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wardens for the proper care of the State Forestry , and it shall be their duty, immediately upon any Reservation lands, the said instruction not to cost such arrest, to take and convey the offender or a sum exceeding ten thousand dollars for the two offenders before a justice of the peace or other fiscal years ending June ist, one thousand nine magistrate having jurisdiction for hearing and hundred and five ; and the sum of sixteen thousand | trial, or other due process of law ; Provident, dollars, or so much thereof as may be necessary, is That this act shall extend only to the case of hereby appropriated out of moneys not otherwise offences committed upon said Forestry Reservaappropriated for said purposes, to be paid by war- ' tions and lands adjacent thereto ; and the powers rant drawn by the Auditor-General upon resolution herein conferred upon said officers shall not be of the State Forestry Reservation Commission. exercised beyond the limits thereof, except where
[This bill passed second reading and was re- necessary for the purpose of pursuing and arresting committed to the Committee on Appropriations. such offenders, or of conveying them into the -En.]
proper legal custody for punishment as aforesaid. House Bill No. 44.
SECTION 2.-All acts or parts of acts inconsistent Mr. A. R. Moore. of Potter Countv, in Place. Tan- | herewith be and the same are hereby repealed. uary 26, 1903.
[This bill is now on second reading.–Ed.] An act conferring upon persons employed under existing laws by the Commissioner of Forestry for
House Bill No. 47 the protection of State Forestry Reservations, after
Mr. 2. T. Moore, of Philadelphia, in Place, taking the proper oath of office, the same powers
January 20, 1903. as are by law conferred upon constables and other An act authorizing the Governor to appoint a peace officers to arrest, without first procuring a war- , Deputy Commissioner of Forestry and an addirant, persons reasonably suspected by them of of- . tional clerk in the office of the Commissioner fending against the laws protecting timber lands; of Forestry. also conferring upon them similar powers for the SECTION 1.-Be it enacted, etc., That on and enforcement of the laws and rules and regulations after the passage of this act the Governor be and for the protection of the State Forestry Reserva- he is hereby authorized to appoint a Deputy Comtions, and for the protection of the game and fish missioner of Forestry at a salary of twenty-five contained therein, and further conferring upon hundred dollars per annum, and an additional them power to convey said offenders into the pro- clerk in the office of the Commissioner of Forestry per legal custody for punishment; this act to apply at a salary of fifteen hundred dollars per annum. only to offences committed upon said reservations [This bill is now on second reading-En.] and lands adjacent thereto.
SECTION 1.-Be it enacteil, eti., That the persons employed under existing laws by the Com. | Last autumn, on October 28th, Mr. E. O. Paul, missioner of Forestry for the protection of State of the United States Geological Survey, measured Forestry Reservations shall, after taking the proper the water flow of the Bushkill Creek, near the official oath before the Clerk of the Court of Quar- home of Mr. Edwin Peters, which is about a mile ter Sessions of any county of the Commonwealth, above where the stream enters the Delaware River be vested with the same powers as are by existing --that is, in an air-line about seventy miles north laws conferred upon constables and other peace of the City of Philadelphia officers to arrest on view, without first procuring The month of October was chosen for the a warrant therefor, persons detected by them in work, because the flow of the stream was then the act of trespassing upon any forest or timber rather below than above the average. It was land within this Commonwealth under such cir- found that the quantity of water passing that cumstances as to warrant the reasonable suspicion point in twenty-four hours was 76,260,096 gallons. that such person or persons have committed, are In other words, the Bushkill Creek was furnishing committing or are about to commit some offence enough pure mountain water to supply a city of or offences against any of the laws now enacted or 762,600 inhabitants. hereafter to be enacted for the protection of for | The possible future importance of this to the ests and timber lands. Such officers shall like City of Philadelphia may be realized when we wise be vested with similar powers of arrest in the recognize the fact that the Bushkill is one of sevcase of offences against the laws or the rules and eral streams, all with pure water, which might be regulations enacted or to be enacted for the pro- | united into a water supply for our greatest citytection of the State Forestry Reservations, or for when Philadelphia, disgusted with filtering dirty the protection of the fish and game contained water, will demand, as none too good, filtered therein. Said officers shall further be empowered, ' pure water.
New Hampshire's Forests.
The Forest Policy of Pennsylvania.
THE forests of New Hampshire have a spe N January 23d, Mr. George H. Wirt, State cial interest to the people of the whole
Forester, under the joint auspices of the country. They are not so extensive as ! Franklin Institute and the Central Branch the Maine forests ; but they are nearer, and are | Y. M. C. A., gave an illustrated lecture on “ The more in the sight of a great number of tourists | Forest Policy of Pennsylvania,” at Association and summer dwellers in the State, who feel a kind i Hall, Philadelphia. The lecturer treated both of proprietary interest in them.
the past history, present conditions and needs of The first annual report of the Society for the forestry in Pennsylvania, of which some brief Protection of New Hampshire Forests has just abstracts are given : appeared. The society was organized in January “The definition, · Forestry is the proper handlast, and is hardly a year old, but it has been ac- ling of forest investments,' implies a revenue of tive and energetic, and has accomplished a good some sort. It may be money, sport, or protection bit of useful work.
to mountains. The society has had under advisement plans “The idea back of private investments is usufor a national park and forest reservation in the ally a pecuniary one. There must be some White Mountains, and has drafted a bill providing assurance of the safety of the investment and of for such preliminary examination by the State as a comparatively high rate of interest. Forestry, is necessary before Congress can be asked to take under existing conditions, promises neither; conaction. But already the Berlin Timber Land sequently, a forest owner takes both interest and Company has purchased the tract. desired, and capital from his forest as soon as possible. This has this winter begun operations.
rapid destruction of the forest results in waste It is feared that, if action of Congress must be land, floods and droughts, and in extreme changes waited for, the wood will be cut and used before of the local climate. it can be obtained ; but New Hampshire might “The State's duty is to provide for its own secure this park by State action.
welfare ; and when private individuals bring about This particular tract is not the only one that conditions which result in inconvenience to other the society desires to have preserved, but it is the individuals and a loss to the State, it is time for most extensive and is now imminently threatened. interference. This is the case in regard to Descriptions of some of the other valuable virgin forests. Either individuals must be restricted in forests are given.
their rights, or conditions must be made making There are in the report many things of practi another course of action preferable to individuals, cal value to persons who are contemplating the or the State itself must manage the forests, or a making of plantations, as well as to those who | part of them. It is to the advantage of the State have forest-covered land, and do not know how that each acre of ground yields its maximum reto deal with it in the best way. More than a turn, and its policy must have this ideal in view million and a half acres of New Hampshire farms at all times. have reverted from improved to unimproved land i “After two centuries of disregard for the since 1850. It is largely coming up to white policy of William Penn, which was that one-sixth pine. The problem is how to manage this crop of the Province should be left in woodland, the in the best way ; for the value of the forest crop people of the State awoke to the fact that their of the State, it is estimated, can be quadrupled forests were being destroyed at an alarming pace. with intelligent care. It is a difference to the Under the direction of the present Commissioner owner whether forest land is worth $2 or $200 an of Forestry, Dr. J. T. Rothrock, Pennsylvania acre. One of the interesting features of the re- | has made strides in the forestry movement. It is port is a brief study of the forest conditions in safe to say that this State is in the lead of those many townships. — Boston Traveler.
taking up forestry work, for there are no laws to impede the necessary progress, and public opinion demands that the work be pressed forward.
“What has been accomplished in the last “ The Washington Oak," near Fishkill, N. Y., 'quarter-century has been done with a very small under which Washington was wont to mount and appropriation and at a comparatively small exdismount his horse whenever (1782-1783) hel pense to the State. Laws giving protection from visited the troops encamped on Fishkill Plain, is fires and rebates of taxes on forest land make said to have a girth of trunk at the present time private forestry more profitable, and the State's of over twenty feet.
control of a considerable area of forest will insure
a continued industry to the State, purer water to tributed, but represented very nearly one-quarter the cities, and better health to the citizens, as 'acre. well as a money return to the treasury. The Two average sample trees cut in the spring State has purchased in the past two years 400,000 showed an age of 31 and 29 years, and an acres of land at an average price of about $1.90 annual growth-rate of 514 per cent. and 56 per per acre, and there is about as much more under cent., respectively. consideration.
The following table contains a summary of “Forestry is a business, and the perpetuation results : and utilization of our forests must be done on a | Area cut (approximately). . . . . 4 acre. practical, business basis.
Number of trees, .
: 100 “Of utmost importance is the continued edu Average diameter at breast-high,
8 inches. cation of the people. The children can be reached
Product in peeled wood, .
. I cords. Net return per cord, .
. . $3.14. by making Arbor Day popular ; and if the chil
Net income per acre for 30 years, . . . $138.52. dren of to-day realize the value of the forests, the forests of the future are safe. The farmers (The cords are each 160 cubic feet, as the pulp and older people can be reached by the Farmers' companies cut 5-foot sticks and count the cord Institutes. The farmers must be instructed not 4 ft. X 8 ft. X 5 ft. ) only in managing their wood lots, but also in If the rate of growth had kept up for 5 years making profitable their waste land by re-forest- longer, the last figure would have increased to at ation. It is estimated that 4,000,000 acres of least $175; but, as stated above, the trees were waste land are attached to the farms of Pennsyl- | nearly branchless, and so would doubtless have vania.
stopped rapid growth. They were too old to “For the management of the reserves it is recuperate. The ground is now thickly covered very important that forest surveys should be made with young trees of the same species, some seedat once, showing the location. kind and quality of lings, mostly root suckers, not stool shoots, which the timber. the boundaries. contours, roads. I will undoubtedly fill the openings in a short period streams, open fields, houses, etc. On each re- with a new crop of pulp-wood. A. S. H. serve there must be a trained forester, and on each 5000 acres there must be a ranger or warden, California Desires a School of Forestry. who should know every detail of his district. At times a superintendent, acquainted with local con- !
THE women of the California Club are agitatditions, is necessary to aid the forester in plan
ing the question of preventing destructive ning for and carrying out his work. Men for
- forest fires in this State, and providing for such positions are difficult to find. The State the reforesting of the great tracts of land that already has a reserve at Mont Alto, where work have been robbed of their trees by reason of fire has begun, and which is an ideal place to train or by the inroads of commerce. They believe men. A school of forestry has been proposed, that much good may be done by educating men and it should be established by the State on its to a scientific knowledge of forestry, and to this own land, where young men of the State can
end they are soliciting support of the following study the conditions under which they will have
bill, which will be presented to the Legislature to work.''
during the coming session :
Section 1. The sum of $25,000 is hereby apA Note on Cottonwood.
propriated out of any money in the State Treas
ury not otherwise appropriated, to be used for NLY a weed; not worth the cutting. This the establishment and support of a school of
represents the opinion of many con forestry in the State University of California ;
cerning the cottonwood, as the chop- $10,000 of said sum must be paid on the ist day pers call it, Populus grandidentata. And it was of July, 1903, and $15,000 on the ist day of truly a weed, a comparatively valueless species July, 1904. before the development of the wood-pulp in- ! Section 2. The Controller is authorized and dustry.
| directed to draw his warrants for the sums menA group of these trees was left in our woods tioned in the preceding section, payable to the (near Westtown, Pa.,) last spring by the sleet, al- order of the Treasurer of the University of most destitute of branches, so we decided to cut California, and the Treasurer of the State is them out. Some tulip poplar was cut, too, to ! directed to pay such warrants. make even carloads, but the account of Populus Section 3. This act shall be in effect from and was kept separate. The stand was unevenly dis- | after its passage. —San Francisco Chronicle.
-- --- ----Forest Meteorology.
· [The question whether forests exert an influ
ence on the annual rainfall can hardly'yet be con
sidered as settled, but Mr. de Bouville's observaAR R. DE DROUIN DE BOUVILLE (see ' tions merit careful consideration. --En.] VI Bul. Min. Agr. (France), 201 (1901), 6 No. 2, states that at the National School
__ o of Forestry, observations have been continually made since 1867 to ascertain the effect exerted by Pennsylvania Forest Reserves. forests on rainfall and upon a supply of subterranean water. Three stations were maintained, one CY OVERNOR WM. A. STONE, in his messelected to represent a dense forest of deciduous
C sage to the Legislature, says : trees, the second a less heavily-timbered region, The State has been buying forest lands in while the third was an agricultural region of con | large tracts at reasonable prices as rapidly as siderable extent, taken to represent an area free
| they could be secured. As a result, it now owns from the influence of forests. While there was or has under contract 572,722 acres. The averconsiderable variation in the total rainfall from
age cost for all this land' will not exceed $2 year to year, the relative proportion measured at per acre, and, if it desired to do so, the State the different stations was about the same. For could dispose of its holdings at a large advance. thirty-three years the relative proportion of water These forests are scattered over the State, and will on the three different areas above described was in time be the source of considerable revenue. 100, 93.9, and 76.7, showing that, in general, i As fast as the timber becomes marketable, it forests increase the rainfall over a given area, and i should be sold on the stump. Not only have this increase seems to be about in proportion to lands been acquired, but scientific reforestation the extent and density of the forest.
has been commenced. Within two years oneIn order to ascertain whether the winds exerted, half million white pine trees will be ready for any appreciable effect on the amount of rain fall- transplanting. These reservations will have an ing, records for eleven years show that practically ! influence upon the water supply, and incidentally the same proportion stated above is shown for the benefit agriculture in every locality. They will rainfall of the different stations, no matter what preserve the forest streams; and afford places of the direction of the wind.
recreation and amusement to those who desire to The effects of cold and hot seasons, of great 'hunt, camp and fish. Many millions of dollars and small rainfall, are shown, but practically the are spent for parks in large cities of the State. same relative quantity of water fell at the differ- These reservations are nature's parks, belonging ent stations. With slight variation there was no to the people, far preferable in my judgment to appreciable difference in the action of the forest artificial parks. They are provided for their in winter or summer, the average precipitation i recreation at a very small expense. The reservabeing about the same for each season. In dry tions have also been opened up, under certain seasons the relative precipitation over forested restrictions, as outing grounds for indigent sufareas was little, if any, greater than during periods ferers from pulmonary tuberculosis and other disof heavy rain.
eases, where they can live in cabins as economicInvestigations were conducted to determine the ally as they choose. This plan has been eminently amount of rain-water intercepted by the forests successful and has attracted wide attention. for thirty-two years. In the densely-covered for- If the reservations are to receive proper care est, small areas were cleared of trees and compari- and the unwooded areas are to be redeemed as sons made between the amount of water reaching forests, it is important that early steps be taken in the soil in these areas and those where the timber this direction. The recommendation of the Comwas not removed. In the dense forest the amount ; missioner that a School of Forestry be located at of water intercepted by the trees varied from a Mont Alto, where all the conditions are favorable, minimum in winter to a maximum of 14.3 per is entitled to your serious consideration. Such a cent. of the total rainfall. At the second station school would, in my judgment, yield many times the amount of water intercepted attained a maxi-, its cost in benefit to the State. The students mum of 16.6 per cent.
could combine study with actual labor upon the The evaporation taking place from the soil in reservations, and become in the best sense pracwooded and cleared areas was investigated by tical foresters to be later placed in charge of the means of atmidometers; by which it was found State lands in other sections of the Commonwealth. that the evaporation was considerably greater in In no other way could the work be done so cheaply open areas than in those under forest cover. and so thoroughly.
Our Waning Water-Power.. to be prodigal upon), and we have been an emi
nent example of the law. There may be, there ITTHE recent coal strike, however unfortunate doubtless are, many unknown forces surrounding
1 it has been in some respects, has not been us, with which we have not to-day the slightest
s wholly bad. In fact if we heed its lessons i acquaintance. But we have no right to assume it may prove to have been a great blessing in dis- that we can avail ourselves of these when they are guise. It at least has opened our eyes to the fact needed, because we know nothing of their nature that it is exceedingly hard at present to get on and they may prove wholly intractable. Light is without anthracite coal. Our vision is short- intangible. It is about us everywhere. We live sighted, indeed, if the present scarcity of anthra- in it. We can wave our hand through it and cite does not lead us to look forward and ask recognize no resistance from it. Yet this same “What are we to do when the supply shall have , ray of light can pass almost undimmed through a been exhausted ?" It is nothing to the purpose to block of glass which is solid enough to resist the reply that it may be a century before this will passage of a modern high-powered bullet. But happen. The citizen who, having none of the we need force in some such form that it can be cares of public life to be responsible for, can con- used to furnish motion and power for the manusole himself thus, has surely so little regard for facturer. We do not know that we can ever do posterity that he is hardly entitled to the bless- this with light. This is an illustration of the ings which have reached him by inheritance. principle that we can only count on certainties. The publicist or the statesman who fails to an- We can only bank on what we have! ticipate and provide, in advance, for this contin-! We know we have power everywhere present in gency in the life of the State or the Nation can water, whether it be the slow-flowing, placid hardly be considered a safe man to trust with stream, the mountain torrent, or the waterfall. public interests, because the very first duty of the We know that we once used it when it was abunState is to insure its own perpetuity. If govern-dant and coal was not available. We may readily ment fails, the hope of the individual is gone. anticipate that we shall again have to use what There can be but little incentive to private thrift remains of it when coal becomes too expensive for when there is no assurance that the fruits of our general use in production of power. industry and economy will be surely and safely Į There seems to be no possibility that we transmitted to those who are our natural or lawful, can increase the rainfall, for we have no control heirs.
of the sun's heat, by which the invisible vapor is Indeed, it is no stretch of the imagination to | lifted from the water surfaces of the earth to the recognize that even the supply of bituminous coal clouds, to be condensed and to fall again as rain. will be exhausted eventually, and that the time to It is true that we may hoard our water-power in provide for any economic strain which may result vast reservoirs against a time of need, but that therefrom is in advance.
| involves an incredible cost, and also a subsequent Whether the exhaustion of either or both (an- loss of available power by evaporation from the thracite or bituminous coal) is near or remote, water surface so produced. the fact must be clear that henceforth both will ! Nature's storehouse in the ground is not only command higher prices than hitherto, and by just the best place to hoard sufficient water-power, but so much must those power-requiring industries in it is practically the only place. It is well for us which there is a narrow margin of profit look in to remember the surest guide to conduct the largest some other direction for the power which they quantity of water into the ground (where it is need.
secure against waste by immediate “run-off” and This problem has already presented itself to by evaporation) is the forest. There are many some of the great manufacturing interests of New points in regard to rainfall and conservation of England. Their ultimatum is, “Protect our the water that reaches the earth's surface which water-power, or we must move to where we can are uncertain ; but there is no doubt about the obtain it.''
statement that the forest is the very best protecThe reason that hitherto this alternative has tion for our water-power. not presented itself to the people of this State is Sad indeed will be the condition of Pennsylvabecause we have lived within easy reach of the nia if we delay restoration of our timber areas cheap power abundance of coal furnished. That until the demand for water-power is actually upon it will never present itself no one believes ! us. It would mean a period of at least from a
The time has come in which we must husband quarter to half a century of depression of our our resources: Young nations all pass through a industries until this forest cover could be placed period of prodigality (if they have the resources upon the ground. The only wise policy is one