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there destroyed, some being exposed to the wild beasts, and others compelled to fight in troops against one another. At Cæsarea, too, in honour of his brother's birth-day,1 two thousand five hundred Jews were slain; and a great number likewise at Berytus, in honour of his father's. The like2 was done in other cities of Syria. Those whom he reserved for his triumph3 were Simon and John, the generals of the captives, and seven hundred others of remarkable stature and beauty. Thus were the Jews miserably tormented, and distributed over the Roman provinces; and are they not still distressed and dispersed over all the nations of the earth?

Was not this a time of great tribulation? Were not these days of vengeance indeed? Was there ever a more exact accomplishment of any prediction than these words of our Saviour had?

(v.) The total destruction of the temple and city of Jerusalem. PROPHECY. Matt. xxiii. 37, 38. Luke xiii. 34, 35. O Jerusalem! Jerusalem!--- Behold your house is left unto you desolate. Matt. xxiv. 2. Mark xiii. 2. Luke xxi. 6. The days will come, in the which there shall not be left here one stone upon another, that shall not be thrown down. — Luke xix. They shall lay thee even with the ground, and shall not leave in thee one stone upon another. - Luke xxi. 24. Jerusalem shall be trodden down of the Gentiles, until the times of the Gentiles be fulfilled.

FULFILMENT.It seemed exceedingly improbable that the events here foretold by Jesus Christ, should happen in that age, when the Jews were at perfect peace with the Romans; and the strength of their citadel was such, as constrained Titus to acknowledge that it was the SINGULAR HAND OF GOD, that compelled them to relinquish fortifications which no human power could have conquered. Our Saviour's words also were almost literally fulfilled, and scarcely one stone was left upon another. The temple was a building of such strength and grandeur, of such splendour and beauty, that it was likely to be preserved, as it was worthy to be preserved, for a monument of the victory and glory of the Roman empire. Titus was accordingly very desirous of preserving it, and protested5 to the Jews, who had fortified themselves within it, that he would preserve it, even against their will. He had6 expressed the like desire of preserving the city too, and repeatedly sent Josephus and other Jews to their countrymen, to persuade them to a surrender. But an overruling Providence directed things otherwise. The Jews themselves? first set fire to the porticos of the temple, and then the Romans. One of the soldiers neither waiting for any command, nor trembling for such an attempt, but urged by a certain divine impulse, threw a burning brand in at the golden window, and thereby set fire to the buildings of the temple itself. Titus9 ran immediately to the temple, and commanded his soldiers to extinguish the flame. But neither exhortations nor threatenings could restrain their violence. They either could not hear, or would not hear; and those behind encouraged those before to set fire to the temple. He was still for preserving the holy place. He commanded his soldiers even to be beaten for disobeying him: but their anger, and their hatred of the Jews, and a certain warlike vehement fury overcame their reverence for their general, and their dread for his commands. A soldier in the dark set fire to the doors and thus as Josephus10 says, the temple was burnt against the will of Cæsar. When the soldiers had rested from their horrid work of blood and plunder, Titus gave orders to demolish the foundations of the city and the temple. But, that posterity might judge of the glory and value of his conquests, he left three towers standing as monuments of the prodigious strength and greatness of the city; and also a part of the western wall, which he designed as a rampart for a garrison, to keep the surrounding country in subjection. All the other buildings were completely levelled with the ground. It is recorded by Maimonides, and likewise in the Jewish Talmud, that Terentius Rufus, an officer in the army of Titus, with a ploughshare tore up the foundations of the temple, and thus remarkably fulfilled the words of the prophet Micah: Therefore shall Zion for your sake, be ploughed as a field, and Jerusalem shall become heaps, and the mountain of the house as the high places of the forest. (Mic. iii. 12.) The city also shared the same fate, and was burnt and destroyed together with the temple.11 With the exception of the three towers, above mentioned as being left standing,12 all the rest of the city was so demolished and levelled with the ground, that those who came to see it could not believe that it had ever been inhabited. And when Titus came again to Jerusalem in his way from Syria to Egypt, and beheld the

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sad devastation, he bitterly lamented the cruel necessity, which had compelled him to destroy so magnificent a city. After the city was thus taken and destroyed, a great quantity of riches were found by the Romans, who dug up the ruins in search of the treasures which had been concealed in the earth. So literally were the words of Jesus Christ accomplished in the ruin both of the city and of the temple! Well might Eleazar say to the Jews who were besieged in the fortress of Masada "What is become of our city, which was believed to be inhabited by God? It is now demolished to the very foundations; and the only monument of it that is left is the camp of those who destroyed it, which is still pitched upon its remains." Well might he express a passionate wish that they had all died before they beheld that holy city demolished by the hands of their enemies, and the sacred temple so profanely dug up from

its foundations.2

As the Jews were to be led away captive into all nations, so was Jerusalem to be trodden down of the Gentiles, until the times of the Gentiles be fulfilled. So complete ly was Judæa subjugated, that the very land itself was sold by Vespasian, the Gentiles possessing it, while the Jews were nearly all slain or led into captivity; and Jerasalem has never since been in the possession of the Jews. When, indeed, the emperor Hadrian visited the eastern parts of the Roman empire, and found Jerusalem a heap of ruins, forty-seven years after its destruction, he determined to rebuild it; but not exactly on the same spot. He called the new city, Ælia, after his own name, placed a Roman colony in it, and dedicated a temple to Jupiter Capitolinus, in the room of the temple of Jehovah. This profanation of the holy place was the great cause of the rebellions and sufferings of the Jews during the reign of Hadrian. The city was once more taken by them and burnt. Hadrian rebuilt it re-established the colony-ordered the statue of a hog (which the Jews held in religious abhorrence) to be set up over the gate that opened towards Bethlehem; and published an edict, strictly forbidding any Jew, on pain of death, to enter the city, or even to look at it from a distance. Thus the city remained, till the time of Constantine, the first Christian emperor, who greatly improved it, and restored the name of Jerusalem; but the Jews were not permitted to reside there. Attempting in vain to get possession of their capital, Constantine caused their ears to be cut off, their bodies to be marked as rebels, and dispersed them over all the provinces of the empire, as fugitives and slaves. The emperor Julian, from enmity to the Christians, favoured the Jews; and, in the vain hope of contradicting the prophecy concerning it, attempted to rebuild the temple; but, he was miraculously prevented, and obliged to desist from his impious undertaking. Jovian revived the severe edict of Hadrian; and the Greek emperors continued the prohibition; so that the wretched Jews used to give money to the soldiers for permission to behold and weep over the ruins of their temple and city, particularly on the return of that memorable day, in which it had been taken by the Romans. In the reign of Heraclius, Chosroes, king of Persia, took and plundered it; but Heraclius soon recovered the possession of it. In 637, the Christians surrendered Jerusalem to Omar, the Saracen Caliph, who built a mosque upon the site of Solomon's Temple. It remained in the possession of the Saracens above 400 years, and then was taken by the Turks. They retained it till the year 1099, when the Franks took it under Godfrey of Boulogne, General of the Crusaders. The Franks kept possession 88 years, that is, till 1187, when the Turks, under Saladin, retook it by capitulation, and with them it has remained ever since.3

"Thus literally has this prophecy been hitherto fulfilled! - Jerusalem has been thus constantly trodden down of the Gentiles, the Romans, the Saracens, the Franks, and the Turks. Its antient inhabitants have been expelled, and persecuted, and its holy places have been polluted. The eagles of idolatrous Rome, the crescent of the impostor Mahomet, and the banner of popery carried by the Crusaders, have been successively displayed amidst the ruins of the sanctuary of Jehovah, for nearly eighteen hundred years. 4 And the Jews are still preserved a living and continued monument of the truth of our Lord's prediction, and of the irrefragable truth of the Christian religion. The conclusion of the prediction, however, (TILL the times of the Gentiles be fulfilled,) indicates that Jerusalem, - the city once beautiful for situation and the joy of the whole earth, shall NOT be trodden down for ever. "The times of the Gentiles

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1 Josephus,de Bell. Jud. lib. 7. c. 1. § 2.

2 Ibid. lib. 7. c. 8. § 7.

3 Bp. Newton's Dissertations on the Prophecies, vol. ii. pp. 57-69. The preceding account of the accomplishment of our Saviour's predictions concerning the destruction of Jerusalem, the subversion of the Jewish polity, and the calamities which have befallen the Jews, are chiefly abridged from this learned prelate's eighteenth, nineteenth, twentieth, and twenty-first dissertations, with occasional assistance from Mr. Kett's History, the Interpreter of Prophecy, vol. i. pp. 288-333.

4 Kett, on Prophecy, vol. i. p. 333.

will be fulfilled, when the times of the four great kingdoms of the Gentiles, according to Daniel's prophecies, shall be expired, and the fifth kingdom, or the kingdom of Christ, shall be set up in their place, and the saints of the Most High shall take the kingdom, and possess the kingdom for ever, even for ever and ever. Jerusalem, as it has hitherto remained, so probably will remain in subjection to the Gentiles, until these times of the Gentiles be fulfilled; or, as St. Paul expresses it (Rom. xi. 25, 26.), until the fulness of the Gentiles be come in; and so all Israel shall be saved and become again the people of God. The fulness of the Jews will come in as well as the fulness of the Gentiles. For (ver. 12. 25, 26.) if the fall of them be the riches of the world, and the diminishing of them the riches of the Gentiles; how much more their fulness? For I would not, brethren, that ye should be ignorant of this mystery, that blindness in part is happened to Israel, until the fulness of the Gentiles be come in. And so all Israel shall be saved."1

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§ 1. That there is salvation ONLY through Christ.

PROPHECY. Zech. xiii. 1. In that day there shall be a fountain opened to the house of David, and to the inhabitants of Jerusalem, for sin and for uncleanness. Mal. iv. 2. Unto you that fear my name shall the Sun of Righteousness arise, with healing in his wings. - Isa. liii. 11. By his knowledge shall my righteous servant justify many. - Isa. lix. 20. The Redeemer shall come to Sion, and unto them that turn from transgression in Jacob. See Rom. ix. 26. Ps. exviii. 22. The stone which the builders refused, the same is become the head stone of the corner. Isa. xxviii. 16. Matt. xii. 10. FULFILMENT.-John iii. 16. God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him, should not perish, but have everlasting life. Compare also 1 Thess. v. 9.; John xvii. 3. — Luke xxiv. 47. — That repentance and remission of sins should be preached in his name. See also Acts x. 43. Acts xiii. 38, 39. Through this man is preached unto you the forgiveness of sins; and by him all that believe are justified. Acts iv. 11, 12. This is the stone, which was set at nought of you builders, which is become the head of the corner. Neither is there salvation in any other: for there is none other name under Heaven given among men, whereby we must be saved.

2. Of the necessity of believing in Christ, and the danger of rejecting him.

Deut. xviii. 15. 19. The Lord will raise up unto thee a prophet · Unto him shall ye hearken · - Whosoever will not hearken unto my words, which he shall speak in my name, I will require it of him. [In Acts iii. 23. this prediction is cited and applied to Jesus Christ.] - Numb. xv. 30, 31. The soul that doth aught presumptuously reproacheth the Lord; and that soul shall be cut off from among his people, because he hath despised the word of the Lord. Ps. ii. 12. Kiss the Son, lest he be angry, and ye perish from the right way.


John iii. 18. He that believeth on him is not condemned; but he that believeth not is condemned already, because he hath not believed in the name of the only Son of God. - Heb. ii. 3. How shall we escape if we neglect so great salvation? - Heb. x. 26. 29. If we sin wilfully, after that we have received the knowledge of the truth, there remaineth no more sacrifice for sins, but a certain fearful looking for of judgment and fiery indignation, which shall devour the adversaries. He that despised Moses' law died without mercy, under two or three witnesses; of how much sorer punishment shall he be thought worthy, who hath trodden under foot the Son of God, and hath counted the blood of the covenant wherewith he was sanctified an

1 Bp. Newton's Dissertations, vol. ii. 70.

unholy thing, and hath done despite unto the Spirit of grace. The Lord shall be revealed from Heaven with his mighty angels, in flaming fire, taking vengeance on them that know not God, and that obey not the gospel of our Lord Christ. 2 Thess. i. 7, 8.

The testimony of Jesus is the spirit of prophecy' (Rev. xix. 10.) ;and of that testimony it were easy to have offered hundreds of instances equally striking with those above given. Copious as the preceding table of prophecies is, the selection has necessarily been restricted to THe prinCIPAL, in order that this article of our Appendix might not be extended to an undue length. The reader, who is desirous of seeing all (or nearly all) the predictions relative to the Messiah, is referred to Huet's Demonstratio Evangelica, Prop. IX. (vol. ii. pp. 595-1056. Amsterdam, 1680), and to Mr. Barker's" Messiah: being the prophecies concerning him methodised, with their accomplishments, London, 1780." 8vo. Both these works have been consulted in drawing up the preceding table of prophecies and their accomplishments. At the end of Vol. II. Book II. (1374-1380.) of Dr. Hales's Analysis of Sacred Chronology, that learned writer has given two series of the great prophecies and allusions to Christ in the Old Testament; which are expressly cited either as predictions fulfilled in him, or applied to him by way of accommodation, in the New Testament. The first of these series describes Jesus Christ in his human nature, as the PROMISED SEED OF THE WOMAN in the grand charter of our Redemption (Gen. iii. 15.); and his pedigree, sufferings, and glory in his successive manifestations of himself, until the end of the world. The second series describes his character and offices, human and divine. Although these two series of prophecies consists only of references to the Old and New Testament, some of which necessarily coincide with the predictions above given at length; yet the biblical student will find his time not ill-spent in comparing them. The second series contains many titles and offices of Jesus Christ, which could not, for want of room, be inserted in the present work.

To conclude; It is a FACT worthy of remark, and which ought never to be forgotten, that most of the prophecies, delivered in the Öld Testament concerning the Messiah, were revealed nearly, and some of them more than three thousand years ago, and yet scarcely one of them can be applied to any man that ever lived upon earth except to Him, who is Immanuel, God with us, the Lord Jesus Christ, to whom give all the prophets witness.' (Acts x. 43.) With regard to the predictions announced by Jesus the Messiah, the voice of history in every age (and especially the present state of Jerusalem and of the Jews,)-concurs to demonstrate their truth, and consequently the truth of the Gospel. The more, therefore, we contemplate these astonishing FACTS, the more deeply we investigate the wonderful display of divine power, wisdom, and goodness, the more we shall be disposed to exclaim, with the amazed centurion, TRULY THIS WAS THE SON OF GOD! 79



No. V.


[Referred to in p. 97. of this volume, and in Vol. IV. Part I. Chap. VIII.]



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I. Derivation of the term Apocrypha.-II. Reasons why the Apocryphal Books were rejected from the Canon of Scripture; -1. They possess no authority whatever, to give them admission into the sacred canon; — 2. They were not admitted into it during the first four centuries of the Christian ara; -3. They contradict the canonical Scriptures ; — 4. They contain false, absurd, and incredible things;-5. They contradict all other profane historians.-III. Notices of, 1. The Apocryphal Book of Enoch; and, 2. Of the Apocryphal Ascension of Isaiah.IV. Uses of these spurious productions.

I. BESIDES the Scriptures of the Old Testament, which are universally acknowledged to be genuine and inspired writings, both by the Jewish and Christian churches, there are several other writings, partly historical, partly ethical, and partly poetical, which are usually printed at the end of the Old Testament in the larger editions of the English Bible, under the appellation of the " APOCRYPHA,"—that is, books not admitted into the sacred canon, being either spurious, or at least not acknowledged to be divine. The word Apocrypha is of Greek origin, and is either derived from the words aro rns xgurrns, because the books in question were removed from the crypt, chest, ark, or other receptacle in which the sacred books were deposited, whose authority was never doubted; or more probably, from the verb amoxguasw, to hide or conceal, because they were concealed from the generality of readers, their authority not being recognised by the church, and because they are books which are destitute of proper testimonials, their original being obscure, their authors unknown, and their character either heretical or suspected. The advocates of the church of Rome, indeed, affirm that even these are divinely inspired; but it is easy to account for this assertion these apocryphal writings serve to countenance some of the corrupt practices of that church.

II. The Protestant churches not only account those books to be apocryphal, and merely human compositions, which are esteemed such by the church of Rome, as the prayer of Manasseh, the third and fourth books of Esdras, the addition at the end of Job, and the hundred and fifty-first psalm; but also the books of Tobit, Judith, the additions to the book of Esther, Wisdom, Ecclesiasticus, Baruch the prophet, with the epistle of Jeremiah, the Song of the Three Children, the story of Susanna, the story of Bel and the Dragon, and the first and second

1 Augustin. contra Faustum, lib. xi. c. 2. De Civitate Dei, lib. xv. c. 23. § 4. The passages are given at length in Dr. Lardner's Works, vol. v. p. 90. 8vo.; vol. ii. p. 581. 4to.

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