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places, a minority, whose tried servility would leave them satisfied with the profits of office, without the slightest influ ence in the national councils. Is it astonishing, that thus harrassed within and without, not knowing which to dread the most, a foreign enemy or their own government, since both seemed bent on their destruction—is it astonishing, we ask, that they should have sometimes passed the ordinary bounds of opposition? What shall be said of an Administration, who could thus alienate a large portion of the community, whose monied wealth, condensed population, and active resources, were of so much importance; of an Administration, who, in rancorous pursuit of the paltry objects of party, were willing to place the very existence of the nation in jeopardy?

Thus doomed to struggle for the preservation of their essential rights and natural standing in their own states; they were still further discouraged at the universal mismanagement of a war, the great purpose of which, appeared to be their ruin. The finances approaching to the verge of bankruptcy, the frontiers abandoned to the ravages of the enemy, and the main efforts of the Administration directed to the useless conquest of Canada. Their resources diminishing, their institutions palsied, their population forced to emigrate, harrassed by the enemy, and persecuted by their own government, their prospects for themselves personally, and for their country, were equally gloomy and the only smile they could give, was one of bitter derision, at the ludicrous wailings of foreign vagrants, who hardly landed on their shores, were, for a daily stipend, deploring their degradation from the character of their ancestors, and their want of national feeling!

Without going into detail on this painful subject, let us turn to Lake Ontario, for one scene of mismanagement. By the plan of their campaign, it was necessary to obtain command on this lake; from gunboats, they proceeded to frigates, from frigates to ships of the line; a fleet was thus created, which was unserviceable so long as it remained inferiour, and the moment it attained the superiority, was for ever after useless. To man and arm this fleet, the ships of the line in our seaports were dismantled, or to speak more correctly, leit unfitted-Yet, if instead of equipping ships of the line on Lake Ontario, they had been launched in the

seaports, and in addition to those we already possessed there, sent on the ocean, where only we could seriously annoy the enemy, more would have been done for the conquest of Canada, in one year, than would have ever been effected in the course pursued. The American navy had fully shewn its character, and of what materials it was composed-they were more justly to be dreaded than the cumbrous fleets of France and Spain; one Spartan battalion was more dangerous than a Persian army-With five ships of the line and our few frigates, divided into two or three squadrons, we might have scoured every sea. The utmost alarm and distress would have pervaded the commercial interests. of England-As it was, their numerous convoys were safe under the protection of single ships of the line: if our ships had been at sea, every convoy must have had its guards doubled, or been exposed to destruction: squadrons, also, must have been sent in pursuit of the hostile ships, and the British navy, large as it is, would not have sufficed for these purposes; they must either have left their commerce unprotected, or abandoned the blockade of our coasts. The consequences are obvious, in the one case some animation would have been given to our own commerce; in the other, the British merchants would have been thrown into consternation. The nation was able to bear the enormous burthens of taxation, while it procured them a monopoly of commerce; but if the insecurity of their commercial fleets had been added to these burthens, convulsions would have followed.

In the mean time the State of Massachusetts was denounced, for suffering the enemy to hold possession of Castine. This place is on a small peninsula, with high and commanding ground, at the mouth of the Penobscot. The British dug a canal across the neck, and thus converted it into an Island, the approach to which was completely enfiladed by ships of war on both sides, and heavy batteries. opposed the assailants in front. It was provided with a

*Some idea of the relish for this service by those employed in it, may be formed from the following anecdotes :-An officer going down to one of the cities on the sea-coast, asked another if he had any commissions ?-only to send him a bottle of salt water. A number of seamen, drafted from the lakes to serve on board the Independence, when they came along side of the ship, jumped over, half a dozen of them, and were swimming about. The officer in charge, with surprise, inquired what was the matter-O sir, we don't mean to disgrace that ship, we are not fit to go on board of her, till we have washed off the d-d fresh water.

sufficient garrison, who could always receive supplies by sea. The country adjoining was thinly peopled. If it had been attacked by as large an army, as that which assaulted the lines of New-Orleans, and the regular troops within had done their duty, as well as the militia in those lines did theirs, the result would probably have been the same; yet every artifice was made use of, to throw an odium on the government of Massachusetts for not retaking this position. The people who were loudest in their clamour, lived on the shores of a Bay in which there was an island, quite as easy of attack as this of Castine; where the enemy calmly formed a depot for plunder, for the training of runaway slaves, and for building boats for the future expedition to the Mississippi. They were in the heart of a numerous population, near the seat of Government-and quite as unmolested as the garrison of Guernsey.-Besides, the State of Massachusetts had expended 800,000 dollars in specie, for the defence of her territory, her citizens had volunteered to erect various fortifications with the greatest activity and cheerfulness; her capital was almost converted into a garrison town, and yet the expenses she incurred are still, by a despicable quibble, unliquidated; though Virginia, and other states in the same. situation, have been reimbursed. Such is the protection, such the generosity and justice, which this proscribed state has received from the national government.

In thus recalling the blunders of our administration, it is some consolation, that the enemy, if possible, committed still greater. The ravages and buccaneering spirit with which they carried on the war in the Southern states, the plunder of Alexandria, the destruction of Washington, an act without a parallel in modern warfare; the letter of Admiral Cochrane, openly avowing the intention to ravage and destroy every spot that was defenceless and unprotected, were all acts which made them at once odious and despised. But their fatal errour was in the continuance of the war. When they found themselves unexpectedly relieved from the long contest in Europe, and that the United States were the only enemy who remained, they should then have offered peace. This would have appeared the greatest magnanimity on their part, thus to wave the opportunity of overwhelming us; the capture of the frigates would have been forgotten, and we should have escaped from a luckless war, with all the disgrace of our first defeats by land, and in the

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opinion of the world and perhaps our own, should have thought we owed our escape to the clemency of a generous and powerful foe. Fortunately, a spirit of revenge, and blind arrogance led them a different course. Chastisement was the most lenient threat uttered; conquest and destruction were contemplated. The "invincibles" from the Peninsula, all the disposable forces both sea and land, were directed to these devoted shores, which they were to overrun, and particular parts were to be retained as permanent acquisitions. They came, and were covered with confusion and disgrace. Our navy maintained its reputation; our army acquired one. Wherever they appeared they were defeated, except in the instance, where they were opposed by the administration "in person." The gallant conflicts in Canada, the repulse at Baltimore, the overthrow on Lake Champlain, the retreat from Plattsburg, where an army of veteran troops retired before a handful of militia and regulars, the destructive defeat at New-Orleans, were the consequences of continuing the war. Every where the invader met defiance from the gallant spirit of our citizens; death, captivity or flight, were the only alternatives. Thus ended the scheme of vengeance, marked by some of the most memorable defeats recorded in history.

There is fortunately no evil, without something to allevi ate its effects. Even war, one of the greatest of all the evils which afflict society, is not wholly without advantages. It is encouraging to reflect, that amid the disasters, the privations, the sufferings, the losses, and the burthens which were occasioned by this war, there were several important advantages resulting from it. It has increased our consideration in the world. The United States, with the exception of the hostilities with France, where the two parties could hardly come in contact, and some wars with the barbarians on the coast of Africa, and those on our frontier, which hardly excited the attention of Europe in the midst of the tremendous wars then raging, had not been tried in warfare, since the struggle by which they acquired independence. Their active and prosperous enterprise, had

* An eminent Map-seller in London, advised an American gentleman, not knowing him to be such, who applied to him for a map of the United States, to defer the purchase for a few weeks; that he was then keeping all his maps unfinished, as the boundaries would all be changed, and a considerable part of the Union incorporated with the British possessions!

drawn on them the attention of the world, and the belligerent nations encroached on their rights, till at last they thought they possessed none, or at least none, which they would defend. The love of peace was thought to be founded on incapacity for war. The exploits of our navy and army, excited admiration. Their first effort, we may almost say, was not to contend with inferiour combatants, but a contest with the victorious gladiator, who alone maintained possession of the arena. The short conflict attracted the attention of the world, and has given us character abroad, "and character is power."

At home, the war has brought back the government to the sound principles of the Federal administration. It has secured the establishment of a navy for defence; it has shewn the necessity of preparation and the policy of providing arsenals and fortifications; it has withered the vile hypocrisy of economy, the vote-gaining, gun-boat, dry-dock economy; and has shewn, that true economy consists in a wise expenditure. It has taught us greater respect for ourselves. France and England, in disturbing Europe to its foundations, had drawn all the attention of the world toward them. We were deeply affected by our various sympathies towards these nations; and having been so long spectators, we hardly thought we could be actors on the same scene. The glare of their exploits was dazzling to our peaceful sight. For obvious, natural reasons, a good deal of this admiration was felt for the English. We met, and the consequence is, a juster appreciation of each other. Even the specimens of their officers whom we saw after the peace, had a useful effect, though sometimes an amusing one, in dispelling illusion. We wonder at them a little less, and they respect us a little more; peace is therefore much more likely to continue. No one can desire more ardently than ourselves, that it may never again be interrupted.

We have made some of the preceding remarks with reluctance, not wishing to touch on topicks that awaken party excitement; but we could not refrain from a few allusions to the manner in which the Federalists have been treated, particularly in the Eastern States. As they possessed the control of the state governments in that section, they were assailed with every weapon of intrigue. The misrepresentations of their conduct have been so widely and industriously spread, that many honest men in other parts of the

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