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taken, that this church, instead of permitting among them teachers of false doctrine, could not bear them who were evil :—and the inevitable inference is, that, the Ephesians not being chargeable with this when the Apocalypse was written, Paul's Epistle to them must have been penned subsequently.
It is believed by many that Paul's first Epistle to Timothy, who, according to tradition, was one of the Elders at Ephesus, was written before this Epistle to the Ephesians. That Epistle, as has been shown, was written after the Apocalypse; a circumstance which tends to confirm the accuracy of the allusions which have been pointed out. In fact the Epistle to Timothy may be considered as one to the church in which he was a bishop; and the obvious inference from all that has been stated is, that Paul was urged, by the Apocalyptic address to this church, respecting her failure in love, and what he had learnt of the farther defection of some of her members from the way of truth, to leave Timothy at Ephesus, for the purpose of restoring her to her former purity.
§ 5. Of Allusions to the Apocalypse found in the Epistle to the Philippians.
In the second chapter of this Epistle there is a most remarkable passage, which, as bearing on the question now under discussion, deserves particular attention. The Apostle, speaking of the amazing condescension and humility of CHRIST JESUS, in making himself of no reputation, taking on him the form of a servant, and the likeness of men, and submitting to death, says, in verses 9, 10, 11, “Wherefore God also hath highly exalted "him, and given him a name which is above every "name; that at the name of JESUS every knee should "bow, of things in heaven and things in earth, and things under the earth, and that every tongue should confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of "God the Father." So runs the authorised version; but, for "a name," which is the reading of the common Greek text, the best manuscripts read To ovopa," the Name :"-a mode of speech whichi instantly suggests the question, What name? and the text not only furnishes the answer, Tò èp Taν ovoμα, "the one that is above every name;' but states the design or purpose, for which “the Name” was given, viz. ἵνα ἐν τῷ ὀνόματι ̓Ιησοῦ, πᾶν γόνυ κάμψῃ ἐπουρανίων καὶ ἐπιγείων καὶ καταχbovíwv, "in order that at the name of Jesus
every knee should bend, of heavenly, and earthly, "and subterrene (creatures)." Have we not in the words just quoted the πᾶν κτίσμα ἐν τῷ οὐρανῷ, καὶ ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς, καὶ ὑποκάτω τῆς γῆς, every crea"ture which is in heaven, and on earth, and under "the earth," which are ascribed to the Lamb, as his property, in Rev. v. 13.?' But what is "THE NAME above every name," which is given to JESUS CHRIST, in order that he should be thus worshipped? "The name above every name" is the name JEHOVAH: and therefore the Apostle proceeds," and every tongue should confess ὅτι Κύριος Ἰησοῦς Χριστὸς, THAT JESUS "CHRIST IS JEHOVAH (common version Lord), "to the glory of God the Father." In this passage there appears to be a reference, in the first place, to Jer. xxiii. 5, 6." Behold the days come, saith "JEHOVAH, when I will raise up unto David a "RIGHTEOUS BRANCH, and a King shall reign and prosper, and shall execute judgment and justice in
In the common version-indeed in all the versions that I have examined-these creatures are made to ascribe to the Lamb the blessing and honor, &c. at the end of ver. 13; but the Greek text speaks otherwise. These creatures, as well as the power and riches, &c. of ver. 12, are enumerated among the things which the Lamb is worthy to receive. Those who speak in ver. 13 are still the "many angels "round about the throne;" but there is an ellipsis in the
"the earth: in his days Judah shall be saved, and "Israel shall dwell securely: and this is his name by "which he shall be called, JEHOVAH OUR "RIGHTEOUSNESS." It was thus predicted that THE MESSIAH should be called "JEHOVAH;" and Paul says that to him is given "THE NAME which is above every name. -"The Name," was among the Jews a very usual substitute for "JEHOVAH," both in speaking and writing; and when this term was used, it was always understood to mean JEHOVAH. The Book of Ikkarim, cited by Buxtorf under the article T, (Jehovah) in reference to this very passage, says, "The scripture calls the name of the MESSIAH, JEHOVAH OUR RIGHTEOUSNESS,' to intimate that he "will be a mediatorial God; by whose hand "we shall obtain justification from THE "NAME; wherefore it calls him by the name " of THE NAME." The Jews held it unlawful to utter the word JEHOVAH, and for that name substituted Adonai (as is still their practice) when reading the scriptures; but, in comments or disquisitions, it was often necessary that they should make known, in some way, that the word occurred in the text, and in such cases they employed "THE NAME" as the substitute, sometimes adding, as Paul does in addressing the Philippians, "which is above every
"name." Nor is it any objection to this view, that the Jews were superstitiously scrupulous in employing 'THE NAME' instead of 'JEHOVAH,' and therefore it is not to be supposed that Paul would, on any occasion, adopt the same mode of speech; for this was a manner of speaking acknowledged by the Old Testament scriptures, as may be seen in Levit. xxiv. 11, where mention is made of the son of an Israelitish woman who "blasphemed THE NAME "and cursed;" and also in v. 16, where it is commanded that every man who "blasphemeth THE "NAME shall be put to death." In both of these verses our Translators have added, as a supplement," of the LORD," but in the Hebrew "THE "NAME" alone is used. It was, probably, from this passage that Paul (as well as the Rabbins) took this mode of expression, and, having so used it here, I am led to conclude,—when he says, "and every tongue should confess or Κύριος ̓Ιησοῦς Χριστὸς”—that he uses the word xúpios not for Adonai (lord), but for JEHOVAH; conformable to John's definition of xúpos when employed to represent this glorious name [see the Fifth Dissertation]. And here it deserves to be noticed, that the Apostle, writing in Greek, was laid under the necessity of adopting either some circumlocution to convey his intention, or a substitute in Greek for the Hebrew word JE