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per acre or square mile is often computed, but there are seldom similar computations relating to the sea. Tlie North Sea is one of the best of the world's fish fields. Its area is 225,884 square miles. The average yearly value of the fish catch is $41,000,000, so that every square mile averages $18.15.

The American fisheries are represented by an annual catch of 1,696,000,000 pounds, worth $47,180,000. They are caught as follows: 616,000,000 pounds from the waters of the New England States; 596,000,000, Middle Atlantic States; 59,000,000, South Atlantic States; 84,000,000, Gulf States; 147,000,000, Pacific States; and 64,000,000 from Alaska; in the Great Lakes, 108,000,000, and interior fisheries, 19,000,000.

NAVIES.

ANCIENT AND MODERN NAVIES.

FROM. the construction of the great steam propelled vessels of to-day it is interesting to cast a glance at the naval architecture of the past. Of the infancy of the art of naval architecture we know little. It is almo.st certain, however, that the first vessels in use were not large, for the largest of the Grecian fleet at the siege of Troy, 1184 B. C., carried only 120 men. These vessels were all propelled by oars and had no decks. Such sails as they had were merely auxiliary to the oars, which were not discarded until a much later day. Fighting at sea had not then come into fashion and it is not until 500 years later that we read of vessels being built with a view to encountering enemies afloat. By this time the oars had been increased in number and arranged in banks, one above the other. The fighting men were stationed

at the bow and stern, while the oarsmen occupied the center of the vessel. Later on, a deck was added, thus making room for a large number of soldiers aboard and more thoroughly protecting the oarsmen. The object of the naval tactics of that day was to run alongside of an enemy, and disable his vessel by breaking his oars, as well as to crush his sides if possible. In order to accomplish this, the prows, or peaks, were constructed of the strongest and toughest woods and were sometimes shod with iron, the prow frequently extending below the water line, thus rendering a blow the more destructive. This was the idea of ramming which in modern times has been revived. Other means of destruction were then resorted to as well, such, for instance, as Grecian fire.

Of the history of ship-building after the fall of Roman civilization as little is definitely known as is of the period prior to it. The Saxon pirates who ravaged the coasts of Europe put to sea on their expeditions in large flatbottomed boats, the keels of which were of very light timber, the floors and sides being merely of wicker work, and the whole being covered with strong hides. In time these were replaced by vessels built of wood and having leather sails. Gradually the sails were increased until oars went out of use.

The invention of gunpowder, or rather its application, about the beginning of the fifteenth century, and the consequent introduction of artillery on board of war vessels, led to further improvements. The galleys were first adapted to the new order of things by being enlarged and armed with guns placed in the bows. Later on, the galleys gave way to the galleons, in which the use of oars was entirely dispensed with. Port holes were then cut in the sides of vessels by means of which guns could be usefully carried on the lower deck. During the fifteenth century commerce between nations had greatly increased; the mariner's compass had come to be generally used; the astrolabe had been applied to navigation; America had been discovered; the Cape of Good Hope had been rounded; the sea route to the Indies had superseded the land route, and all this necessitated improvements and changes in ships. These, however, pertained chiefly to

the fittings. No alterations had taken place in the models. Nearly all ships at this time carried guns. About the year 1529 the English ship, the Great Harry, was built. This has been styled the parent of the navies of the world. Her construction was considered to be a great triumph in ship-building, and gave a great impetus to naval architecture. About the year 1660 vessels containing three tiers of guns were built by the Spaniards, and the English, stimulated by their example, built the vessel, the Sovereign of the Seas, the finest specimen of a man-ofwar ever constructed up to that time. From that time naval architecture passed through the various phases with which a perusal of our own history makes us familiar, until it has developed to-day into the necessity of variouj classes of vessels, ranging from the mighty battleship to the speedy scout and from the quick destroyer to the dangerous submarine craft.

Active List, United States Navy.The active list of the United States Navy comprises 1,340 commissioned and 177 warrant officers. The enlisted force numbers 14,603 men. The United States Marine Corps consists of 201 officers and 6 000 men.

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THE GREATEST NAVIES.
Great

Aus.-
Britain. France. Russia. Italy. Gorma'y. Hun. Japan.
Battleships 1st Cl. 45

22 13
Battleships 2d Cl. 12
Battleships 3d Cl. 11 2
Coast Defence 13
Armed Cruisers 30

6 5 2 7
Ist Cl. Cruisers 21
2d-3d Cl. Cruis.
Sea Gunboats

99
River Gunboats
Transports, etc. 44
Repair Ships, etc. 125
Training Ships
Auxiliary Vessels 94 76 42 13
Obsolete Vessels 22 94
T. B. Destroyers 123 25 31
Ist Cl. T. B.
97 120 89

12

115 2d-3d Cl. T. B. 145 108 98 160 36 Officers

3,919 2,015 2,258 840 1,555 659 Seamen

81,803 67,200 41.853 23,590 21,800 12,900 Heavy Guns 1,060 739 658 156 283 209 178 Secondary Guns 9,088 4,249 4,308 2,057 1,459 827 1,312

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THE WORLD'S NEW WARSHIPS. The figures included in the following table are very instructive. They show that, even including the monitors, harbor forts only, the preparations made by the United States for increasing its power at sea must be put at the foot of what has been undertaken by civilized nations. Even Italy, the weakest of all, is adding more to its Navy than we are. It may be set down as morally certain that in the not far distant future, no country will be more in need of a Navy to keep for its industry and commerce its rightful place in the world than the United States. The war vessels now building are com- · puted by Engineering in tons:

Battleships. Cruisers. Torpedo V'ls. Total. England

251,700 267,080 12,900 531,680 France

80,281 166,283 8,969 255,533 Germany

99,729 41,851 6,655 148,235 Italy

78,454 38,901 3,185 120.540 Japan

59,700 63,280

7,133

130,113 Russia

115,713 92,697 16,566 222,976 United States

94,715

4,935

10,646 Monitors 12,940

123,236 Of this aggregate the amount begun in 1899 is as follows:

Battleships. Cruisers. Torpedo V'ls. Total. England

116,000 127,700 4,200 247,900 France

25.456 113.943 4.800 144. 199 Germany

44,324 2,200 4,200 51,324 Italy

32,000

1,800 33,800 Russia

57,426

6,375

1,700 65,501 United States

36,970

4,191 Monitors 12,940

54,101 ENLISTMENT IN THE NAVY. The term of enlistment in the United States Navy is for four years. Applicants must be of robust frame, intelligent, of perfectly sound and healthy constitution and free from any of the following physical defects : Greatly retarded development, feeble constitution, inherited or acquired; permanently impaired general health, decided cachexia, diathesis or predisposition, weak or disordered intellect, epilepsy or other convulsions within five years, impaired vision or chronic disease of the organs of vision, great dullness of hearing or chronic disease of the ears, chronic nasal catarrh, ozæna, polypi or great

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enlargement of the tonsils, marked impediments of speech, decided indications of liability to pulmonary disease, chronic cardiac affections, large varicose veins of lower limbs, chronic ulcers, unnatural curvatures of the spine, permanent disability of either of the extremities, or articulations from any cause, defective teeth. Boys between 15 and 17 years of age, may, subject to the foregoing conditions and with the consent of parents or guardians, be enlisted as apprentices in the Navy until 21 years of age. Landsmen enlist between 18 and 25 years of age.

UNITED STATES NAVAL VESSELS.

ARMORED BATTLESHIPS.

Tons Name. Displace

ment. A Alabama 11,565 18 368 72 23.5 40 453 4 13-in bl, 14 6-in rf Georgia Illinois 11,565 16 368 72 23.5 40 453 4 13-in bl, 14 6-in rf Indiana 10,810 15.5 348 69 25.1 32 465 4 13-in bi, 4 6-in rf Iowa 11,340 17 300 72 24 36 474 4 12-in bl, 8 8-in bl,

6 4-in rf. Kearsarge 11,525 16.8 368 72 22.5 40 513 4 13-in bl, 4 8-in bl,

14 5-in rf. Kentucky 11,525 16 368 72 23.5 40 514 4 13-in bl, 4 8-ir bl.

14 5-in rf. Maine 12,300 18 388 72 23.5 40 478 4 12-in bl, 16 6-in rf - M'chusetts 10,810 16.2 348 69 25.1 32 463 4 13-in bl, 8 8-in bl,

4 6-in rf. Missouri 12,230 18 388 72 23.5 35 478 4. 12-in bl. 16 6-in of New Jersey Ohio

12,440 18 388 72 23.5 35 478 4 12-in bl, 16 6-in rf Oregon 11,000 16.8 348 69 25.3 32 462 4 13-in bl, 8 8-in bl,

4 6-in rf. P'sylvania Texas

6,315 18 301 64 22.5 30 413 2 12-in bl, 6 6-in bl. Wisconsin 11,565 16 368 72 23.5 35 453 4 13-in bl, 14 6-in rf

ARMORED CRUISERS.
Brooklyn 9,215 22 400 64 24 46 471 8 8-in bl, 12 5-in rf.
California
Nebraska
New York 8,200 21 380 64 23.5 40 522 6 8-in bl, 12 4-in rf.
W. Virginia

RAM.
Katahdin 2,155 17 250 43 15 7 90 4.6 pdr rf.

TURRET MONITORS.
Amphitrite 3,990 10.5 259 55 14.5 26 156 4 10-in bl, 2 4-in rf.
Miantonomoh 3,990 10.5 259 55 14.5 13 136 4 10-in bl,
Monadnock 4,005 12 259 55 14.6 26 187 4 10-in bl, 2 4-in rf.

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