« PreviousContinue »
stone appears. This splendid background of green white petals; for July there are sweet Williams, and bears the English ivy, the Virginia creeper, and poppies, and pinks; hollyhocks and corn-flowers, the trumpet vine, in several layers; and in the late and phlox, for August; dahlias, chrysanthemums, summer is brightened by the red flowers of the and I know not what more, each in its turn, so that last named, in the fall is gorgeous with the creeper, at no time is any bed without blossom of some kind. and all winter long keeps green and young with See that stump covered with the graceful tendrils the old vine of England. The stable, of which of an Akebia quinata. How it stands a silent this wall forms the rear, is probably the oldest of monument, for years to come, of a once well bethe farm buildings standing ; but so skilfully are loved tree, perhaps, torn down too soon by the they all hidden from the garden that one is dis- ruthless winter storm. posed at first sight to believe that this great ivy Over the lawn, too, the trees and shrubs are screen must have been erected specially to hold i planted with the same end in view ; at one season the vines. The age of the building may be the horse-chestnuts, in blossom, make the landroughly gauged by the size of the roots of the scape beautiful ; then the catalpas, the spireas, the vines it supports; some of these are a foot in dogwood, the lilacs, and the various fruit trees; circumference. The whole garden, containing the gaudy parti-colored flowers of the tulip trees; over an acre of land, is enclosed on three sides the various other magnolias, mentioned above; by walls : above, on the west, by the ivied stable ; each of these in its turn comes forth from the to the south by a stone wall five feet high, or mass of green and bears its part in the adoration over, with arbors set in its embrace at the ends of of nature. Nor have the varied shades of green the paths; and below by a sunk wall, topped by which trees afford been neglected : before us at one a ten-foot hedge of hawthorne and mock-orange, glance are seen the bright bluish-green of the Dougthe house itself enclosing the garden on its fourth las spruce, the dark and shiny hue of the silver fir, side. Beside this sunk fence is a second gravel the lighter slatier green of the Austrian pine; the walk, and along it, hidden in the shade of large rich green of the several deciduous trees, and the trees, will be seen a beautiful flowering swamp gloomy, almost black, shade of the Norway spruce; magnolia ; while on the main gravel walk is first while far away, over the tops of these nearer trees, a large Magnolia tri-petala, with its large um we behold the massive clumps of forest on the surbrella-like leaves ; secondly, a Magnolia acumi- rounding hills ; and when nature in autumn nata, or cucumber tree, whose red seed-vessels touches all this foilage with her brush of gold and in their season make a glorious show against the red new beauties spring before our eyes each sucsombre green of its leaves ; next to this comes cessive morning. the pride of the garden, the largest Gingko tree As we stand at the southern end of the garden, (Salisburia japonica) we know, with a trunk looking back at the house, how nearly hidden in seven feet and more in circumference, Ainging its trees it seems : beyond, the forest on the fantastic branches widely over the neighboring height; clear against this wood, three straight tall flowering beds. Its height is probably not less trees of arbor vitae, their light green a strong con. than fifty feet. At the southern end of the garden trast to the distant forest ; overhanging the house, grows a fair-sized Sophorra japonica, its sickly that large black walnut; and the old house itself, sweet white flowers with their heavy aroma with its blue slate roof, and many gables overbeing a choice resort for the bees and other in- hanging the bare gray walls, and the dark red roof sects in the lazy springtime.
to the porch, what a picture it all makes, and how Beyond the southern garden wall lies the green | harmonious among themselves all the products of house, with near at hand persimmon and pear nature seem. trees. A Pinus strobus, too, serves even in the Leaving now the garden, let us walk along the winter to keep away too stormy gales.
main terrace, and see on the slope below some It is evident that the greatest care and labor rare specimens of arboriculture. Chief among have through many successive generations been these is a great pecan nut, equalling any forest expended upon this garden ; the beds are so ar- tree in size, and rising above the surrounding trees ranged that each throughout the changing seasons before giving out any branches. Dwarfed beside is bearing, in almost constant cycle, some flower- it stands a nevertheless fair-sized Indian birch ; ing plant or other : roses for June-roses of all further on a spreading copper beech ; some rapidly hues and kinds—the old and sweet cabbage rose, growing buck-eye horse-chestnuts; and a sturdy crown rose,or hundred-leaved rose, the tea rose, the old belle-fleur apple tree, the only survivor of an moss rose, the “ Jack” rose, the twining Eglan- orchard of many generations ago. tine, and even the curious and now seldom seen Following this winding terraced walk of grass, “ York and Lancaster'' roses, with their red and running along the hill, half-way between house --- ---- and creek, we finally come to the old Penn mile- | building used in Colonial days, and later, for a stone again, at the fork of the roads. Turning bath, the water flowing in directly from a spring, now therefore to the right is seen a rugged cliff and being so intensely cold that few unaccustomed crowned with ancient forest trees, where the oak, to such bathing cared to take the plunge. the tulip, and the walnut abound, where the sun Immediately behind the mansion house stands scarcely dares to penetrate ; and, winding among a very large trifid, horse-chestnut, the trunk measthe stately trunks is the wood walk, so famed | uring over eleven feet around, and spreading at from Washington's day to our own. This walk, the heigth of about six feet into three good-sized nearly a quarter of a mile in length, runs along trees. Higher on the hill stands the historic the same hill as the terraced grass walk, and in “Bell Tree,” a huge black walnut, fourteen feet the same general direction ; but here, to the in girth, on which in olden days hung a large north, what a change has come over the face of bell, used to assemble the slaves from over the the landscape-there, we saw rare and graceful plantation at mealtime and at sundown. trees and groups of shrubbery tastefully disposed. What a change in customs and in persons, since over a well mown lawn ; here, everything tells of those days when the black slaves were digging the ancient forest, of the groves which were | Capt. Wilcox's trench to the gay scenes of postGod's first temples. The lofty branchless stems Revolutionary times; and still later to the present, of the tulip trees soar far above, almost, it seems, when steam railroads yearly threaten to invade lost to sight ; each striving to reach, over his the solitude of the Grange ; what a change in perneighbor, a share of the sunlight that only at rare sons, and in customs in even a few years ; yet the intervals pierces the thick and murmuring shade. | ground and the trees, unchanged remain-yesterBeneath all is hush, save when a squirrel rustles day ; to-day; and forever ? across the path, or when, at night, a solitary owl N. B.-A somewhat similar description of the flaps heavily between us and the moon About Grange, as seen by Mr. Thomas Meehan over half-way along this woodland path is a crescent. I forty years ago, will be found in the Gardner's shaped recess hollowed out from the hill above, | Monthly, for March, 1864. with ru tic benches arranged ; and here, tradition For those who are interested in statistics, the tells,
following list of some of the largest trees now “ Remote from town where noise and revels reign,
standing at the Grange is appended : And fierce ambition fires the phrensied brain,"
Tulip tree on farm land......................... 24 ft. 8 in. that Washington, his friends and companions Tulip tree in dark walk........................ 12 ft. 2 in.
Tulip tree near house.......................... came as guests of Mr. Charles Ross, to sip their
10 in. wine and eat their cake, after a summer's day din
Black walnut on lawn (“ Bell Tree'')... 13 ft. ner in the house. Sitting here beneath the over- ! Black walnut in dark walk........
12 ft. 9 in. hanging branches, down the steep hill is seen and
Black walnut in dark walk...........
3 in. heard the splashing waters of Cobb's Creek,
Oak in dark walk.........
I 2 ft. 5 in Oak in dark walk. ............
i in. churning against many a mossy stone, and flowing
Oak on front drive.............................. 12 it. in and out around many a gnarled root of ancient Oak in dark walk............................... II ft. tree, half hanging over the running waters White maple on lawn........................... 14 ft. 2 in.. beneath.
White maple on front drive ....
12 ft. 8 in.
Horse-chestnut near house.................... II ft. 4 in. Leaving this scene of forest shade and quiet,
White maple near dark walk................. 11 ft. 3 in. the most fascinating nature can afford, returning Ash on lawn.........
.... 11 ft. once more towards the house, cutting across the Gingko tree in garden.......
7 st. 4 in. lawn by a narrow path bordered with box, atten
(Measurements alt 3 feet above ground.) tion is arrested by what we had not time fully to
CONTRIBUTED BY A. appreciate before—namely, the magnificence, both in quality and quantity, of these box hedges ; and more than that, the infinitely rarer box-trees, Timber tests under the direction of the Bureau twenty or thirty feet high, while some of the of Forestry, to determine the strength of the ordinary box edging has been so judiciously principal American timbers used for construction trained for over a hundred years that it now forms purposes, are now in progress at Washington, a massive wall some ten feet high, and propor- D. C., Yale University, New Haven, Conn., Pertionately thick. Nowhere else in this country due University, Lafayette, Ind., and the Univerhave we seen such glorious specimens of box ; and sity of California, at Berkeley, Cal. These tests standing among these clumps, most appropiately will be in cross-benaing and breaking, compresplaced, is an ivy covered ruin, the remains of a 'sion with and against the grain, and shearing.
Forest Experiment Station at Milford, Pa.
Pennsylvania Forest Academy.
FOREST Experiment Station is to be es- THE beginning of any reform is to educate tablished by the Yale Forest School at the people until they see the necessity of Milford, Pa. Since 1900 Yale has con
such a reform. Among the propagandists ducted a Summer School of Forestry at Milford, of almost any advance movement there are usually on the estate of Mr. James W. Pinchot. The found so-called “ cranks” who, by forcing upon efforts of the Summer School hitherto have been the people their own mistaken ideas, do more directed entirely towards instruction, and only a harm than good ; but finally the right ideas spread little experimental work has been done. The until the reform is actually put into practice, and object of the new station is to conduct important then means are taken to perpetuate it. Such is experiments in forestry, and also to furnish a the record, in brief, of forestry in this country. centre where students can study methods of re Forests have been wasted, misused and destroyed. search work.
A reform became a necessity, and it was not withThe station has been made possible through the out its noisy hindrances. Now, forestry is in acgenerosity of Mr. James W. Pinchot, who has tual practice and is found to be a profitable busifurnished the funds for its establishment and ness. That it is here to stay is evidenced by the maintenance. About 100 acres of Mr. Pinchot's establishment of schools of forestry in various estate will be used for the experimental ground. | sections of the country. Two-thirds of this area is covered with a mixed In Pennsylvania the cause of forestry has forest of hardwoods and conifers, and admirably steadily advanced from the most indifferent consuited to the study of improvement thinnings and sideration of the forests to the realization that they other kinds of cuttings, and their effect on growth are an absolute necessity. It has led to the apand reproduction. The open ground, which will pointment of two commissions to consider the be used for experiments in tree planting, shows a subject, the establishment of a Division in the variety of soil conditions and meets all require- Department of Agriculture, and finally to a Dements for practical experiments. The station will partment of Forestry, the head of which is on an take up problems which require continued obser- equality with the other members of the Governor's vation of a single forest, and other investigations cabinet. As a result, not only private forestry which can be conducted only by an Experiment has been advanced by the passage of favorable Station.
laws, offering assistance and protection to private The general line of work to be organized the individuals, but in addition the State has taken first year is as follows:
hold of the work itself, and already owns about 1. The study of forest growth, with particular 600,000 acres of forest land. It was evident that reference to the effect of thinnings on growth. this possession would be useless without men to care 2. The study of natural reproduction.
for it properly, and since the study of economic 3. The study of the characteristics of young forestry methods is practically a new field in this seedlings when growing in the forest.
country, there naturally arose the feeling that be4. Practical experiments in forest planting. cause of the scarcity of trained rangers and for
5. The study of the effects of forest fires on esters, it would be nothing more than proper for soil, on tree growth, on natural reproduction, etc. the State to prepare men for State work. Accord
These particular investigations supplement the ingly, the last Legislature provided for “practical forest studies being carried on by Yale in New instruction in forestry, to prepare forest wardens Haven. Other lines of work will be developed for the proper care of the State Forestry Reservaas soon as practicable. Professor' Henry S. Graves tion lands."' Mont Alto, on the South Mountain will organize the station in the spring of 1904. Reservation, was designated as the place of train
[Our readers will regret to learn that on De- ing, because of the work already going on there cember 12th the Yale Forest School building was and because of certain other advantages of that destroyed by fire, the loss being estimated, accord- location. ing to the press reports, at $100,000. We trust | On the first day of September, thirteen young this will not seriously interfere with the successful men reported for duty to the Forester in charge of forestry work being carried on at Yale University. the Reservation. Three of these had been work-ED.)
ing on the Reservation for from six to eighteen
| months as student-assistants. They have now This issue of Forest LEAVES was held in order | become the advance class of the Academy. Each to include the narrative of the Annual Meeting of the new boys, before being appointed, was and the reports presented at it.
asked to sign a contract, that in return for a consideration of $30 per month he would reside at proper care of the State Reservations." One of the school unless other provision is made, and not the things which each State has to adopt as a part to absent himself without permission from the of its forest policy is to experiment to find out person in charge ; that he shall conduct himself the trees best adapted to its soil, climate, etc., and as a gentleman, apply himself diligently to the under what conditions these trees give the most studies assigned and labor faithfully and earnestly and quickest revenue, as well as to study the local upon the Forest Reservations at whatever work is forest conditions. The school at Mont Alto will set for him to do ; that he furnish his own train young men accustomed to Pennsylvania conclothes and pay his own expenses for boarding ditions and teach them how to deal with such and washing, etc.; that he comply with the rules conditions wherever found within the State. adopted for the government of the student body However, the principles of forestry are general, either within the school or upon the Reserva and those who rise to the position of forester tions ; that for violation of the agreement or rules will be able to study and adapt themselves and adopted, expulsion may follow. The contract is rational methods to any condition in our coungood for a year.
try. The students have understood from the begin- While the main object is to furnish men to ning that their object in being here, and the properly care for State land, there are still other State's purpose in having them here, is work. | benefits that will come from the school. From They are subject to be called to do anything that its doors will go a class of young men who will be comes up in the management of a Reservation, veritable missionaries for the State. First of all, and at any time of the day or night. In addition they will be a set of law.abiding and law enforcto that, they are given certain branches to study ing citizens. They will know the value of the and must recite upon these texts at varied intervals. | State's forest resources and see to it that they are The instruction in their work and study is given rightly used, and to this end will educate the them gratis. In this manner they not only know people. With this education must come a higher what is done in forestry management, but learn to plane of morality, for the disrespect to, and the know about the various operations and how to disregard for, the forest can be attributed to-day perform them from doing them. In other words, to a lack of the proper moral fibre in our citizens. theory and practice are combined. Along nursery The idea will spread that the forest is a valuable lines, their work will be gathering seeds, keeping heritage that can be used profitably and still left them over winter or until planted, care of seed- in a better condition for the rising generation, and lings while in the nursery, transplanting, etc. In all the time it is making our country more pleasthe spring they will plant out many seedlings. I ant to live in. They make roads and trails, including bridges and But there is still another point which can be culverts ; survey lines, roads and streams and plot considered. In the estimation of some, it is their work. In the forest they make improvement | thought that before long, as in other countries, cuttings, thinnings, and in fact everything along this State will be patroled by mounted police. silvicultural lines, from making the first thinning | There could be no better training ground for to harvesting mature wood. The forests will be mounted riflemen and revolver shots than on the measured and working plans made, and anything State Reservations, and when once the Reservaelse that is to be done they will do, at the same tions are fully patroled the Governor will have a time receiving instruction in all branches of for fine company of mounted, uniformed, armed and estry work.
sworn officers upon which to call in time of emerTheir study will comprise as much mathematics gencies ; nor is it unlikely that they would comas they can learn in two years, together with book- pare favorably with the old-time riflemen who keeping and practical surveying. Political, physi- hailed from the Keystone State. cal and commercial geography are studied in ref
GEORGE H. WIRT, erence to the distribution, effects and products of
State Forester. the forests, etc. They learn business law and must be thoroughly acquainted with the forest, fish and game laws of the State which they are It is stated the porcupines have been damaging expected to enforce upon the Reservations. Some timberland situated on North Mountain, near little of the sciences with reference to forestry Wilkes-Barre, Pa. The bark of the trees is gnawed will be learned, and, not least, the art of shoot by the animals, and numbers of trees have been
killed, the trunks being girdled. Expert hunters As is stated in the law providing for the school, are employed to kill these pests, and it is hoped the object is to “prepare forest wardens for the to soon exterminate them.
DRESIDENT ROOSEVELT has always been THE Pennsylvania Railroad has completed E a friend of forestry, and in his Annual Mes
the work of planting 50,000 young locust sage to Congress makes the following ref
trees on a tract of 100 acres of land near erence to the necessity of their preservation, espe- Conewago, Lancaster County, Pa. cially in the West.
The trees are about ten feet high and planted “ The study of the opportunities of reclama- ten feet apart each way. One hundred and twentytion of the vast extent of arid land shows that five men have been employed on the work, which whether this reclamation is done by individuals, occupied three weeks. corporations, or the State, the sources of water. This is a small beginning of what the railroad supply must be effectively protected and the reser company expect to do in the next few years. The voirs guarded by the preservation of the forests at real estate representative of the railroad company the headwaters of the streams. The engineers stated recently that next Spring the railroad commaking the preliminary examinations continually pany will plant 150,000 locust trees, next Fall emphasize this need and urge that the remaining 200,000, and the following Spring 600,000 trees. public lands at the headwaters of the important This means 1,000,000 trees which the company streams of the West be reserved to insure per will plant within the next two years on 2000 acres manency of water-supply for irrigation. Much of ground. This is equivalent to a locust forest progress in forestry has been made during the past one mile wide and three miles long. year. The necessity for perpetuating our forest In the course of twenty-five years the railroad resources, whether in public or private hands, is company expects to get 5,000,000 cross ties from recognized now as never before. The demand this vast locust forest, for forest reserves has become insistent in the Forestry Commissioner J. T. Rothrock exWest, because the West must use the water, wood, amined the ground and directed the preparation and summer range which only such reserves can of the soil and the planting of the trees. — The supply. Progressive lumbermen are striving, Press. through forestry, to give their business permanence. Other great business interests are awakening to the need of forest preservation as a business matter. The government's forest work should receive from Congress hearty support, and especially support adequate for the protection of the forest reserves against fire. The forest-reserve
In FOREST LEAVES for February, 1902, the policy of the government has passed beyond the chestnut groves of Mr. C. K. Sober, of Lewisexperimental stage and has reached a condition burg, Pa., were described in detail. In a letter where scientific methods are essential to its suc
lately received, Mr. Sober gives some additional cessful prosecution. The administrative features
information which will interest our readers. He of forest reserves are at present unsatisfactory, says : being divided between three bureaus of two de “ About six years ago I began to reclaim waste partments. It is therefore recommended that all mountain land by chestnut growing, and at presmatters pertaining to forest reserves, except those ent have fully 300 acres and nearly 100,000 trees. involving or pertaining to land titles, be con- | The orchards produced this season about 300 solidated in the Bureau of Forestry of the De- bushels. The trees grafted on one-year old sprouts, partment of Agriculture."
from stumps of native trees, begin to bear when two years old, and each crop is found to be sweeter in flavor and less woody than those which are produced at first. In other words, the older the
trees the more like the native nut in taste they The Bureau of Forestry has undertaken the become. preparation of a working plan for the 10,000-acre “I have expended considerable money in this tract of the Mount Pleasant Hotel Company, in industry and am convinced it will, in a short New Hampshire. The forests on these lands time, become a most profitable investment. I have been heavily cut, and the company desires have the orchards amply protected against forest to put them in the best possible condition, both fires, and while the insect pests are most formidfor the benefit of the forests themselves and for able foes, I am quite certain they, too, can be the scenic effects.