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A The attention of the advertising public is called to the advantages we offer as a medium. Address, 1012 Walnut Street Philadelphia, Pa.

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LEWIS' TREE CHARTS. The whole series consists of fifteen numbers, divided into PARTS of three numbers each. They may be purchased singly, -- by the part,-or by the full series, at the prices named below. More than half of the series has already been printed. The drawings are completed, and the remaining charts will be published at the earliest practicable date. One thousand paid subscriptions of $6.00 each would insure the immediate publication of the whole series.

TERMS:-CASH IN ADVANCE.
Price of single number, 50 cents each.
Price of Part, $1.40 each.
Price of full series, $6.00 each.

A liberal deduction will be made to Boards of Education or
others purchasing in large numbers.
NOW READY.-(These with a * as yet unprinted.) |
PART I.-THE OAKS. Forty-two species.

No. 1. Biennial Fruited Oaks. Black Oak and Allies.
No. 2. Annual Fruited Oaks. White Oak and Allies.
No. 3. Southern, Pacific, Hardy, Foreign, and examples of

Extinct Oaks.
PART II.-THE NUT BEARERS. Numerous species.
No. 4. The Chestnuts and Beeches. American, Japanese and

European Chestnuts.
No. 5. The Walnuts. American, Japanese and European

species and varieties.
No. 6. The Hickories. American species and varieties.
PART III.-

No. 7. The Willows and Poplars. Numerous species.
No. 8. The Birches, Elms and allies.

No. 9. The Lindens, and allied families of numerous species. PART IV.

*No. 10. The Magnolia and related trees.
*No. 11. The Horse Chestnuts and allies.

No. 12. The Maples. (Printed in advance.)
PART V.

*No. 13. Locusts and allies of Pea Family of several genera. *No. 14) Wild Cherry, Mountain Ash, Sweet Gum, Sour Gum,

Persimmon. *No. 15 ) Ashes, Catalpas, Paulownia, and others. For further information address the author, publisher and

proprietor,
GRACEANNA LEWIS,
Media, - - - - Pennsylvania.

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| CHESTNUT HILL ACADEMY,

CHESTNUT HILL, PHILA.

30 minutes from Broad St. Station

BOARDING SCHOOL FOR BOYS.

Nlustrated Catalogue upon application.

JAMES L. PATTERSON,

Head Master.

SUGAR MAPLES.

One of the very finest deciduous-leaved trees of North
America is the tall Sugar Maple. It can truly be called
the noblest of all the Maples.

NO BETTER VARIETY CAN BE USED FOR STREET,

PARK, OR LAWN PLANTING,
as its growth is rapid and straight, its form symmetrical,
and it does not have the objectionable density of foliage
possessed by the Norway Maple.

For this reason it is well adapted for planting near build

ings, as it does not obstruct light or air, and the grass
will grow up to its very trunk. It is deep-rooted, and
the wood is not brittle; hence, it is not easily damaged
by storms. The Sugar Maple will thrive in almost
all localities, except where the ground is damp or
boggy. No tree has more gorgeous autumn coloring,
as it varies in all shades of yellow, orange and scarlet
until the leaves finally fall.

PLEASE NOTE THE FOLLOWING LOW PRICES.

10
$2 50
4 00
6 oo

ns.

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Each. 7 to 8 ft. ; trans., .......

... $0 35 8 to 9 ft. ; trans., ................. 9 to 10 ft. ; trans., ..

........ 75 10 to 12 ft. ; 1/4 to 1/2 in. ; trans., ....

..... 100 12 to 14 ft.; 1/2 to 134 in. ; trans., ....... 14 to 15 ft. ; 134 to 2 in. ; trans., . Larger trees, 2 to 2/2 in. diam. ; trans., ....

1.; tans., . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 25 Larger trees, 2'2 to 3 in. diam. ; trans., .................. 3 50 Larger trees, 3 to 3/2 in. diam. ; trans., ..

... 4 oo

100 $22 50 30 00 40 00 50 00 100 00 125 00 150 00

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CHESTNUT HILL, PHILA., PA.

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Vol. IX.

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Published Bi-Monthly by the
PENNSYLVANIA FORESTRY ASSOCIATION,

1012 Walnut St., Philadelphia, Pa.
Entered at the Philadelphia Post-Office as second class matter.

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== CONTENTS.

EDITORIALS.

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77

Editorials..

S this issue goes to press, preparations are Announcement of Autumn Arbor Day.........

M in progress at various public schools Forests of the Philippines......... Daniel Webster's Tree-Planting.......!.

6 throughout Pennsylvania to celebrate Strange Facts About the Eucalyptus....

Arbor Day. The Department of Public InstrucForest Fires and Insect Attack........ Area and Damage of Maine Forest Fires.

tion has been a strong ally in popularizing forWind-Twisted Trees........ Correspondence........

estry by encouraging recognition of Arbor Day The Sanatorium at South Mountain, Pa..... The Chestnut Harvest and Manufacture of Chestnut Meal...

each fall by the pupils of the public schools, but New Members of the Pennsylvania Forestry Association.

the custom followed in Pennsylvania, of having Arizona's Petrified Forests.. Forestry as an Aid to Irrigation.

practically three Arbor Days each year, has been New Publications.........

criticized as detracting from the general observance

of any special day. Subscription, $1.00 per Year.

This may be the case, but it is probable tha The attention of Nurserymen and others is called to the advantages

more individuals take an active part by having of Forest Leaves as an advertising medium. Rates will be fur. nished on application.

three separate days designated.

In the spring the Governor of Pennsylvania The Pennsylvania Forestry Association,

names two days (a fortnight apart) to be recog

nized by the people of the State as Arbor Days, – FOUNDED IN JUNE, 1886,

the topographical and climatic conditions making Labors to disseminate information in regard to the necessity and

| it inadvisable to name a specific day for the entire methods of forest culture and preservation, and to secure the enactment and enforcement of proper forest protective laws, both State and State,—when tree-planting is recommended. National.

i The fall Arbor Day is an occasion recognized Annual membership fee, One dollar.

by the Department of Public Instruction to encourLife membership, Fifteen dollars. Neither the membership nor the work of this Association is intended to be limited to the State of Pennsylvania. Persons desiring to become members should send their names to A. B. Weimer, Chairman Member

love of tree growth, and to impress upon them ship Committee, 512 Walnut Street, Phila.

the value of forests. Each fulfils an important President, John Birkinbine.

Vice-Presidents, Wm. S. Harvey, James C. Haydon, Albert Lewis, function, and the aid of each Arbor Day is recog-
Richard Wood,
General Secretary, Dr. Joseph T. Rothrock.

, nized by the friends of forestry.

J. B. Corresponding Secretary, Mrs. John P. Lundy. Recording Secretary, F. L. Bitler. Treasurer, Charles E. Pancoast.

The year 1903 will take prominent rank as one Council.at-Large, Mrs. Brinton Coxe, Dr. Alfred L, Elwyn, Charles Hewett,

of disastrous foods, and in discussing the damage Finance, W. S. Harvey, Chairman: William L. Elkins, Dr. Henry done the possible retarding influence of forests M. Fisher, W. W. Frazier, Charles E. Pancoast, and J. Rodman Paul.

Membership, Albert B. Weimer, Chairman; Mrs. George F. Baer, upon run-off has been referred to editorially,
Edwin Swift Balch, Hon. Lucien W. Doty, Charles W. Freedley
Dr. J. T. Rothrock, W. W. Scranton, Dr. Samuel Wolfe, and Hon. S.

some of the predictions as to the help which P. Wolverton.

could be looked for by forests lessening the food Law, Hon. W. N. Ashman, Chairman; Henry Budd, Charles Hewett, and John A. Siner.

heights of streams being overdrawn. Undoubt Publication, John Birkinbine, Chairman; F. L. Bitler, Alfred Paschall, and Harrison Souder.

edly, the most potent factor in limiting the run-off Work, Mrs. Brinton Coxe, Chairman ; Mrs. George T. Heston, Miss in times of exceptionally heavy rains is the forest E. L. Lundy, Mrs. John P. Lundy, William S. Kirk, and Abraham S. Schropp.

floor. As much rain falls on the forests as on the County Organization, Samu Marshall, Chairman: Eugene Ellicott, James C. Haydon, Dr. J. Newton Hunsberger, and Richard Wood.

it, cleared land, the leaf-covered branches of trees OFFICE OF THE AssociaTION, 1012 WALNUT ST., PHILADELPHIA. undoubtedly receiving the blows from rain-drops,

encourage them to reach the ground at reduced can be planted in the autumn as well as in the velocity, and therefore with less probability of spring, it has become customary to observe an compacting the soil. But if the forest floor has Arbor Day in the fall of the year. In accordance not been destroyed by fire, it offers a spongy mass with this established custom, which, becoming saturated, gives off water with less rapidity than unprotected soil, reducing the

FRIDAY, OCTOBER 16, 1903, maximum delivery and extending the time before is designated as Autumn Arbor Day, and superinthe minimum is reached.

tendents, teachers and pupils are asked to observe The influence which a liberal forested area the day by the planting of trees and by other suitexerts upon the run-off immediately following rain able exercises. is unquestionable, but in phenomenal rains, either

NATHAN C. SCHAEFFER, when enormous quantities fall within a limited

State Superintendent of Public Instruction. time, or when steady rains continue for days, freshets will occur in streams in thickly forested regions; but the maximum delivery at any time

Forests of the Philippines. may be expected to be decidedly less than in the open country. Forest areas will ameliorate, but D ROM the report of the Bureau of Forestry not prevent, freshets.

J. B.

of Philippine Islands, just issued, the fol

lowing has been excerpted :

The area of the Philippine Islands as given by Announcement of Autumn Arbor Day.

various Spanish engineers runs between a little less

than 70,000,000 to a little more than 73,000,000 I love the tree, 'tis old and gray, Has bent to storms in younger day,

acres. The forest area was estimated by Fernando But rose again to grow erect

Castro in 1890 at about 48,112,920 acres. This With every twig and leaf bedecked,

estimate includes all woodland, public and priWith nature's dress the sweeter.

vate. The area of private woodlands held under I love the one who like the tree

a good title is far below 1,000,000 acres. May bow the head or bend the knee,

As far as we can learn from the former forestry But when the storm of life is done

officials in these islands no scientific examination Will rise with victory grandly won

was ever made of the stand of timber. This To bless and help the weaker.

-7. W. Yones. work is now being carried on by field parties from

| the forestry bureau. The law wisely requires the observance of Arbor There are between 600 and 700 native tree Day in the public schools. The rapid destruction species, of which there is some information, but of our forests has alarmed the far-seeing citizens there is great confusion in both scientific and of the Commonwealth. The gradual purchase of popular names of tree species which it will take large tracts for forestry purposes is but the begin much time to correct. Upward of fifty species ning of what should be done to avert the scarcity | are found on an acre and several hundred species of timber and other attendant evils which threaten in a comparatively limited region. the material welfare of our people. The new A preliminary examination of the forests of the career which is opening to those who dedicate Philippines shows that they have been almost entheir lives to forestry, and the important service tirely destroyed in many places. This line of dewhich they can render to future generations, struction seems to follow the line of civilization. should be pointed out to the aspiring youth in our In Cebu—the first island settled by the Spaniards schools. Every boy and every girl should be -almost every stick of merchantable timber has taught how to plant and protect trees. The value been cut away, and no good reproduction has ever of trees for shade, for fruit and for industrial pur- | taken place. In Panay and Negros, as well as in poses should be duly emphasized. Their signifi many provinces of Luzon, very little merchantcance in the domain of the higher life, and the able timber of a high grade is to be found. use made of them in literature and ethical instruc A trip on the railway from Manila to Dagupan tion, should be brought to the notice of our young will not reveal much good timber within several people. The time is past when argument is miles of the road. In many of the islands the needed to show the importance of a proper ob- 1 good timber has been cut away for about three servance of Arbor Day in all the schools of miles back from the coast. But as we leave the America.

centres of civilization, we soon run into virgin Since many rural schools are not in session when forests, where the stand of timber over 20 inches the regular Arbor Day is observed, and since trees | in diameter averages in places close to 7000 cubic feet per acre; some sample acres show more than lands in the Philippines. Statistics of this office 10,000 cubic feet. In the total of forty odd mil- show that several hundred varieties of native lion acres of woodland, we find at the very least woods are brought to market in the islands and 20,000,000 acres of virgin forest. We find virgin are disposed of at a fair price. The government forests in the provinces of Cagayan, Isabela, Neuva charges for the past year on this great variety of Viscaya, and in that part of Tayabas, formerly woods averaged a little over 6 cents Mexican per known as Principe and Infanta ; in fact, the en- cubic foot Spanish. This charge has continued tire east coast of Luzon, south to Atimonan, is a to remain between 5 and 10 per cent. of the virgin forest. The above-mentioned forests in market price of timber in Manila. Luzon aggregate an area of at least 3,000,000 acres. It will be safe to assume an average stand of

The above is a conservative estimate, and any'3500 cubic feet English, or 4600 cubic feet change made later will, undoubtedly, be to increase Spanish, although the valuation surveys give the estimate instead of reducing it.

double this estimate of merchantable timber (over There is much merchantable timber left in the 20 inches in diameter) on each acre of the 20,provinces of Tayabas, Camarines, parts of Bula 000,000 acres of virgin forests in these islands. can, and Bataan.

At the above valuation of 6 cents per cubic The islands of Mindoro and Paragua, each con- foot, it is evident that the value to the Philiptaining an area of more than 2,000,000 acres, are pine government of the above timber is more than covered with a dense stand of virgin timber. $100 gold per acre. By removing this timber

Mindanao, with an area of 23,000,000 acres, under the supervision of forestry officials, each forcontains more than 10,000,000 acres of virgin est tract will gradually improve in value, and while forest. Samar and Leyte—both large islands- realizing the large sum mentioned, the value per are heavily timbered.

acre of public timber land will eventually approach Several hundred varieties of native woods are its true and permanent value, which will be much received in the Manila market during the year. nearer $200 gold per acre than $100 ; 10., after Spanish engineers tested and described only some the great mass of mature and overmature timber seventy varieties, so that we have many species in is removed, the revenue from the sale of the anthe market to-day that are not popular, owing to nual increase of growth of public timber will, unthe lack of reliable information concerning their der careful supervision, bring to the State a fair instrength, durability and suitability for construc terest on the valuation per acre as given above. tion purposes. Where strength and durability The remaining public woodland, about 28,are especially desired, there are no finer construc- 000,000 acres, will average in value not less than tion woods in the world to-day than molave, ipil one-half the value as given for the virgin forest. and yacal. There are many other native woods A small part of this remaining woodland will be which, when tested, will find a place with those taken up as mineral land and for agricultural purjust mentioned.

poses. After three centuries of civilization in We have a number of woods which will attract the islands, we find but 6,000,000 acres improved the fine-furniture makers, of which may be men out of a total area of 63,000,000 acres. It will tioned narra, tindalo, camagon, ebano, calaman- be safe to assume that the forestry bureau will sanay, tucan-calao, and alintatao. These varieties have at least 20,000,000 of the 28,000,000 acres are found all over the islands. There are also, to protect and improve for many years to come. eleven different oaks, cedar in abundance, teak, This area, added to the 20,000,000 acres of virgin and many other species awaiting investigation to forest, will give to the State an area of 40,000,000 bring out their value.

acres of valuable woodland. At this time no more than a mere mention will By diverting the efforts of the timber cutters to be made of the fact that there are large areas in the virgin forests, and by a rigid protection of the the southern islands of this group where gutta- remaining woodland, the value of the total area percha and a good quality of rubber are found. will, in about thirty years, reach a value undreamed The islands are rich in other gums, in a great va- of to-day by those not familiar with what rational riety of valuable dyewoods, and other forest prod forestry is capable of accomplishing. ucts that time and enterprise will develop.

At present very little cutting is going on in the virgin forests of the islands. Nearly all of the (The Bureau of Forestry of the Philippine cutting is found in those provinces and islands Islands is under the Bureau of Insular Affairs of which have been cut over for many years.

the War Department. Capt. George P. Ahern has It would be difficult at this time to even ap- been the efficient head of the Foresty Bureau since proximate the present value of the timber on public the islands were ceded to the United States.--En.)

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