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HOVAH, owing to the difference of the alphabets of these two languages; and in fact he does both, employing, in the first place, an expression well known to the Helenists, and other converts from among the Jews, "the Name "which is above every name," and then the Greek term xúpios (kyrios), commonly employed not only by the authors of the Septuagint, to represent the name JEHOVAH, but also throughout the New Testament: thus the words with which the 110th Psalm commences, "TNMT DN) “JEHOVAH said unto Adonai,” (c. v. The LORD said unto my Lord), are, in the septuagint, and in Mat. xxii. 44, rendered, Elev & Kúρios T xvei pov. It may also be noticed, in passing, that είῳ μου. where our Lord teaches his disciples to say "Hallowed be thy Name," the Name meant is evidently JEHOVAH; and which Name is appropriated to THE LAMB in Rev. i. 8, by the Greek term xúpios, accompanied with a definition of its meaning-past, present, and future existence, [see Dissert. Seventh, § 6.]
The passage before us has also reference to Isai. xlv. 23. "I have sworn by myself, "That unto ME every knee shall bow, every tongue "shall swear:" where, let it be observed, the speaker is JEHOVAH; and the Septuagint renders the word yawn (swear), by ižoμOHOYŃσETαI, the same word that occurs in Phil. ii. 11, and
נאם יהוה לאדני
which, in the common version, is rendered, and properly so, "confess." This part of the passage having an evident reference to the words quoted from Isaiah, commentators have generally confined the reference to this prophet only; but it deserves to be particularly noticed that the text also presents, "heavenly, and earthly, "and subterrene creatures;" nor can we find much difficulty in determining that the Apostle, in these words, had in his mind what is written in Rev. iv. 11. v. 12-14, &c. when we find afterwards, in this Epistle to the Philippians (ch.iv. 3), a direct allusion to the Apocalypse in the expression, “ ὧν τὰ ὀνόματα ἐν βίβλῳ ζωῆς, whose names [are] in the book of life." The book of which the Apostle speaks is τῷ βιβλίῳ τῆς ζωῆς τοῦ ἀρ víov "the book of life of the Lamb," Rev. xxi, 27. Indeed "The book of life" is a term so perfectly Apocalyptical (see ch. iii. 5. xiii. 8. xvii. 8. xx. 12, 15. xxii. 19.) that, excepting this passage in the Epistle to the Philippians, it is found only in the Revelation. Can we doubt then whence Paul took the expression, especially when we find him, in other epistles, frequently quoting, or directly alluding to, the Apocalypse?
§ 6. Of Evidence respecting the Date of the Apocalypse furnished by the Epistle to the Colos
The Epistle to the Colossians presents such a torrent of internal evidence, of its having been written later than the Apocalypse, that it is wonderful critics should not have perceived it; nor can this be accounted for, but from the power of prejudice and prepossession. The basis of the Apostle's topics, arguments and illustrations, in his address to this Asiatic church, are wholly Apocalyptical.
In Ch. i. 12. he gives "thanks to the FATHER, "who hath made us meet to be partakers тoũ xλńρov “ τῶν ἁγίων ἐν τῷ φωτὶ, oF THE INHERITANCE
OF THE SAINTS IN THE LIGHT:”—having in his eye what is declared in Rev. ch. xxi.: "He “ that overcometh, κληρονομήσει πάντα SHALL IN
HERIT ALL THINGS." (v. 7). This inheritance is represented under the symbol of a city-the New Jerusalem. This city hath no need of the sun, or of the moon, to shine therein; "for the 'glory of THE OMNIPOTENT, even the light "(literally the lamp) thereof, THE LAMB, EN"LIGHTENS it: and the nations of them who are “ saved shall walk in τῷ φωτὶ αὐτῆς THE LIGHT "THEREOF" (v. 23, 24). No night shall be there,
nor any need of a lamp, or of sun-light; because “JEHOVAH, the OMNIPOTENT, ØwTieï ÈT' AUTOÙS WILL ENLIGHTEN THEM:" (Rev. xxii. 5). V. 13. "Who hath delivered us from ovσías Tou σxóτOUS THE POWER OF THE DARKNESS, and "hath translated us into the kingdom of his dear son;" -The saints having an inheritance in the light, are, of course, delivered from darkness; but the Apostle presses the contrast:-they are delivered from the kingdom of the beast, which has become iσxoτwμévn darkened (Rev. xvi. 10), and now belong" to the kingdom of GOD's dear son; "—(yea, they shall reign for ever and ever." Rev. xxii. 5.) For the convenience of comparison the following corresponding passages are placed in opposite columns :
I. 14 Through whom we I. 5 To him who... have THE redemption, through hath washed us from our sins his blood' (the forgiveness of in his own blood. v. 9 hast sins). redeemed us to God by thy blood.
The words, "Through his blood"-Sià rov aïμaros av
TOU, are absent from some of the early versions and seven of
the antient MSS., and have been thrown from the text into the margin by Griesbach. Some Critics think they were transcribed here from Ephes. i. 7. But in fact they found their way into both Epistles, from the Apocalypse being in
IV. 11 For thou hast created all things.
16 For by him were created all things, those in the heavens, and those on the earth; X. 6 who created the heathe visible and the invisible; ven and the things in it ; also whether thrones, or dominions, the earth and the things in it, or principalities, or powers: likewise the sea and the things all things were created by him therein.
and for him:
17 And he is before all things, and by him all things
IV. 11 Yea as they were made, so also they exist by thy will.
18 And he is the head of I. 5 From Jesus Christ... the body, the church; who ...the first-born from the is Chief [or Prince, 'APXH], dead, and the Chief [or Prince, the first-born from the dead, "APXÎN] of the Kings of the that in all things he might be earth. first [or Chief].
In Ch. ii. 9, 10. we read, "In him dwelleth "all THE FULness of the GODHEAD BODILY; " and ye are made complete by him who is the head of "all PRINCIPALITY [APXHΣ Princeship or Go"vernment] and Power." That is: to him belongs POWER, in all its forms and attributes, with all the glory that attaches thereto. When the
the mind of the writer when he penned them. The way in which "the forgiveness of sins" is introduced, probably led to their rejection by some early transcriber, who did not perceive that the latter words are explanatory of the redemption through his blood-literally through the blood of him, who is the image of the invisible God," the forgiveness of sins" being read in parenthesis.