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smooth surface of the plate, the sanie can be easily removed by washing or otherwise.
The old way of staying crown sheet is as follows:
Crown bars are riveted on crown-sheet. Washers 1% by 24 are placed between the crown bars and crown-sheet. Crownbar bolts are dropped through the crownbars, washers, and through the sheet, and riveted over underneath the crown-sheet. All there is to hold the crown sheet is the head made on the rivet, underneath the crown-sheet.
Crown sheet stayed as above, you have the following facts and figures: About
100 crown-bar bolts and 100 washers are used in staying crown-sheet of an ordinary locomotive. These washers are 11⁄2 by 24 inches The area of sheet covered by them is 24 square feet, from which the area of the bolts should be deducted. After making the deduction you will find that 2% square feeet of the crown sheet not a drop of water can touch, but is exposed to the greatest heat in the furnace The water has no free cireration over the crown shee'.
Owing to so many washers being on top of crown sheet, mud and scales soon form on crown sheet and fill up the small space between the washers. So you see you have a solid crown sheet, where no water can get to it. The result is, your crown-sheet cracks from the bolts out.
We claim as our invention
1. The bolts screwed both into the crown-bars and the crown plate, for the purpose of avoiding the use of washers on the top of the crown-plate.
2. The double crown-bars, connected by the parts provided with screw threaded perforators, in combination with the bolts and crown-plate.
The area of sheet covered by washers is about 24 square feet. We have in place of 24 square feet of washers, 234 square feet of water on the crown sheet, where it is most needed, as this part of the crownsheet is exposed to the greatest heat in the furnace.
Our crown sheet will stand more pressure than the old way of putting crown sheets, while you entirely avoid the dan ger of explosion from crown sheet coming down Scale cannot form on crown
sheet. Water has a free circulation on crown sheet all the time, and it is much easier to keep crown-sheet free from mud and scale.
Engines make steam much better. Saves much fuel. Engineers have no trouble in carrying their water. All master mechanics are a ware of the trouble they have of crown-sheets cracking from the bolts out. This is entirely avoided; crown
sheets will not crack if you can keep plenty of water on them, which, by this manner of attaching crown-bars, you have all the space taken up with washers now covered with water.
These crown-bars are put on much cheaper than the old way.
A NEW MOTOR-POWER OUT OF NOTH
On my way East, while detained at a depot. I met old accquaintance who for many years has held high positions among learned and practical scientists. He took my arm and led on to an obscure part of the street, and rang a bell. After a few moments the door opened a trifle, and a pair of deep-set black eyes peered out into the darkness. "Good evening, Mr.." "Good evening sir," but the door did't open. "Mr. H-, with card from Mr. so and so-." The door opened, but only to admit my friend. A word of explanation and I was received with apparent cordiality. Up one, two, three flights of narrow stairs, we came to what had been a bath room, now evidently the only occupied part of the old fashioned residence.
The room was filled with mechanical appliances, parts, drawings, charts and scientific authorities in great profusion. On a board across the bath tub stood a piece of mechanism shaped some like a steam engine of diminutive size, but motionless. We took seats, and our enthusiastic host stepped up and turned a stopcock here and another there, and the machine was in motion-opened one a little more and more till the revolutions numbered 800 per minute. We could discover no means of producing power, and waited in blank astonishment for an explanation.
It came, but the confusion of such terms in mechanics as "pulsators," "pulsating mediums" and the like, and atmospheric pressure, made the explanation, as a whole, quite beyond our comprehension.
We were asked to test the power of the machine, and with all our force applied wood and iron brakes to the gearing and put our might on the levers, but could
make only a slight variation in the motion.
"What is the power ?"-There was no fire, no warmth, no boiler, no cylinder, no chemicals, no gases, no magnet, no electricity, nothing to cause expansion or give power, except the atmosphere and about a gallon of cold water, direct from the hydrant and use lover and over again.
The machine could be picked up with one hand and carried in a market basket, but in force it measured, at a medium velocity, over two and a half horse power which could be increased, as we were informed, beyond the power of the parts to withstand, by making one additional connection, provided for, but not used.
There was a globular-shaped part which he termed the "pulsator," to which was attached a stopcock, supplying atmospheric air, and through which, at each revolution, there was alternate inhalation and exhalation as demonstrated by holding a burning match near the orifice. In another part of cylindrical shape was a similar stopcock, through which was more violent inhalation, but less of exhalation. At the base of this part was a stopcock, to which was attached a small rubber hose connecting with the water supply. About a thimble full was used at each "pulsation," returning to the reservoir below.
I could get no intelligent idea as to where the power was originated, what it was, nor how it could be applied. We disconnected parts of it, and watched every motion and the effects, at all rates of speed, and we can only say it is a very powerful engine in wonderful small space. It costs no more to run it than it does a healthy man to breathe. It ignores fuel, boiler, smoke, cylinder and flywheel. The "dead center" is an unknown point in its crank motion, for the power is applied at four or eight different points in a revolution, and could as easi ly be applied at double the number of points, so that the crank leverage would be almost technically constant,
Our wonder-working friend has two ten horse and two twenty-horse power motors,
or engines, or "pulsators," nearly ready for practical uses, which he courteously invited us to call and see "about Christmas time," and I shall see them. I could only call it a breathing machine. It is evidently a discovery and not an invention, and we have only to allow that a small per centage of the discoverer's views are reasonably based and practical, to see this "pulsator" kicking steam engines and their boilers out of the way in a very large majority of cases, dodging into some little corner of space, and doing all their work without a farthing's expense in running, and attracting the attention and wonder and admiration of the whole scientific and practical world.
The discoverer presumes to say he can place within a base of six by eight feet, a power greater than that of the engines of the Great Eastern, and have it under perfect control.
He has contracted to sell the discovery for a million and a half dollars. "About Christmas time come again, and I will show you something."
We shall certainly accept the invitation.
STARTING TRAINS-THE SLACK LINK AND THE TAUT BUFFER.
Engineers like other members of the human family, are not always possessed of that shining qualification, so exemplified in the life of the prophet Job, and sometimes when they find themselves at stations, with a big train, bad track and an engine that don't steam well, they are apt to become impatient, use hard words and jerk away at the draw-irons as though they would pull off the platform. This I have many times experienced myself when using the slack coupling, but when Col. Miller came around and persuaded our company to adopt his platform and compression buffer, with no slack, surely, I thought it would be all up with us if we should get "stalled"which we often did-on the West Agrade with the night express that often consisted of nine heavy "sleepers," with postal and baggage car.
Sure enough, for so it proved and we found ourselves straining away at the Wagners, taking a dead lift which usually proved so dead that only by the aid of a "pusher" could we get over the grade. "With the links we used to handle the trains," was often remarked, followed by hard words and the buffers would be consigned to endless doom, but this did not continue long. We soon learned "bow to do it," and for the information of all concerned, I will here state the way in which we start our cars, they having all been equipped with the "Miller Platforms." Put a brakeman on the hind car and let him set the break firmly; then drop the lever forward and strain ahead, drawing out the hooks as far as possible; then reverse, and forcing the engine back upon the train, compress the buffersprings to the utmost, at the same time whistle off brakes as a precautionary signal, the brakeman still holding the brake firm; throw the lever forward again with open throttle, and, as the brakeman hears the first exhaust, he must "let go," or, he can watch the reaction of the buffers as a warning when to let go. By this means a live compression is had upon the buffer-springs; the hind car very firmly held, the force of the rebound is thrown upon the engine, and with proper handling, as many or more cars can be started, having the "platforms," as of the old style with slack links.
This question of starting trains, has not been the subject of lengthy discussion before the public, but I have joined in a number of vise-bench lyceums, where there was much argument and expressions of prejudice regarding the "taut" buffer, which good practical tests utterly annihilated.
The Miller platform has fully proven itself a benefaction to the traveling public, and every engineer as he looks back through the thick veil of night, and by the flashes of light from the furnace-door, sees the heavy "sleepers" following him so steadily as he dashes on through the darkness, feels far more safe in his exposed situation, than with a train the cars
There is a class of persons in this world who would grumble if they were going to be hung. It was probably one of this class that I heard say last week-" that engineer must have been blind-I wish he had broke his confounded neck."
This rough expression came from a gentlemanly appearing man, and was caused by his failure to make a connection-be having been on a train that had the night previous been delayed by an accident.
During the day I learned this much concerning the wreck. A switch had been carelessly left open; it was midnight; the engineer could not see that it was wrong until too late to prevent going off, but did use all means within his pow-~ er to keep the train from following, and remained at his post until the engine turned over-putting his own life in danger to save others; he succeeded, for none were injured except himself. Twice before during the summer has this same engineer remained at his post in the time of need-once going down through a bridge with his engine, one dark stormy night, when he could just as well have saved himself as not, if he had not endeavored to save his passengers. As kind Providence willed, he saved all his passengers uninjured and came out all safe himself, with a few bruises and a thorough ducking.
From this, we can see something, at least, of the danger of an engineer's position, but of course cannot realize it as we would if we were engineers.
This is no trumped up story, nor one without its parallels on almost every
road east and west. It is also a notorious fact that in most cases where the engineer escapes with a whole skin, and in some cases where he was crippled or killed, that passengers and others petulently ask: "Why didn't he see that the bridge was swept away? why didn't he see that the switch was wrong? why wasn't the engineer more careful?" when probably he had risked life or limb-possibly paid the penalty, in order to save those very same ones or their friends, from a horrible death.
Such persons appear to think that engineers are not human-that they are a kind of ogre, who, in order to cripple or kill their passengers, will rush right into the jaws of death, although they them selves will be the first to pay the penalty. Now this is all wrong; engineers as a class are no more reckless or venturesome than others; and if they were, do you not suppose that the thoughts of the wife and little ones at home would cause them to use at least common discretion. Engin. eers are human-let us give them the rights that belong to the human family. Suppose you exchange places with him for a few moments, and think what you would do in case of imminent danger, and how you would like to be called careless, reckless, &c.
You are a merchant; you leave your place of business and start home, going over the same route that you usually pass over; it is dark, but you have passed this way day after day and night after night; you do not even think of danger, when suddenly, by a step upon an insecure cellar door, a slip upon a piece of orange peel, or possibly by walking into one of those traps in the pavement which are usually shut, you are thrown down-may be crippled. Now you would not be willing to call that carelessness. But if an engineer ruus through an open switch, no matter how dark the night, you would be the first one to say "carelessness, why didn't he see that the switch was wrong? In addition to your mishap, suppose you had a couple of ladies escorting them to
the train, and by your misfortune you delayed then so that they could not get to the train in time, or perhaps one of them has been injured by your fall, would not you feel very much aggrieved if they should abuse you by saying"Carelessness! why didn't he look where he was going?"
While we are chatting upon this subject, allow me to ask one question. Did you ever think how much, or, rather how little of your fare which you pay to the railroad company, the engineer receives for his share? Let us make a short calculation; you rode one hundred miles, for which you paid $3 50; there were probably one hundred passengers on the train, which would be about twenty-five less than two coaches full. For this dangerous duty the engineer recives about three cents as his share of your ticket. There is not a class of men in this country that get less pay in proportion to the amount of physical and mental labor and the great risks they run, than our locomotive engineers.
If you have a clerk who is sick for a day or two, you do not "dock" him, or if one of your horses get sick, you do not stop the pay of your driver until the animal gets well, or if your wagon breaks down you do not stop the wages of your teamster until it has been repaired.
If an engineer stops for a day, he is 46 docked;" if an engine needs repairs he either has to "lay off" during the time she is in the shop, or take his chances of running as extra man." No matter how sick his wife or babies may be, he dare not get any one to take his "run," without permission from the M. M., and if he cannot find him he must go when time is up.
An engineer, taking one year within another, does not make the wages of a third-rate salesman in a dry goods store; for by the time that all lost time is taken out, there is but a bare living left-certainly nothing to induce him to risk his life, as he does on almost every trip.
E. C. CENTRIO.
PLACED ON THE RETIRED LISTBARNEY BUTZ.
The Reading Railroad Company inaugurated a humane sy stem when they created the "Retired List"-making provis lons for those of their employees whose long and faithful services entitled them to a higher consideration than that of turning them out in age and infirmity to eke out a miserable existence upon the scanty saving of a life-time of hard work. The last recipient of this honorable consideration-honorable because it is a recognition on the part of the employ. ers of the long years of faithful service rendered by the employedwas Barney Buz, of Reading, the oldest locomotive engineer in the employ of the company, or, perhaps in the Union, a brief sketch of whose life we committed to memory from his own recital while coming up from Philadelphia to Reading in the Saturday evening train. Barney was born in Luzerne county in Novem. ber, 1813 and it consequently fifty-four years of age this month. He is a tall athletic, well-proportioned man and carries his age well, considering the many years he has been traveling through the world at almost lightning speed on the back of the iron horse. In 1829, at the age of about eleven years he became engaged as brakeman on the Little Schuyl kill Railroad between Tamaqua and Port Clinton, although he is too modest to date his railroad life from here, as he says the railroading done here was with mules -a train of ten cars, holding about two tons of coal each, being propelled by mule power. Here he was employed as brakem in until he was transferred to the "Beaver Meadow." now the Leheigh Val ley Railroad, in 1835, where he saw the first locomotive and became engaged upon it as fireman. This engine was jealously guarded by the Englishman, who came over with it, and Barney says none of the employees were allowed near any of its machinery except to wipe off the grease. After firing on this road between Perryville and the shipping point on the canal,
six miles below Mauch Chunk. he was transferred in 1843, to the Reading Railroad as locomotive engineer, in which capacity he has served faithfully and uninterruptedly up to Friday last, at which time he was placed on the retired list and relieved from duty. He has the distinetion of being the engineer who ran the first locomotive over the Lebanon Valley Railroad, from Reading to Ilarrisburg, it being on the day of the inauguration of Hon James Pollock, as Governor of l'ennsylvania,
Barney has an exceedingly retentive memory, and were he blessed with proper education would be able to write a book which would find ready sale among those interested in the early history of railroading in this Commonwealth. He is thoroughly posted on the rise and progress of the Railroads in this section of the State, and says he can hardly realize the rapid advancement made since he was breaking on the "mule train" of the Little Schuyl kill where they started out on a trip with no idea of the time of return, or when they were pushing the engine along with purch-bars to reach a creek or spring where to fill their water tank by means of buckets which were always carried for that purpose. In those days there was no cab to shelter the engineer from the beating storm, no seat, (cushioned or other wise) upon which to sit down, no water tanks at the stations, no regular time for running between stations, no telegraph to report a break down. The train when loaded started out and "when it got back, it was there."
During these many years Barney was remarkably fortunate; never having injured a passenger on his train. The nearest he ever came to a general smash up was on the 8th of September, 1855, near Spring Mill; at which time he was running on the long road between Pottsville and Philadelphia. On the afternoon of that day he left Philadelphia with a train of ten cars, freighted with about three hundred passengers. Arriving at the point designated, and when approaching a bridge, a switch broke, throwing a car from the