and 3,000,ooo feet ties, they will acquire large areas of timber lands of timber in cross-arms. Seasoning experiments on which they will grow their own trees, cut their are being conducted on chestnut telephone poles own ties, and thus be assured of a steady supply. near Harrisburg, Pa., and on cedar poles near This means that some of the great railroads of the Wilmington, N. C. country are in a fair way to practice forestry on a very large scale, and to employ a great many foresters.
Reafforesting Ireland. The present method of purchasing railroad ties cannot long continue. It is becoming more and HE very important subject of reafforesting more hazardous to rely on what may be obtained
Ireland has been discussed in Dublin in an on the market, for the reason that the market is be
address which was an admirable ~ precis" coming more and more unwilling to let its timbers of the history and difficulties of one of the nugo as railroad ties, when as sawed lumber they merous national questions. The author, Mr. C. would bring a higher price. Eastern roads often | Litton Falkiner, who is an authority equally on have to haul their ties as far as 700 miles. It is ab- the past history and the modern economic probsolutely necessary that supplies be grown nearer lems of Ireland, furnished many proofs that the home, and that there be a certainty of how much Irish climate and soil are naturally suited to the can be obtained. A railroad that needs half a growth of timber of nearly every useful kind inmillion ties on short notice must have those ties
otice must have those ties | digenous to Europe, and that the island was forat any price and is often compelled to pay farmerly stored with woods and forests of vast extent. more than they are worth. The great advantage During the wars of Elizabeth the system of “plashto the railroad of growing its own ties and prac ing,” by which the forest paths were rendered ticing forestry would be that it would know to a impassable through the interlacing of the boughs certainty just how many ties it could count on of the great trees with the abundant underevery year and how much they would cost.
wood, was, of the obstacles encountered by An expert of the Bureau is now cruising in the the Queen's soldiers, the most dangerous with Adirondacks to determine how much available which they were confronted. The destruction of hardwood lands there are along the New York the woods, due in the first place to this deliberate Central's tracks. Similar work will be done for policy of the Tudor sovereigns and in the next to the Erie and the Pennsylvania. A party of for- the accident of war, was accelerated both during esters is on the 60,000-acre tract of the Baltimore the long peace that preceded the rebellion, and and Ohio road near Camden-on-Gauley, W. Va., | afterwards in the years following the Restoration to determine how much tie timber there is on the by the progress of the arts of peace. The dimitract and how many trees it will produce every nution of the woodland area during the 17th cenyear under conservative management.
tury was extremely rapid, with the result that the Seasoning experiments with railroad ties are be- Irish statute-book from the Restoration to the ing conducted in co-operation with the Santa Fe middle of the 18th century is found to be crowded railroad and the Kirby Lumber Company at Sils- with measures which had for their object the enbee, Tex., and the ties are being treated with couragement of planting and the replacing of preservatives at Somerville, Tex. The timbers timber in districts from which it had disappeared. undergoing the experiments are longleaf, loblolly Dealing with the existing situation, Mr. Falkiner and shortleaf pines.
said that the result of recent experiments in forAlong the lines of the Illinois Central and the estry on a large scale had not been such as to encourage further attempts, yet, either through The Woodlot. A Handbook for Owners of the agency of the Department of Agriculture or Woodlands in Southern New England. Bulletin by whatever machinery may be set up for the pur No. 42, Bureau of Forestry, Department of Agripose of the new land act, means must surely be culture, Washington, D. C. 8vo., 89 pages, found, not alone to set bounds to the continued illustrated. destruction of the woods of Ireland, but to encour This monograph was prepared by Prof. Henry age the plantation of that large part of the coun. S. Graves, Director of the Yale Forest School, try's immense waste-lands which are suited to the and Mr. Richard T. Fisher, field assistant in the growing of timber. When it was remembered | Bureau of Forestry, for the purpose of showing that the United Kingdom imported annually close how second-growth woods should be treated to to $20,000,000 worth of timber, of which above yield larger returns in the long run than are 80 per cent. was coniferous and capable of being possible under the present methods, giving pracproduced in large quantities at home, it would be tical information obtained from extensive experiseen at once how large would be the field of ence in handling timber of this class. Most of opportunity could the timber supplies of Ireland the trees in this section are hardwoods, chiefly be revived on any considerable scale. -- Timber, oak, chestnut, maple, hickory and ash, being of London, Eng.
second-growth under sixty years of age. Directions are given as to improvement cuttings; also of the different methods of selection, sprout,
successive thinnings and seedling reproduction New Publications.
after clear cutting. The best way to mark trees
which should be removed by cutting, of planting Seasoning of Timber. Bulletin No. 41, Bureau , and pruning trees, as well as protecting them from of Forestry, Department of Agriculture, Washing- i fire, insects and wind, are all set forth. The ton, D. C. 8vo., 48 pages, illustrated.
| monograph closes with a chapter on the practicaThis report was prepared by Dr. Hermann von bility of forestry, and thirty examples of the actual Schrenk, in charge of Mississippi Valley Labora- | application of methods of cutting recommended tory, Bureau of Plant Industry, and Reynolds in second-growth woods. There are 4 pages of Hill, agent of the Bureau of Forestry. It treats plates, in addition to 30 text-figures, which aid in of the preliminary seasoning of wood which pre- securing a full understanding of the subject. cedes the actual chemical treatment. The wood is usually seasoned in kilns, or in the air ; but in late Report of the Bureau of Forestry of the Philipyears, owing to the demand for lumber, this has pine Islands, from July 1, 1901, to September 1, not been thoroughly done, and, in consequence, 1902. 8vo., 78 pages, illustrated. it decays more rapidly, besides warping, checking : Capt. George P. Ahern, Chief of the Forestry and shrinking. Dr. Von Schrenk has chapters Bureau, has made a most interesting report on on the distribution of water in timber, and the forestry in the Philippine Islands. The area of relation which this bears to wood-decay. The the forests of the islands are given as 48,112,920 seasoning of wood implies other changes than acres, and tree species number 600 to 700 ; nearly simple drying, which are discussed, together with all of this timber land is owned by the Governthe preservative treatment, the advantages of ment, less than 1,000,000 acres being private seasoning, how the timber is seasoned, plan for woodland. Lumbering in the islands has thus far seasoning tests, with results of such tests with been conducted in a very primitive manner. There lodgepole pine ties, etc., are all treated. In is also a report on the forest conditions on the summing up, it is recommended (1) that green southwest coast of Camarines, giving the stand of timber should be piled in as open piles as possible trees, the rock, soil, humus, underbrush, reproas soon as it is cut, and so kept until it is air dry. duction, density, merchantable condition, lumberIn the case of ties, the 7 x 2 form of pile is the ing, and forest management. Mr. Ralph C. best. No timber should be treated until it is Bryant, forester, contributes a “ Preliminary Reair-dry. (2) Timber treated with a preservative port on Working-Plan of Bataan Province." In dissolved in water should be piled after treatment the southern portion of this province is a military for several months at least, to allow the water reservation of 65,400 acres, and a detailed examipressed into the wood with the salt to evaporate. nation was made of this forest. In the Binuangan Under no circumstances should timber freshly river basin, the stand per acre of the seven printreated with a water solution be exposed to cipal trees, over 20 inches in diameter, is given weathering influences. The monograph is illus- | as 5121 cubic feet per acre, in the Auro river trated by 18 pages of plates and 16 text-figures. basin 4260 cubic feet, the stand varying in other localities; there are short descriptions of the prin- ; enacted by various States in regard to tree plantcipal varieties of trees from a lumbering standpoint, ing on streets and highways. Autumn foliage is etc. P. L. Sherman, Inspector of the Forestry Bu brought prominently forward, and beautifully reau, makes a special report on the timber of the illustrated by colored plates, the whole closing Sulu Archipelago and Southern Mindanao. These with a list of the trees mentioned, with both their forests are practially unexplored, and are made common and scientific names. Anyone contemup of several hundred species. Dr. Sherman also plating planting street or highway trees would do contributes “ Investigations of Gutta-Percha and well to secure a copy of this monograph and Rubber in the Southern Philippines,” showing study it. that a considerable amount of these products were
Year-Book of the Department of Agriculture, obtained ; from July, 1901, up to February, 1902, the shipments from all of the southern ports amount
1902. 8vo., 912 pages, illustrated. Washinging to 297,000 pounds, which does not represent
ton, D. C. the entire production. The total expenses of the
The Hon. James Wilson, Secretary of the Philippine Forestry Bureau in 1901–02 was $155,
Department of Agriculture, has issued his report 269.78, and the revenues $348,073.08. The total
for the year 1902, containing many valuable articut of timber for the year ending June 30, 1902, I
cles, but our readers will be particularly interested was 4,957,972 cubic feet, of which but 196,987 !
in those pertaining to forestry. “The Climate of cubic feet came from private lands ; in addition, i
the Forest-Denuded Portion of the Upper Lake 3,808,870 cubic feet of firewood, 247,947 cubic
Region” is written by Willis L. Moore; William feet of charcoal, 20,685 pounds of rattan, 2,256,
M. Hall contributes the “ Practicability of Forest 458 pounds of dyewood, 312,154 pounds of tan
Planting in the United States ;'' A. D. Hopkins
presents “Some of the Principal Insect Enemies bark, 1,082,235 pounds of gum mastic, 282,996 pounds of rubber, 373,331 pounds of gutta-percha,
of Coniferous Forests in the United States;'' 9,181 gallons of vegetable oil, 113,905 pounds of
Overton W. Price treats of “ The Influence of pitch, and 20,685 pounds of cinnamon were ob
¡ Forestry upon the Lumber Industry ;'' while Wil
liam H. Krug gives the results of “Chemical tained.
The 2, full-page illustrations aid in an under. Studies of Some Forest Products of Economic standing and add to the value of the report.
Importance ;' and F. E. Olmsted has an article
on “ Tests on the Physical Properties of Timber." Tree Planting on Streets and Highways. By
According to a table in the appendix there are William F. Fox, New York Forest, Fish and Game
now three national forestry associations and State Commission, Albany, N. Y.
organizations in eighteen States and one Territory,
Quarto, 50 pages, illustrated.
| which certainly shows a growing interest in the The Superintendent of State Forests, Col. Wil- | subject of forestry. liam F. Fox, has taken up in a most thorough List of National, State and Locai Commercial manner the subject of tree planting in the New Organizations, and National, State and Local England and Middle States. Highway trees are Agricultural Associations. Government Printing first treated of, the American elm and the hard Office, Washington, D. C. 12mo., 296 pages. maple being considered as ranking first, it being This list was compiled by the Interstate Comrecommended that there be plenty of space be- | merce Commission, at the request of the Senate. tween the trees and overcrowding avoided, allow- and forms a handy reference-book of these organing, say, 70 feet for elms and 50 feet for hard izations, giving the location, title of the associamaples. Street trees proper are then taken up, I tion, with the names of the president and secreand a table given of trees, their relative rank rep- tary, with addresses. resenting desirability. For wide streets the American, or white elm, is recommended, followed by the hard or sugar maple, while for narrow streets At one of the late meetings of the New York the Norway maple is given the preference, fol- Railroad Club the topic selected for the evening lowed by white or silver maple. A short descrip. | was “ The Use of Timber by Railroads." The tion of each tree (22 in all) is given, the advan- first paper presented was on “The Use of Timber tages and disadvantages being stated. Some by Railroads, and its Relation to Forestry," by undesirable trees are also mentioned. Other Dr. Hermann von Schrenk, of the Department of chapters treat of destructive insects, rapidity of Agriculture, and the second paper was entitled growth, transplanting, pruning, arrangement of “Railroad Interests in Forest Supplies,” by Dr. trees on streets, protection of trees from animals B. E. Fernow, being followed by an interesting and insects, municipal control of trees, legislation discussion.