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night. This fire is never allowed to flame, other- by introducing several drying-frames, one above wise the lower layer of chestnuts in the upper the other. The cost of either of these oven-plants chambers would have a reddish color and scorched is about 150 francs in Italy. flavor.
However, as the chestnuts are marketed without The workman watching the fire always has a wet the hull and inner skin, the labor of drying does rag on the end of a pole at hand in order to ex- not finish the preparation. Just as soon as the tinguish the fire in case the boards on which the chestnut is dry enough the work of the peeler bechestnuts rest become ignited.
gins. While still warm they are placed in a morIn order to insure uniform drying, the chestnuts tar, and are knocked open by hand withi wooden at first must not be piled higher than 25-30 cen shoes or small clubs, or are placed in a sack and timetres upon this primitive roaster, but little by beaten against a wooden block, or they are placed little, by gradual heaping, the pile may reach a in barrels and pounded with cudgels or iron-headed height of i metre. For the fire, a kind of wood sticks, or finally they are spread on the ground and must be used which produces little flame and much trodden on by men and women wearing wooden smoke. The wood is covered with the chestnut-shoes, or are hammered with a wooden mallet. hulls of a previous season. It is started at first This process, however, only removes the outer only in the middle, but, as the quantity of chestnuts hull.' There is still an inner skin which clings to is increased, it is lighted in different places, so the chestnut, but by the process above described that the roasting-board above may be kept evenly the most of it is removed. heated.
In many places, as in the region of Lucca and This simple and inexpensive affair, which is in Pistoia, this chestnut-peeling is a regular festival. use from 20-30' or perhaps 40 days of the last 3 The women and children all take part in the work, months of the year, is in Italy the commonest kind. and at the end there is a gay carousal, when they
Owners of large and rich chestnut woods could, dance about the oven amid jests and shouts of with advantage, use more perfect ovens, which nat laughter. urally are more expensive, but which render it After the coarser parts are removed, considerapossible, for example, to keep the first chestnuts ble time is still required to sort and cleanse the separate, since these are considered choicer in product. For example, a man in one day can requality than those which are produced later. move the hulls from 300 weight in a mortar, but They permit also of a better utilization of the he needs a second day to sort the product. At fuel. Such improved drying-machines are found a second sorting the imperfect chestnuts are colin Corsica and in Limousin. The oven, which is lected, boiled and often mixed with horse-chestlocated outside the peasant's cabin, allows heated, nuts, and fed as mast to swine and oxen, or are smokeless air to stream into the drying-chamber, ground and fed to chickens and turkeys. and thus refutes the prejudice of the peasants of The process reduces 3 hectolitres of fresh chestItaly, that smoke contributes to the drying-process. nuts, weighing 61 kg., to i hectolitre of dried
Donati, Professor of Agriculture in Bastia, Cor- fruit, weighing 51 kg. sica, has prepared an oven with cast-iron fire These dried chestnuts are now in condition to be chambers, in which any desired fuel may be used, ground into four, which, if carefully preserved, such as chestnut shells, olive seeds, etc.
may be kept good for several years. Above the arched fire-chamber is a double-spaced Little need be said in reference to the use of compartment in which the air is heated. The chestnuts as food. Raw, dried and fresh, they second compartment consists of pipes, through are a very palatable and economical article of diet. which the heated air ascends to the drying. The fresh chestnuts are boiled either with or withchamber above, while smoke and gas escape out the hulls, or are roasted in the hull in the wellthrough the chimney. A damper serves to regu- known perforated pans or in hot ashes, forming a late the draft and also the fire. The hot air flows tempting morsel for both rich and poor. In Italy into the drying-chamber through two openings, they are found especially on the table of the man which can be regulated by the dampers, and the who farms the land on shares. During the entire chestnuts rest upon the net-work, forming a layer harvest he gorges himself with chestnuts and wine, 50 centimetres thick at the most. A valve offers because the proprietor, in dividing the crop, does means of escape for the steam arising from the not take into account the quantity eaten during chestnuts while drying. This oven, which in case the harvesting process. of need can be used for drying other fruits, is A special method of preparation is common in adapted to a crop averaging not more than 100 Limousin, where, after boiling the fresh chestnuts hectolitres.
for a quarter of an hour, they are put in an oven For larger crops Donati has modified his oven from which the bread has been removed an hour
. before. After being dried in this manner they can | nut trees in the twelve regions of Italy, yielding be kept a long time in a dry place. When eaten 5,768,347 kilozentners of nuts. warm, they are put in a double-boiler and | The average yield per hectare is 11.63“ kilosteamed, or, if preferred cold, are simply placed zentner.” for several days in a damp place.
The market price of chestnuts in the hull Chestnut flour has been known from time imme- varies according to region and quality between morial here and there throughout Europe. It is 8 and 14 francs. made into a broth, or into a dough mixed with Chestnuts from the region of Avellino, Salerno, cacas, sugar, rice or potato flour. It is eaten with Lucca, Massa Carrara, Modena and Pisa are the spice in milk and in soups, and is variously known most highly prized. Those which come from as “Racahout,” “ Palamoud,” “ Kaiffa,” etc. Sardinia, Apulia and from Venetia are less highly Every one familiar with Italy knows the chestnut esteemed. cake, “ Castagnaccio," a mixture of water, chest 1 The importation of chestnuts into Italy is natnut flour, nuts, pine nuts and raisins, which is urally small. The export, on the other hand, cooked with oil in a frying-pan, and the “ Po increases from year to year. In 1870 it was lenta," a sweetish and easily digestible dish, which 4,767,000 kg. ; in 1898 it increased to 16,558,000 is the principal article of diet of the poor moun kg. Chestnut culture has, without doubt, a great taineers during the long winter months, and in future in Italy if it is perfected and extended. spring when the wheat crop has failed.
The Government seeks to aid this industry by In Corsica and the mountains of Calabria a spe- distributing gratuitously from its nurseries young cies of sweetish and quite palatable bread is made chestnut plants. Private parties may thus obtain from chestnut flour, which is not as hard as ordi- | plant material free of charge at the nearest railnary bread, and which keeps well for several days. | road station. In Corsica it is made once a week. Five kg. of flour and two litres of water form a dough, which
New Members of the Pennsylvania Foris mixed with ordinary yeast and allowed to raise
estry Association. over night. In many other parts of Italy a paste or dough called “nicci” or “necci” (an abbreviation of castagnaccio) is prepared, which takes
M HE following persons have joined the Pennthe place of bread in the mountains. The dough
sylvania Forestry Association since the of flour and water is formed into round cakes 1-3
issue of August, 1902 : Alan, W. A.,
Ashland, Pa. centimetres thick and 15 centimetres in diameter.
Arnold, Paul E.,
Mont Alto, Pa. These cakes are wrapped in the scalded leaves of
Baird, Mrs. Edgar W.,
Merion, Pa. the chestnut, which have been kept for the pur Barclay, Charles F.,
Sinnamahoning, Pa. pose, since it is believed that they impart a special
Barr, J. Carroll, aroma to the cakes, and then they are cooked be
806 Bank for Savings Building, Pittsburgh, Pa. Bateson, D. J. C.,
Scranton, Pa. tween hot stones.
Beaumont, E. B., 54 W. Union St., Wilkes Barre, Pa. Besides these uses of the chestnut are the Beck, Mrs. Elizabeth S., 1235 Maple Ave., Evanston, Ill. “marrons glaces" (candied chestnuts), a brandy, | Birkinbine, Carl P.,
Cynwyd, Pa. which, according to Palmiera, is made in Prussia,
Birkinbine, Miss Mary L.,
Cynwyd, Pa. Booth, Edwin R.,
Mt. Pocono, Pa. and sugar, which is extracted in the proportion of
Bray, W. R.,
Freeland, Pa. 6 per cent.
Brown, A. M.,
Pennsylvania Furnace, Pa. It is perhaps needless to say that the flour is Brown, Amos P., 20 E. Penn St., G’t’n, Phila., Pa.
Bruncken, Ernest, manufactured from the dry nuts just as grain and
Biltmore, N. C.
| Comegys, Mrs. W. D., other materials of a similar nature are ground.
12 Chestnut St., Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia, Pa. As to the nutritive value of chestnuts when Cope, Mrs. Walter, East Johnson St., G't'n, Phila., Pa. fresh, according to Ridolfi, they bear the propor
Corson, Walter H.,
Plymouth Meeting, Pa. tion of 3 : 10, and when dried, 4:10 to wheat.
Dickson, Alexander W., 616 Quincy St., Scranton, Pa.
Dickson, Arthur G., 75 Bullitt Building, Philadelphia, Pa. Gasparin, who, however, only considers their
Dickson, William B., Empire Building, New York, N. Y. nitrogenous contents, declares the nutritive value Dodge, James M., of 2.25 hectolitres of fresh chestnuts equivalent
Link-Belt Engineering Co., Nicetown, Phila., Pa. to that of 1 hectolitre of wheat.
DuBois, Miss Mary L.,
Elkinton, Joseph, Both figures demonstrate, without doubt, that the
18 West St., Media, Pa. Fitzgerald i'
Catasauqua, Pa. nutritive content is small enough, and that where Freeman, Miss Isabel Coleman,
Cornwall, Pa. chestnut flour replaces wheat, abundant milk and Fritz, John,
Bethlehem, Pa. cheese must be consumed.
Gangwer, Samuel W.,
Goldsmith, Miss Minnie R., There are 495,794 hectares planted in chest
425 Wyoming Ave., Scranton, Pa. Gould, H. C., U. S. Engineers' Office, Pittsburgh, Pa., Scull, A. P.,
The Gladwyn, Atlantic City, N. J. Granger, A. O.,
Cartersville, Ga. Semple, Mrs. Matthew, 1910 Spruce St., Phila., Pa. Griscom, Miss F. C., Jr., Haverford, Pa. Sevin, Joseph C.,
Leetsdale, Pa. Hageman, Mrs. John F., Jr., 1406 Spruce St., Phila., Pa. Shafer, H. C.,
Scranton, Pa. Hart, Edward, Easton, Pa. Shenk, Christian,
Lebanon, Pa. Hawkins, Edgar H.,
Cadwallader, Pa. Sherwood, W. L., 102 Waverley Place, New York, N. Y. Hearne, F. J.,
Smedley, Samuel L.,
Bala, Pa. Woodland Road and Murray Hill Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa. Smith, Mrs. Winthrop,
Glenside, Pa. Holmes, Joshua M.,
Oak Lane, Philadelphia, Pa. Smyth, Mrs. Emily B., 921 N. Broad St., Phila., Pa. Hoover, T. B.,
Wellsville, Pa. Spear, James, Jr., 1014 Market St., Philadelphia, Pa. Hoover, T. L., Wellsville, Pa. Spencer, P. J.,
Grampian, Pa. Hubbard, Russell S., 228 Manheim St., G't'n, Phila., Pa. Siager, Harry M., 1128 Fifth Ave., New Brighton, Pa. Huey, Miss Helen, 57th St. and Elmwood Ave., Phila., Pa. Stephenson, Franklin Bache,
Prout's Neck, Me. Hutchinson, Pemberton S., 1835 Pine St., Phila., Pa. Stevens, Samuel H., 447 Clay Ave., Scranton, Pa. Irwin, Miss Sophy Dallas,
Swain, Miss Sarah A., 2011 DeLancey Place, Philadelphia, Pa.
36 N. Iowa Ave., Atlantic City, N. J. Jones, Edward Russell, 2312 Delancey Place, Phila., Pa. Swank, James M., 261 S. 4th St., Philadelphia, Pa. Kane, Elisha K., Kushequa, Pa. Sweeny, Harry E.,
Drifton, Pa. Keighley, Fred. C.,
Uniontown, Pa. Sylvester, Louis G., 306 Webster Ave., Scranton, Pa. Kennedy, Frank G., Jr.,
Burnham, Pa. Taylor, Thomas B., 918 Stephen Girard Bldg., Phila., Pa. Lane, Cornelius A., 718 Spruce St., Philadelphia, Pa. Thomson, Miss Anne,
Merion, Pa. Larkin, Madison F., Scranton, Pa. Torrance, Francis J.,
Pittsburgh, Pa. Lea, Charles M., 708 Sansom St., Philadelphia, Pa. Trautwein, A. P., Belmont Water Co., Carbondale, Pa. Leeds, Arthur M., 3221 N. 17th St., Philadelphia, Pa. Trimble, William,
Concord, Pa. Leffman, Henry, M.D., 119 S. 4th St., Philadelphia, Pa. Trimmer, Daniel K.,
York, Pa. Leonhart, Arno, 125 S. 5th St., Philadelphia, Pa. Wagner, K. Rudolf,
Economy, Pa. Lippincott, Samuel P., Wincote, Pa. Warne, Mrs. William B.,
Paoli, Pa. Livesey, John, Allen's Lane, Mt. Airy, Philadelphia, Pa. Warner, Win. Y.,
Eaglesmere, Pa. Livingston, John Henry,
Watkins, T. H.,
P.O. Box 545, Scranton, Pa. Clermont, Tivoli-on-Hudson, N. Y. i Wayne, Miss Frances C., 4249 Walnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. Lloyd, C. G., 224 W. Court St., Cincinnati, O. Weiss, Samuel, M.D.,
Lebanon, Pa. Loeb, H.,
1822 N. 17th St., Philadelphia, Pa. Wentling, J. P., Bureau of Forestry, Washington, D. C. Magee, Horace, 1720 Walnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. Wetherell, Mrs. M. S., 234 N. 20th St., Philadelphia, Pa. Mann, Charles S.,
Maple Glen, Pa. White, Mrs. R. P., 2024 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. Markle, Alvan,
Hazleton, Pa. White, Stephen W., Broad St. Station, Philadelphia, Pa. Mead, J. J.,
Pittsburgh, Pa. Whiting, Charles Perot, 1523 Spruce St., Philadelphia, Pa. Merrick, Mrs. E. M., 5373 Chew St., G'i'n, Phila., Pa. Williams, Ira Jewell, Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia, Pa. Moore, Miss Harriett,
New Lexington, Pa. Williamson, James Pryor, Morse, Leonard K.,
Westmoreland Club, Wilkes Barre, Pa. care of Thos. Meehan & Sons, Germantown, Phila., Pa. | Wirt, J. R.,
McVeytown, Pa. Morse, Mrs. Leonard K.,
Wister, Mrs. 0. J., 436 Carpenter St., Germantown, Phila., Pa.
Butler Place, Logan Station, Philadelphia, Pa. Murray, Gilbert D., M.D., 436 Wyoming Ave., Scranton,Pa. Wood, Edward R., 400 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. McCready, R. T., Edgeworth, Pa. Wood, Theo. M.,
Chambersburg, Pa. McCutchen, Wm., 307 Fourth Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa. | Wright, W. D. Craig, 2023 Walnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. McIlvain, Hugh, 60th St. and Elmwood Ave., Phila., Pa., Ziegler, George, 1001 S. 47th St., Philadelphia, Pa. McKenzie, F. A.,
Lansdowne, Pa. McKnight, M. Brayton,
Italics indicate life members. McLanahan, J. King,
Hollidaysburg, Pa. Newbold, Miss Edith,
Press reports from Butte, Mont., are to the S. E. cor. 13th and Locust Sts., Philadelphia, Pa.
effect that the United States Government has in Nimick, Mrs. F. B., 6315 Fifth Ave., E.E., Pittsburgh, Pa. Nissley, John C., 29 N. Second St., Harrisburg, Pa.
stituted suit in the Federal court for $2,000,000, Norris, Charles, 617 Walnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. the value of timber alleged to have been unlawPalmer, Mrs. Henry W.,
Wilkes Barre, Pa. fully cut from the public domain in western MonPepper, Mrs. David, Jr.,
tana. The strip of territory denuded is from one to "Overlea," Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia, Pa. Reath, Mrs. E. H., 1538 Pine St., Philadelphia, Pa.
six miles wide and fifty to seventy-five miles long, Reynolds, Miss E.,
Chestnut Hill, Phila., Pa. mostly along the Bitter Root river. It is alReynolds, H. C., 602 Mears Building, Scranton, Pa. leged by the special prosecutor that the defendRicketts, Miss Frances Leigh,
Wilkes Barre, Pa. Ricketts, Miss Jean,
ants tried to conceal their identity by organizing
Wilkes Barre, l'a. Ricketts, Wm. R.,
Wilkes Barre, Pa.
| and reorganizing under different corporate names. Roop, Joseph C., 2006 Wallace St., Philadelphia, Pa. | The greater part of the alleged depredation was Rosengarten, George D., 258 S. 21st St., Philadelphia, Pa.
done by the Anaconda and Bitter Root developRosengarten, Mrs. Frank H., 1905 Walnut St., Phila., Pa.
ment companies before the organization of the Rothrock, Miss Elizabeth May,
West Chester, Pa.
Cadwallader, Pa. If the Government is to protect its timber land, Sautter, Christian L., 1421 Locust St., Philadelphia, Pa. it is well that action be taken against prominent Schmidt, John G., 2007 N. Broad St., Philadelphia, Pa.
elphia, Pa. offenders, rather than against others less known.
offenders rather than against others less known
Arizona's Petrified Forests. | all its sections continuously placed and in contact,
I paced from end to end 130 paces-probably, at 1 R. ALFRED FREE, in the Republi- least, 360 feet. The smaller branches, if they were
can, thus describes these wonderful for- ever silicified, have been broken into tiny fragests :
ments that now strew the surface of the valley. “We left the train at Holbrook for a visit to All the concentric layers of wood that mark the the great petrified forests-one of the most re- annual growth of the trees are clearly shown by markable natural curiosities in the world. After the varying hues and tints of the stone, and offer a breakfast the party was loaded into canvas a most interesting study to the lithologist, as well covered wagons, commonly known as 'prairie as a never-ending source of surprise and wonder schooners,' and set forth upon a ride of about to the mere sightseer. 16 miles, to the rim of a great mesa, where the "The petrified forest is now one of the reserva. largest portion of the petrified forest has been laid tions of the National Government, and is protected bare. There are several other points in Navajo from the vandalism that might otherwise, in time, County where fossil trees are exposed. But the mar some of its singular beauty. Before the subgreater extent of the Holbrook forest, as well as sidence of the land which bore these forests there the richer and more diversified coloring of the was abundant life here, that was buried beneath fossil wood, make this the more desirable point at the inrushing waters as the land slowly sank and which to study this marvel of nature. Ascending the great trees toppled to their overthrow. the northeastern rim of the mesa, which is still Through long ages the ocean detritis was dropped capped with the sandstone in place, one has before through yielding waters, grain by grain, until the him a vast depression of some 3500 or 4000 acres great sandstone stratum was piled upon these fallen in extent, thickly strewn with the trunks of great monarchs of the primeval forest. Then followed silicified trees. These seem originally to have lain an age of slow uplifting that drained off the just below the capping stratum of sandstone. As waters, and then the erosion by stream and storm the penetrating water-flow cut out the softer mate that at last restored these buried giants to the light rial underneath the sandstone, the trees and their of day. But what mind is able to grasp this aprocky covering dropped into the valley-like de- palling procession of the ages ?'' pression that was produced. Around the rim of the valley many large tree trunks protrude from beneath the sandstone for several feet, entirely unsupported at their free ends. These seem to have been originally a variety of conifer, or perhaps to
Forestry as an Aid to Irrigation. have been related to the great redwoods, Sequoia sempervirens, of California. They undoubtedly MHE National Irrigation Congress held its belong to the carboniferous age, and are a portion
eleventh meeting on September 15 to 18, of that vast forest which once grew in this now
1903, at Ogden, Utah. President Roosetreeless waste, and that went to form the great velt was unable to be present, but sent a telegram, coal measures that underlie its surface.
speaking of the benefit to be derived from irriga“The texture and form of the dead trees are tion, and in closing stated : clearly discernible, every fibre of the wood trans | “The irrigation development of the arid West formed into gleaming agate, jasper, sard, carnelian cannot stand alone. Forestry is the companion or chalcedony. The colors most prominent are and support of irrigation. Without forestry irrireds and browns, with occasional blue and green gation must fail. Permanent irrigation developtints, interspersed with translucent, colorless chal- ment and forest destruction cannot exist together. cedony. The heart of some logs is a mass of Never forget that the forest reserve policy of the sparkling crystals of quartz, occasionally showing National Government means the use of all the reamethystine tints. At one point these great logs sources of the forest reserves. There is little lie so close together as to remind one of the yard profit in destruction compared with use. The of the sawmill, where the logs have been rolled settlement of the great arid West by the makers together to await the saw. They are usually of homes is the central object, both of the irrigabroken into sections of not more than 8 or 10 tion and the forest policy of the United States. feet in length, as squarely across the fibre as if In forestry, as in irrigation, the immediate private separated by the woodman's crosscut saw. Some interests of some individual must occasionally have been discovered that measured 20 feet in di- yield to their permanent advantage, which is the ameter at their base, and at a break 100 feet from public good. The benefits of forestry are not the base to feet in diameter. One that lies with only for the future, but for the present. The forest reserves are for all the people, but first for the result of forest destruction and deterioration, the people in the immediate neighborhood, for and recommends the improvement of the woodwhom supplies of wood and water are among the land connected with the farms, suggesting methods first necessities of life. With the wiser and more for such improvement; 4 plates and 2 maps skilful management of the reserves by trained men illustrate the report. the greater, obviously, will their usefulness be to the public.
Fourteenth Annual Report of the Missouri Bo“We must never allow our chagrin at tempo
| tanical Garden, St. Louis, Mo. 8vo., 316 pages, rary defeat and difficulties in the management of
bound in cloth. Illustrated. the forest reserves to blind us to the absolute ne
Mr. William Trelease, Director, reports a graticessity of these reserves to the people of the West.
fying increase in the number of species of plants Support of the forest reserve policy has grown
under cultivation, as well as in the income. The with wonderful rapidity in the West during the
library and herbarium also received large additions. last few years. It will continue to grow until the
The greater portion of the Report is taken up by last vestige of opposition, now almost gone, has
a “ Synopsis of the Genus Louicera,” by Alfred wholly disappeared before the true understanding
Rehder, and "a Supplementary Catalogue of the of the object and the effect of the forest reserva
Sturtevant Prelinnean Library,” by C. E. Hutchtion. The greater the support of the forest
ings. reservation by the people of the West, the greater the assurance that the national irrigation policy will not fail, for the preservation of the forests is vital to the success of this policy.'
On the farm of Jacob Stetzler, Perry township, near Moselem, Pa., is a botanical curiosity in the shape of a trunk of a Juneberry tree, entirely
imbedded in the trunk of a white oak tree. Eight New Publications.
feet from the ground the two trees again separate
and are then several feet apart. Each tree bears A Working Plan for Forest Lands in Hampton its fruit-berries and acorns—as if they had never and Beaufort Counties, South Carolina. Bulletin
met each other. The berry tree is full of fine43, Bureau of Forestry, Department of Agricul- | flavored berries. — Public Ledger. ture, Washington, D. C. 12mo., 54 pages. Illustrated.
We are glad to advise our readers that the proThis monograph was prepared by Mr. Thomas
posed Forestry School at Mont Alto, Pa., for H. Sherrard, giving the results of an examination
which an appropriation was made at the last by the Forestry Bureau of 60,000 acres of land
meeting of the Legislature, is now in successful belonging to the Okeetee Gun Club. The tract
operation. In a subsequent issue we expect to of land is described, the original and present for
give full particulars. est are treated of, together with a statement of the effects of lumbering and turpentining, fire, etc. A list and description of the different forest trees Prof. H. A. Surface, Pennsylvania's Economic are given, together with a working plan, sug | Zoologist, is issuing a monthly Bulletin, making gestions for fire protection, lumbering, etc. ; 12 seasonable suggestions. Among other points may plates, 11 diagrams and i map aid in an under be mentioned that, in October, the Fall Canker standing of the report.
worm climbs the trees and deposits her eggs on
the branches in conspicuous white masses, which The Diminished Flow of the Rock River in may be destroyed by spraying or painting with Wisconsin and Illinois and its Relation to the Sur- kerosene (50 per cent.), whale-oil soap, soft soap, rounding Forests. Bulletin 44, Bureau of For- , crude petroleum, dilute carbolic acid, lye, strong estry, Department of Agriculture, Washington, whitewash, etc. The ascent of the worms may D. C. 8vo., 27 pages. Illustrated.
be prevented by banding the trees at once with Mr. G. Frederick Schwarz made a detailed in- tar, sticky fly-paper, fresh paint, etc., being revestigation of the Rock River and its diminished newed to keep them fresh and effective. The flow. Briefly, his conclusions are that the stream- bag worm, which can be killed by spraying with flow might be made more nearly constant by the arsenites, such as I pound of Paris green to 150 erection of storage reservoirs. Another method gallons of water during the feeding season, is of equalizing the flow is through the agency of quite conspicuous in October, and can be reforest growth, the present condition being largely | moved by hand.