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recruit in the missionary army to follow a differen' one.

II Here it seems right to tell you about the substanc of evangelistic addresses. You will not be surprise to learn that we find it of little use to begin, as in a Christian country, by giving out a text. The two conclusive reasons that persuade to this course a e, that many of your audiences know nothing about the Bible; and that, even if they are aware of such a book existing, they do not bow to its authority. Have faith in the self-evidencing power of God's Word by all means, and fail not to ad uce texts; but do so in the course of your address, not at the beginning. Interweave them into the texture of your preaching, so that, introduced and followed by appropriate remarks, they may enjoy a right setting, may be as apples of gold set in pictures of silver.

I have found it attractive to begin by telling about our little British Islands, so far across the sea from my auditors, but the home of their acknowledged rulers, and therefore obj cts of curiosity to them. From our climate, country, and productions, the step is an easy one to our churches and worship, as contrasted with theirs; and arrived there, you are at the threshold of your subject, namely, the simple proclamation of the Gospel of Christ. The whole thing flows along in a natural course, the surrounding Hindus never, so far as my memory serves me, failing to listen to it with unswerving attention.

Another useful plan is, to make use of any sight or incident that has met you on your approach to the village. A marriage procession, a dead body at the burningground, the idol-car (if there be one), stones smeared with vermillion at the entrance to a grove, the harvest, the villageschool; these, and things similar, if you are ready and apt, may be made to slide into your prepared address with great propriety.

A most effective kind of introduction is a reference to some story extracted out of their own popular literature. You know, of course, that this literature teems with legends. While many of these are wild, bad, and unemployable for your purposes, others, by their moral point, their touching character, or their romance, are easily available for what you aim at. One thing is certain, the Hindu will always be immensely taken with such an opening. You begin thus (in the vernacular), "I was reading the other day in the History of King Nala, or in the Scanda Purana, or in the Ramayana, and came upon the following story." Then follows the narrative, and meantime you have your audience by

'he ears. It must have been your study beforehand how yo are to pass from the mythological tale to divine truth; and then you ply them lovingly with the living Word. This, and indeed every point referred to, might be enlarged upon; but I must proceed to tell of what follows, after a reference to the invaluable help of the converts with you. As a general rule, it is best for one of them to begin. He has the advantage of being a fellow-countryman ; and curiosity about the white man' ap proaching words is meantime whetted. Nothing has seemed more telling than when the convert narrates his own experience, tells of his former faith and practice, how the light came to him, how he struggled against it, how, at last, it prevailed, and what he has found in Christ as a mighty, gracious Saviour.

Mild and winning, or, at the least, inoffensive as this may appear, it cannot fail to wound deep-seated prejudice, and so occasion hostile feeling. The convert has to tell that he has forsaken the hoary, ancestral idol-worship, that he has broken caste, and that he has given up the Kudumy, or sacred lock, which is an integral part of the Hindu religion. It is impossible for these statements to be made, clearly implying, as they do, that all who embrace Christianity must pursue a similar course, without sharply paining a sincere, zealous Hindu. Truth, however, requires them, and the effects must be left with God.

One convert having begun, sometimes another follows, though not precisely in the same strain; or the European missionary may occupy the second place. Do not, however, imagine that native converts never go forth on this work alone-that a European is always with them. Such is far from being the case, but I prefer describing the Briton's experience, as being that about which you must naturally be most desirous to know.

Sometimes one is permitted to say all that was intended in peace and quietness; but frequently no such privilege is enjoyed. Long ere you have made a full declaration of truth, perhaps very soon after your first words bave been uttered, audden, bold, insolent interruption takes place. Some man, either assuming to be, or tacitly acknowledged by the audience as a champion and defender of the faith, loudly arrests your further progress, and, with vehement gesture, thrusts in his objections. These, as might be expected, generally belong to a given number, which are found repeating themselves in one place after another. Briefly expressed, they run thus:

1. Show us your god; we believe only what we see.


2. Your religion is new; ours is very

3. Pure spiritual worship is all very good for philosophers; we need the idole, as ladders, to help us up to God.

4. Your faith for you; ours for us.

5. We must follow in the steps of our forefathers.

6. Many roads lead to one palace; we shall all meet at last.

7. Do a miracle. Show us a sign. 8. Our miracles are superior to those of your religion.

9. Who has seen vice and virtue?


10. Everything is determined. rules all. Vishnu's writing is on man's skull.


Fate every

11. Transmigration explains all-will put all right.

12. Pantheism is the real thing; all is divine.

13. There is nothing in our present existence but Maya, or illusion.

Sometimes a short, pointed answer will silence an opponent; but much more frequently he follows one of two courses. If boisterous, rough, and unprincipled, he will try to roar you down. Insults to you, calumnies or blasphemies against the Christian faith, wild, rash assertions, mingled perhaps with obscenity, will be vomited forth against you in a most painful way. Sometimes you can do nothing but sorrowfully retire. But whether you do so or not, you must pray beforehand, and struggle on the spot not to give way to anger. Any such manifestation on your part does no present good, gives the bystanders an occasion of triumph, and lowers you in your own eyes, besides being no proper representation of the Master whom you serve.

If the insolent, rude plan be not adopted, then an effort will be made to get you into the meshes of speculative discussion. Wild theories, wire-drawn distinctions, untenable moral positions will be advanced, and you may, before long, wish that you had rather got insult than have been plunged into such a quagmire. While your solid arguments will go for nothing, a well-hit-off illustration, struck out by themselves, will be clung to and worked up as if it were an irresistible syllogism.

pu emphasis upon the word "illustrated,” because this, as already implied, meets a strong out-tanding peculiarity of the H ndu mind. And there is the satisfaction of knowing that, although the Hindu is subtle in evading argument-, yet when these are really well put, sharply, perhaps epigrammatically expressed, and driven home with suitable analogies, both the champion and listeners will feel the force of them.

It is worth mentioning that in the systematic preparation of answers, and in the general work of getting up addresses suitable to the people whom they reach, the Baptist missionaries in Cuttack, not far from Calcutta, have set a worthy example. In note-books set apart for the purpose, they treasure up proverbial sayings, good colloquialismus, nay, telling expressions; make common prope ty of them by comparison of what they have acquired, and in this way go forth as thoroughly equipped as possible.

III. And now it is surely time to tell you something about the experiences through which one passes in this kind of work. Starting from your residence in the early afternoon, as soon as the sun admits of travelling, and having previously fixed upon your destination, some few miles off, you get there perhaps by sun-down, or possibly quite after it, when the moon is up. Nothing can be done that night but pitching your tent on some bit of sward, near or among trees, if possible, and not far from the villages that you intend visiting. In the various processes of putting your tent on the bullock-cart, lifting it off, planting the centre pole, stretching the canvas, unloosing the cords, driving in the tent-pins, hoisting the structure, and then making fast the ropes, you had better, as before hinted, not only superintend, but put to your own hands, both for the sake of expedition and security.

Rising early next morning, and getting a cup of coffee, you start with your assistants for the nearest village. The practice is a good one, I think, in the prayer with your assistants before setting out, for each one going on the enterprise to offer a short supplication, rather than for the head missionary to do it all himself.

Very probably your approach to the How then, you say, is one to act? My village, at or shortly after six o'clock in the matured opinion, based on my own ex- morning, is heralded by the boys of the perience and that of men who have known place. On the outlook for things in general, this work far more widely than I have, is, like boys all over the world, they rush in that one should go into the field with care- among their seniors with the astounding fully prepared answers to all the ordinary intelligence that a white gentleman is at defences and attacks that are presented. hand, about to enter their place of residence. From one's own knowledge, from study, Out turn the people and gaze inquisitively from consultation with tried men, one as the little band quietly goes along several should get up short, pointed, illustrated streets, looking for a good central rostrum. replies, and issue them when needed. I It is found in the shape of a mound at

the base of a tree, a low wall, or an elevation without any tree. A hymn, in native metre, and to a native tune, if possible, is sung; a short prayer is offered, and then one of the converts begins. According to the size of the place, twenty, thirty, or forty people have assembled, and ere long they may increase to sixty or seventy. In the outskirts of a town your audience may amount to several hundreds. The nature of the discourses, each, eay, twenty minutes long, has been already described. Sometimes you are heard to the end, tracte are distributed, you invite to your tent, and, the sun now growing injuriously hot, you retire thither. On other occasions discussion, such as has been indicated, takes place. And from time to time-a fact also chronicled before this-you are furiously interrupted at the very beginning, never getting your snapped thread re-tied. In any case, you must ere long repair to your tent and rest a little. Sometimes, indeed, the villagers follow you thither at once. But generally it is before and after high noon that their visits are paid. One party comes for nothing but discussion, being primed with the usual defences of their own faith, and perhaps some objections to Christianity. Another set have been reading the tracts or gospels distributed, have lighted upon some passage requiring elucidation, and come to get it. An engaging party of boys surround you just to get books, the clean white paper and distinct printing of our literature contrasting favourably with the green Palmyra leaves and stylusscratched letters of their own native books. A fourth group, not of boys, but men, comes merely from curiosity. They want to see the inside of the tent, to hold intercourse with a European, to see how he talks their vernacular, and (perhaps slightly) to hear what he has to say about the religion of their conquerors and rulers. It must be yours to improve such opportunities, to pour in instruction, to deal with the conscience, to convince of error, and to commend Christ, so far as you can. More books are generally given on such occasions, and even though eager discussion takes place, you should try to part pleasantly and amicably with your visitors.

Snatching time for a little rest in the afternoon, without which one would never be able for the evening's work, you again prepare for the field at about four o'clock. Sallying out between that and five, you get to the same or another village, and repeat the process described as having taken place in the morning. When it grows dark (always between six and seven), you must retire, no Hindu villagers being willing to listen when the shades of evening settle down. More visitors probably come during

the subsequent hours, and early next morning you take down your tent and emigrate elsewhere.



But a word on town-preaching. this purpose buildings are erected with a good frontage on places of resort or busy streets (not bazaars, however). Several doors provide an easy entrance. after prayer, you begin by singing or reading (perhaps both). The passing natives, hearing their own tongue, come in to listen, and ere long, if you are, or have with you, an effective speaker, the floor is covered with one or two hundred people. The kind of speaking required being one demanding considerable energy, several should be prepared to follow in rapid succession. Sometimes discussion is evoked, and at others, after tracts have been circulated, the auditors walk quietly away.

IV. Relative position of this kind of work and its results.

Here I must compress a good deal into little space. Looking to the country at large, there are two ways of conducting evangelistic work. One is for a man or men to go over large districts, content with sowing the seed broadcast, but, of course, scattering it but thinly. Another is to select a small workable circuit, and systematically repeat one's visits to the villages there. The latter has been done in several places by the Madras Free Church Mission, and is going on at present. So far as our European missionaries are concerned, none being to spare for anything like exclusive dedication to this work, and that not being, in my judgment, desirable, even if within our power, its true place seems to be that of a useful alterative from tuition. Pleasant as educational work among Hindu boys is, one needs a change from it, and a more thorough one I hardly know than that of going, at fit times of the year, out to the villages. Whether you go by budgerow (covered canal boat), by railway, or by bullock-cart, the change is a marked one from the city life; and then the village work (as already described) calls forth a different set of faculties, bodily and mental, from those required in the class-room. My own experience for more than a year was that of having a fortnightly expedition of this kind, and I found it equally agreeable to pass from teaching to the tent, and, returning, to revert to my regular scholastic occupation.

As to results in conversions from village work, our Madras Mission has had scarcely any. Our successes, resulting in the upbuilding of a Native Church, have sprung from our schools. This fact, however, has come out in connection with regular hall-preaching in the city, that inquirers, whose convic tions had arisen at the daily Bible instruc

tion in the school, have gone thither for the | in the political, social, and intellecsolution of doubts, the deepening of im- tual habits of the people.' And though pressions, and the gaining of more light. I could wish that I had more strength Not well able to come to the mission-house, to do justice to so great a subject, I assure lest they should be found out before they you that I undertake the duty with the were prepared to take the great step of greatest pleasure. First, because it is separation, they have quietly slipped in well that from time to time the earnest among the numerous auditors at one or Christian community of this country should other of our evangelistic halls, and there hear from competent eye-witnesses (and have drunk in the living water, thus being more especially, if possible, from laymen) gradually fitted for entering the kingdom of how the work of Missions is progressing; God. and, secondly, because, in my judgment, the words of this Resolution most happily and truthfully describe the present situation in India. The battle of India has

When I speak of "no results in conversions," my reference is simply to village work. If the contrast be between teaching and preaching, we dare not say that the latter has been unfruitful. The stated vernacular Sabbath preaching for many years by the Rev. P. Rajahgopaul and Venkataramiah, has been blessed of God to the awakening of inquiry, as well as to the fostering of spiritual convictions in various Hindus, who are now converts and members of our Native Church.

now been fought. Clive's battle of Plassey, in 1757, founded the British empire; but 1857, and the total re-organization of the it was not completed till the Sepoy war of native army, and increase of the European army, which succeeded that great effort to expel us. All ranks, from the rajah to the mercenary soldier; all classes, from the millionaire banker to the tiller of the soil; all creeds, Hindoo, Mohammedan, Parsee, native Christian, and European Christian, alike feel this to be the case, and act upon it; some with disappointment, some with relief, some with fear, some with hope, but all with a new impulse and conviction. The native chiefs are now busy in securing or extending their rights under English title-deeds. The military classes see their occupation slipping away, and are betaking themselves to other callings. Capital, of which the timidity is proverbial (and which we have just seen spreading its affrighted wings in Ireland at the approach of Fenianism), has unlocked its hoards in India since 1857, and is trading no longer village with village, and province with province, but with all the countries of the world. And what is to be noted is the novel association of natives and Europeans in large schemes of commerce, which forms

I have now done, but let me say a word to you. Few of you are likely to engage in the work now described in India. But you may have to carry on open-air preaching in Australia, Canada, or within our own borders. Let me advise you to prepare for this by trying it ere your studies are done. A minister in a country town lately said in my hearing, that no part of his work had been so manifestly fruitful as this. People on their death-beds had told him that their first impressions had been gained at his openair services. Others, smitten at the same place, had come to him, seeking the way of salvation. This is surely a strong inducement to acquire such a power. Another strong reason lies in the fact that nowhere better than on the street can we know whether or not we have the power of reaching hearts, and holding them under the continuous strokes of the Gospel hammer. Preaching is difficult, solemn work, requir-marked results of an assured state of ing many kinds of preparation. This is one, to the practice of which I heartily invite you. From the Free Church Record.

a new bond of union. One of the most

peace is the extraordinary struggle for land which is now going on in India, as if the whole population were animated by an instinct to take root, and perceived that it must be done now or never. Every

PROGRESS OF CHRISTIANITY IN squatter of unquiet times is now engaged


Ar the annual meeting of the Church Missionary Society, Colonel Sir H. Edwardes spoke as follows on the progress of Christianity in British India:—

in obtaining from the English courts a title derived from occupation; every old proprietor, who had left the paternal acres reappearing at his home, and spending his to go off soldiering at native courts, is now last rupee in trying to oust the squatter, "The Resolution which I have been and establish a title from hereditary right. asked now to move is as follows:- That Every tenant-at-will is trying to convert the speedy triumph of Christianity in himself into a landlord, and every landlord British India becomes every day more is trying to evict his tenant-at-will. The hopeful, if the proclamation of the Gospel struggle is intensified by two classes, the be viewed in connection with the moment-native merchants and bankers and the ous changes which are going forward European settler. The native merchant,

doubtless the race through whom India
will be regenerated. It may surprise
many of you-but no one who knows
India of to-day will deny what I now
state-that a school of thoughtful and
proselytising Reformers has sprung up,
who are actively engaged in what they
call the Reformation of Hindooism. The
points on which they mainly insist are,

like the merchant in England, desires the are in all 30,000,000 of children in India
status in the country which land carries who should be at school. Of these, mis-
with it; and the European settler, believ- sionaries educate 100,000, and the State
ing in a prosperous and peaceful future, only 127,513.' The State schools were
wants land for tea, coffee, sugar, cotton, costing £250,000 a year; and the State
flax, and indigo, and calls on the Govern- also gave grants in aid to the mission
ment of India to redeem the land-tax in schools amounting to £16,500 more. This
perpetuity, that there may be no fetters on seems very little ;-less than 300,000 chil-
his enterprise. Then we have the telegraph dren at school out of 30,000,000. But it is
from every corner of India to the three as large as the leaven which raises a
capitals, and from the capitals to Europe, baking of bread. (Applause.) After all
spreading intelligence, encouraging enter- it is only a small knot of thinkers
prise, awakening human sympathies, and who ever raise their country out of
carrying with it political education. The ignorance. (Hear, hear.) And what
great system of railroads projected under we have to look to is not so much
the East India Company is now rapidly the number of the scholars, as the kind
approaching development in the union of of ideas which are being taught and spread
all the capitals with each other and with abroad in the country. Now, what are
the farthest frontiers; bringing province the ideas of the educated natives of the
into communication with province in a day? Let us take the Hindoos, for they
way unknown before to the stagnant East, are nine-tenths of the population of India;
and raising the prices of all agricultural are the most thoughtful race, and are
produce for the benefit of the people;
while it places in the hands of Government
a fresh security for peace throughout the
empire. New works of irrigation are
increasing year by year the area of culti-
vation. Great public works are raising
the demand for labour; so that one of the
most thickly-populated countries in the
world can no longer afford to send coolies
to the Mauritius or the West Indies, but
wants every man at home. I do not
expatiate upon these changes which are
going on in the political life of India. I
do but hastily marshal them before you.
You are well able to think them out for
yourselves; and all I ask you to realize is
that the great mutiny of 1857 fell like a
landslip from the mountains across the
current of British power; that by God's
help the dammed-up flood rose and rose
till it prevailed; and clearing its way
through piled-up rock and forest,
scattered them in broken splinters over
the land, and is now flowing on in broader,
deeper, swifter streams than ever of
fertility, progress, and civilization. Let
us now turn and see what changes are
going on in the 'social and intellectual
habits of the people.' They are so inter-
twined together that I will not attempt to
separate them. The great fact that stands
out from all others is this, that Western
education has begun to tell at last upon
the Eastern mind; and that after centuries
of stagnation it may now be said joyfully
of the intellect of India, as the hearty
English crowd shouted the other day at
the launch of the Northumberland, 'She's
off! she's off!' In using the term 'Wes-
tern education' I speak advisedly, in order
to include education of all kinds, secular
and religious, that given by the State and
that given by Missionary Societies. The
latest statistics I can obtain are from the 2. I shall labour to compose and
Friend of India, which states that 'There gradually bring into practice a ritual

renunciation of idolatry and polytheism, and adoption of a pure Deism; abolition of caste; abolition of polygamy; abolition of infant marriages; female education, and general introduction of women into society; purity of morals. (Great applause.) A still more advanced school have a dawning consciousness that even Deism is but a halting-place, and real reformers must push on to a higher faith. The centre of all this movement has been the association called the Brahmo Somâj in Calcutta ; and what marks the vitality of their impulse, is their missionary zeal. (Applause.) The Brahmo Somâj are most active proselytisers, and have sent missionaries of their own to the other two capitals of India to preach the reformation they have in hand. (Hear.) To bring home to you what is thus being done, I will read to you from the Missionary News of April 14th the covenant which is subscribed by every Hindoo who joins the movement at Madras:

"1. I shall worship through love of Him, and the performance of the work He loveth, the Supreme Being, the Creator, Preserver, the Destroyer, the Giver of Salvation, the Omniscient, the Omnipotent, the Blissful, the Good, the Formless, the only one without a second, and none of the created objects, subject to the following conditions:


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