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THE PERIODICALS REVIEWED.
THE BRUSSELS TREATY FOR THE SUPPRESSION OF THE
SLAVE-TRADE. THE Forum for January contains fourteen articles,
Mr. Lambert Tree gives an outline of the work perT four of which, “The Pope and the Future of the
formed by the International Conference which met in Papacy,” by Professor Geffcken, “ Theological Education
Brussels a few months ago for the purpose of considering and Its Needs," by Dr. Briggs, and the two papers on the
measures for the suppression of the African slave-trade. Louisiana lottery by Judge Frank McGloin and Mr. John
The treaty framed by the conference is now before the C. Wickliffe, are reviewed among the Leading Articles.
United States Senate for ratification, and upon the action THE SECRET BALLOT.
of this country, it is asserted, rests chiefly the respon
sibility for its life or death. Mr. Joseph B. Bishop gives a good summary of the prog
The treaty, in general,
authorizes the adoption of rigorous measures for the supress of ballot reform in this country. Thirty-three States
pression of the traffic in all its forms. It provides for the have now adopted the secret ballot. Twenty-six, accord
punishment of slave dealers and for the liberation of the ing to Mr. Bishop, have passed good laws; three-Cali
victims wherever found, for the restriction of the sale of fornia, Connecticut, and New Jersey-poor laws; and one,
fire-arms and ammunition to slave hunters, for the reguMaryland, a fair law. Of the two principal forms of bal
lation of the sale of intoxicating liquors to the natives lots adopted by these States, the alphabetical blanket-bal
and for the establishment of stations of information and lot and the party-group blanket-ballot, he regards the
control in the slave country. alphabetical arrangement as the more desirable.
Under the terms of the treaty the United States is not THE LATE CRISIS IN BRAZIL.
called upon to take any active part in the repressive measThe crisis in Brazil which resulted in the overthrow of
ures provided for, “further than to guard its own flag President de Fonseca had its origin, according to Cour
from abuse by slavers in the manner regulated by the tenay De Kalb's account in this number, in a contest be
treaty; to lend its co-operation by appropriate legislation tween the Administration and Congress over the drafting
to the prevention of the introduction of fire-arms and amof a currency bill. The conflict was precipitated by the
munition into the interdicted region; and to provide for refusal of the President to sign the “Incompatibility Bill,”
the punishment of any of its own citizens who may be which provided that no one should hold a state and a
caught participating in the slave-trade.” federal office at the same time. “The veto was an act of
APPROPRIATIONS ON ACCOUNT OF PENSIONS. stubbornness born of the lamentable policy of systematic General Henry W. Slocum fumishes some valuable inopposition then prevailing. Congress secured a two-thirds formation regarding the amount expended by various majority to pass the bill over the veto, by excluding the countries in pensions. As against over $100,000,000 apvote of Senator Pedro Paulius Fonseca, the President's propriated each year for pensions by the United States, brother, who, as Governor of Alagoas, was said to be Great Britain expends for this purpose $25,000,000, France deeply interested in the result. Negotiations for a recon- $30,000,000, Germany and Austria each less than $15,000,ciliation between Congress and the executive which had 000, and Russia about $18,000,000. In sum the pensionbeen pending were instantly broken off. Congress next roll of the United States is as great as those of England, retaliated by passing a bill denying the right of veto to France, Germany, Austria, and Russia combined. the President."
THE HEALTH OF THE SURVIVORS OF THE WAR. This act on the part of Congress was held by the Pres. From his necessarily incomplete investigations as to the ident to be in direct violation of the Constitution, and he average effect of military service upon the health and forthwith dismissed the National Assembly on the grounds longevity of the men who constituted the armies of the of incompetency. “There appears to have been no inten- United States and of the Confederacy in the war of 1861–65, tion,” says Mr. De Kalb, “ of doing more than to carry the Dr. John S. Billings finds that “while the health of some question to the people, but an uprising similar to those men has been improved by their military service, even to which had driven three monarchs from the helm of Bra- the preservation of lives that would have been lost had zilian affairs forestalled the decision of the ballot-box." the owners remained exclusively in civil life, the health The Republic asserted itself and the dictator resigned. of the average veteran has been deteriorated by his ser
vice, and that he suffers more from illness and has a REPEAL OF THE SILVER LAW OF 1890.
somewhat less expectation of life than other men of his Mr. George S. Coe contends that the silver law of 1890 age.” " is not reciprocal in its operations, because the Govern The Rev. Dr. Philip Schaff, of the Union Theological ment, in doing business as a banker, does not deal with its Seminary of New York, makes an article out of the imcustomers, the public, upon equal terms. It buys silver portant heresy trials which have taken place from time bullion at market prices, paying for the same in currency to time in the history of the Church in this country, givnotes, but when a holder of the notes desires to redeeming especial attention to the recent case of Dr. Briggs. them he can get back only silver coins containing a uniform but much smaller amount of silver than the market THE Beacon is the name of a new magazine, the first value in bullion given for them, and therefore the notes 1 copy of which appears for January. It proposes are not redeemed at cost. The silver consequently accumu- to devote itself to " Religion, Literature, Music, and Art," lates in the Treasury at the rate of four and a half mill- and to the reproduction of rare manuscripts. Annexed ions of dollars per month and there lies buried-a torpid to Dr. Charles F. Deems' “Life of Washington " and and useless mass, with no practical provision for its re- William Evarts Benjamin's paper on “Washington Manlease." For these reasons he holds that the law should be uscripts" are two dozen pages of the first President's repealed.
prayers, reproduced in fac simile.
But are they not unawares, he asks, ill-treating a “beautiful swan?" He says of Mr. Whitman further:
“Verily, a prophet is not without honor, save in his own country. America has been slow to acknowledge Whitman's great merits, but in England he has already taken a high position. It is a shame that the country Whitman loves so well, and whose future grandeur and noblest aspirations he constantly celebrates, should withhold her praise, and that encouragement should first come to him from a land to some extent out of sympathy with his aims and teachings. Recognition long delayed should no longer be withheld. He still lingers among us, and there is yet time for the amende honorable." One might well wish, just at this juncture, that the disappointed life might pass out with what cheer of praise might be bestowed, even regardless of merits, but Whitman: seems likely to remain for some time at least “the inventor of literary formlessness," as a contemporary, who has been recognized, calls him. The frontispiece of the Arena is a portrait of the poet.
THE NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW. DESIDES the two contributions on the power of the
Speaker, by Congressmen Mills and Reed, and the paper on “ The Pardoning Power,” by ex-Governor Hill, which have been selected as Leading Articles, the North American Review contains the following other articles of note.
THE FRENCH NOVEL Andrew Lang replies to Mme. Adam's article on the French novel which appeared in an earlier number, holding that “French fiction exaggerates much in French life that is evil, and omits much that is noble; thus its picture cannot be correct; yet, on the whole, novels show what way the popular wind blows, and help a little to produce the modes of action and sentiment which they describe.”
WAGES IN MEXICO. M. Romero, Mexican minister to the United States, combats the prevailing idea that restrictions should be placed on this country's trade with Mexico, on account of the lower wages paid labor in that country. Wages are lower in Mexico than in this country, he admits, but, on the other hand, he holds that transportation in that broken country is more expensive, and that the working capacity of the Mexican laborers is not so great. The causes which he gives for the inferior working capacity of the Mexican laborer are: 1, That he is not so well fed and paid as his brother in this country; 2, that he generally works until he is exhausted, and his work is not, therefore, so productive; 3, that he is not, on the whole, so well educated as the average laborer in the United States; and, 4, that he has fewer wants to satisfy, and therefore less inducement to work. .
NEW YORK AND LONDON “SLUMS." Lady Henry Somerset, in her paper, “ The Darker Side," draws a comparison between life in the poorer districts of New York with that in the “slums” of London. New York, in her opinion, has the advantage of London in three respects. “New York's quorum of submerged poor is smaller, they are individually more self-reliant, their women are more self-respecting. And yet so wretchedly is this class housed that all these advantages seem to be in a fair way of being lost in the vice of the system that herds them together.”
THE BEST BOOK OF THE YEAR. Each of the seven well-known persons asked to name in this number the best book of the year makes a different selection. Sir Edwin Arnold has been most forcibly impressed by Emil Zola's “La Bête Humaine." Gail Hamilton regards the legal documents in “ The Maybrick Case” as not only the “best book of the year," but as the most impressive work that she has ever seen. Agnes Repplier selects Oscar Wilde's volume of four essays, “ Intentions.” Amelia Barr has read with most profit the “Life and Let ters” of Rev. Adam Sedgwick. The most important the ological work of the year, in the estimation of Dr.
mation of Dr Charles A. Briggs, is the Bampton lectures of Canon Cheyne on the “Origin and Religious Contents of the Psalter, in the Light of Old Testament Criticism and the History of Religions.” Julien Gordon eliminates from the yearly output Mr. Herbert Spencer's “ Justice," part fourth of his “ Principles of Ethics," and Dr. William A. Hammond names the “ Century Dictionary."
THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. THE Nineteenth Century for January is a good numI ber, with several articles of more than ordinary interest, some of which are noticed elsewhere.
HYPNOTISM AND HUMBUG. Dr. Ernest Hart reprints his recent address at Toynbee Hall. Dr. Hart takes up his parable against all manner of occult investigation, and even telepathy is to him a silly attempt to revive the failures and impostures of the past. He maintains that the clairvoyance of hypnotized persons is pure imposture. He gives very extraordinary instances in which people can be hypnotized into sleep, and he mentions that in Austria a law has been passed for the shoeing of horses under mesmerism. If you stand in front of a horse so that it has to look at you fixedly, it becomes mesmerized. Dr. Hart himself had only too great success in putting a girl to sleep by telling her to look at a candle which he declared he had mesmerized. The worst of it was that she went to sleep whenever she saw him afterward, no matter how much he willed that she should not do so.
ELECTRICAL TRANSMISSION OF POWER. Lord Albemarle has an interesting paper which brings up to date the story of the efforts which have been made to transmit power by electricity. He makes out a good case for the utilization of water-falls to drive electric launches. The Sprague Motor Company in America utilizes it for mining purposes. He thinks there are several systems by which tramways can be successfully worked by electricity. Electrical pumps in mines is also another field in which great progress has been made. He thinks that the general Government should have power to interfere whenever the power reserved to local authorities is exercised in an arbitrary manner.
FEDERATION FOR NAVAL DEFENCE. Lord Brassey deals with this subject in a paper the gist of which may be gathered from the following sentence:
“If the colonies were prepared to contribute by millions of sterling to the cost of maintaining the army and navy, the taxpayers of the mother-country would probably be well content to accept some extensive modifications in the coastitutional functions of the House of Commons. Proposals to create an Imperial Council of Foreign Affairs and Defence might then be received with favor. But the time has not yet come for sweeping changes. We can profitably occupy ourselves with plans
IN the Arena for January Mr. D. G. Watts characterT izes Walt Whitman as the “ugly duckling of Ameriican literature," at wbom “all barnyard fowls--those who have never flown over the fence of conventionality--peck."
and the owner is then compelled to give up for public use the land on which the projecting portion stands.
OTHER ARTICLES. The only other article is Lord Grey's paper on “Protection, Free Trade, and Fair Trade,” in which he maintains that the policy of commercial treaties adopted in 1860 gave new life to the old belief in the advantages of protection. Diplomacy, he thinks, will never do anything to reduce tariffs. What England should do is to return to the freetrade policy in its entirety, and get rid of the policy in. itiated by the commercial treaties of 1860.
for combining resources and co-operating for mutual protection against external foes.
He concludes with a word in favor of the federation of the English-speaking peoples.
THESE GOOD BARBARIANS. Prince Krapotkin, having already shown how the principle of brotherly communism has been practised for thousands of years by the animals, is now vindicating the reputation of the barbarian. This is his account of the process of evolution in the early stages of our history:
“When the clan organization began to break up, the village community, based upon a territorial conception, came into existence. This new institution, which had naturally grown out of the preceding clan one, permitted the barbarians to pass through a most disturbed period of history without being broken into isolated families which would have succumbed in the struggle for life. New forms of culture developed under the new organization; agriculture attained the stage which it hardly has surpassed until now with the great number; the domestic industries reached a high degree of perfection. The wilderness was conquered, it was intersected by roads covered with swarms thrown off by the mother-communities Markets and fortified centres, as well as places of public worship, were erected. The conceptions of a wider union, extended to whole stems and to several stems of various origin, were slowly elaborated."
A GOOD WORD FOR PURITANISM. The Rev. Samuel A. Barnett has gone round the world, and has written a most interesting article, entitled “Man, East and West," in which he tells us, among other things, that he never felt so much sympathy with men who killed tyrants as he did in California. His account of India is very interesting. He thinks that all the Hindoos need to realize is the Christ whom Cromwell and our fathers followed into battle. As one result of his tour he has an increased respect for the human race. But the chief lesson that he has learned is that the Puritan spirit is the right spirit. He says:
“The devout Indian helps him to see in the versatile Japanese a capacity for religion. The pushing American makes him more hopeful about the saddened Indian, and the stable Chinaman opens his eyes to see new qualities in the Japanese. All together help him better to understand his own neighbors. At the same time, he is conscious how all come short of the standard of true manhood. All want more principle, that love of righteousness, that fear of God, which makes character strong and homes happy. All need the lesson taught by Puritans, from Moses down to Gordon.
"I return, therefore, more inclined to believe in my neighbor's own strength to help himself, and more shy of schemes which profess to help him. I would give men more responsibility; but, on the other hand, I am more inclined to ally myself with those teachers who have the Puritan spirit, who in season and out of season are conscious of law, and who in some language preach 'Cling to principle. Righteousness is the first thing.'"
TAXES AND TRANSPORT. Mr. W.M. Acworth reviews M. Colson's work, “ Transports et Tariffs;" his article is full of information and suggestion. Incidentally he describes the French law under which streets are widened, which is known as the obligation to set back. When a local authority has decided that a street needs to be widened, it is not allowed to repair the buildings which project beyond the line to which the street has to be widened. When they fall out of repair they are ordered to be pulled down as dangerous,
THE NATIONAL REVIEW. THE National Review for January gives the first
I place to a readable and on the whole sensible article by Sir Herbert Maxwell, on the rural voter. Sir Herbert sees clearly that the time has gone by for ignoring the serfs of the soil, and his article is noteworthy, if for nothing else, for the demand which it contains that the agricultural laborer should have the Saturday half-holiday.
“A reduction of hours of labor in agricultural districts might be carried out without disadvantage to the employer. Even where this is not found to be practicable, a strong effort should be made to establish the weekly half-holiday. It is a cruel and dangerous error to despise the desire for physical and intellectual recreation natural to men in all stations; and the well-meant attempts to found village libraries, to organize lectures, choral societies, Primrose League fêtes for the amusement or instruction of the working classes, will prove futile so far as farm servants are concerned, unless one afternoon in the week can be saved for them out of the exigency of agriculture."
AS TO STATE INSURANCE. He has also the following suggestion to make as to state insurance:
“Probably the most effective means of improving the position of agricultural laborers in this respect will be found in a voluntary plan of assisted insurance, similar to the German compulsory scheme, in which one-third of the premium is paid by the state, one-third by the employer, and one-third by the workman. Further, without invoking state interference, if landlords, farmers, and laborers in each county were to come under an agreement to contribute to a county superannuation fund, or to bear each a third of the workman's contribution to the superannuation fund of approved friendly societies, the expense to each class would hardly be felt, and ultimately there would be a marked effect on the poor-rate."
IRISH LOCAL GOVERNMENT. The Hon. L. Agar Ellis delivers himself of the following vigorous denunciation of the Irish local-government bill which has been promised for next session:
" What the Government are about to ask their party to do is this: First, to abolish a system which has not only worked admirably, but has never been objected to, except on the score of sentiment. Secondly, to create a body in whom they have no confidence-who, they declare, will not do the work as well as it is now done. Thirdly, to ostracise a class or classes in county business—for it is not only the gentlemen who will be cut out of the management of county business. The bettermost farmers and every Protestant will be sent to the right-about."
Lady Colin Campbell writes characteristically on do. mestic decoration in an article the note of which is that English ladies decorate their drawing-rooms on the prin. ciple on which the bower bird ornaments its nest, namely,
by sticking into it any bright sticks, straws, shells, or buttons that it may come across.
Mr. Kebbel, writing on the greatness of Pitt, says that Lord Rosebery's “Life of Mr. Pitt" is one of the best books of its kind: “Lord Rosebery has a natural literary grace which a
a & little cultivation would raise to a high level of excellence, while throughout we are conscious of that nameless charm which tells us that we are in the presence of a mind of no ordinary depth and strength."
Mr. W. Earl Hodgson has rather an amusing article upon “Men of Letters and the State." It is devoted to a criticism of Mr. Besant's demand that men of letters should receive more recognition at the hands of the state, and should be regarded as suitable recipients for peerages. Mr. Hodgson maintains that there is no need for this be cause the peers, who, Lord Beaconsfield used to declare, read nothing, are the most literary class in the community. “It is not necessary to write a book in order to be come a man of letters."
ENGLISH MONETARY QUESTIONS. Mr. A. Egmont Hake, in an article upon “Mr. Goschen's Mission,” thus states his own specific for prevention of panics:
“ Legal-tender £1 and 10s. notes should be issued by the Government itself, in such a way as to leave the banking of the country uninflated and unaffected. The Gov. ernment should use these notes in all its disbursements, including the payment of interest on the national debt, except, of course, in the instances when payment of notes would be inconvenient. By receiving taxes in both gold and notes, and only paying in notes, the coin circulation would be gradually, to a large extent, replaced by notes."
OTHER ARTICLES. Miss Julia Cartwright writes pleasantly about Danbury, a beautiful corner of Essex, Mr.J.G. Alger has a paper on “Women in the Reign of Terror," the period during which 177 women were executed. Mr.J.E. Gore discusses “The Mystery of Gravitation,” that unsolved problem, as to how it is that matter attracts at a distance and repels when in close proximity. Mr. E. T. Buckland gossips pleasantly about “Men-Servants in India." The article “ Among the Books” is to be the first of a critical series of studies of new books written with equal freedom from “perfunctory panegyric and censorious carping."
‘THE CONTEMPORARY REVIEW. THE first and last papers in the Contemporary Review
I are noticed elsewhere. The others are of varied interest. Mr. Frank H. Hill's “Revival of Henry the Eighth” is one of the few semi-theatrical papers which have appeared in the Contemporary Review. h
THE LONDON WATER COMPANIES. Mr. Archibald E. Dobbs, the indefatigable, having rested for some years from his labors, now returns, like a giant refreshed, to the attack upon the London water companies, which raise a revenue from the metropolis of £1,789,000, of which £647,000 goes in working expenses, while the remainder goes in dividends. Mr. Dobbs reviews the legal rights, privileges, and obligations which affect the companies first as a whole, and then which affect them as separate corporations. He winds up with illustrations of the illegal charges which are at present enforced whenever possible by the companies. The instances which he gives are likely to encourage the householder to make a fight against extortion, for the water companies seem to be constantly trying it on, and when resisted, often do not appear to defend their charges in the police court.
MR. ARCHIBALD FORBES AND LORD WOLSELEY. There is little love lost between the war correspondent and the commanding general, and in his article on the “Failure of the Nile Campaign ” Mr. Archibald Forbes takes occasion to let Lord Wolseley have it as hot as he knows how. “Every one knows,” says Mr. Forbes, “that the campaign to rescue General Gordon was a failure, but no one who has not studied the long-delayed • Official History of the Campaign,' carefully “revised' as that work has been, can have a conception how profound and utter that failure was. The whole business was one of amazing amplitudes, of strange miscalculations, of abortive fads, of waste of invaluable time, of attempted combinations which, devised in ignorance of conditions, were never within measurable proximity of consummation, of orders issued only to be changed and dispositions indicated only to be altered, of lost opportunities, wrecked transport, and squandered supplies.”
The fault, of course, was Lord Wolseley's, or, as Mr. Forbes calls him, “the commanding general.” He did not discover the necessity of a camel corps until it was too late, and then he muddled things. Mr. Forbes asserts that Lord Wolseley might have extricated Gordon a fortnight. before the fall of Khartoum, if he had not allowed end to be subordinate to means, and had been ready in expedients to relieve the situation thus created.
THE LAST ARTICLE OF THE BISHOP OF CARLISLE. The Bishop of Carlisle's last article is entitled "Probability and Faith.” His closing words are as follows:
“And hence the general conclusion at which I arrive and which it is the purpose of this article to recommend and enforce, is this, that probability and faith have been joined together by God, and must not be in any way put. asunder.
“A rational acceptance of the probable, accompanied, or rather inspired, by a divine element of faith, may be. regarded as constituting the higher life of man, somewhat as body and soul combine to constitute humanity. Each needs the other, and it is when the two co-exist and cooperate without friction or interference that health and happiness result.” HOW THE FRENCH WOULD SOLVE THE ENGLISH LAND
QUESTION. The Rev. W. Tuckwell describes a visit of investigation which he recently paid to France in order to ascertain
THE PHILOSOPHICAL REVIEW. W ITH the new year comes Number 1, Volume I., of
W the Philosophical Review, whose title sufficiently explains the aim of the magazine. The editor is Professor J.G. Schurman, Dean of the Sage School of Philosophy in Cornell University.
In a “Prefatory Note” Mr. Schurman calls attention to the fact that in America philosophy alone among the sciences and arts is without an official organ. He considers that the American nation is peculiarly fitted by its character and surroundings to do great work in the domain which his journal is to represent, and to support this view he draws an ingenious parallel between the Americans and the ancient Greeks, the most philosophical thinkers that the world has seen.
The Philosophical Review is to be published bi-monthly. The co-operation of most of the foremost philosophical teachers and writers of America and many of those of Great Britain and the European continent has, it is announced, already been secured by its editors. It is hand. somely printed and neatly bound.
how the rural population fares across the Channel. He gives an account of his discoveries in a brief paper, entitled “ Village Life and Politics in France and England." The picture is very highly colored; he describes, for instance, a market gardener near Paris, who employs fifteen men on two acres of land devoted to growing asparagus, out of which he makes an annual profit of a thousand pounds:
“Questioning everywhere innkeepers, wayfarers, fellowtravellers in hotel and railway carriage, we met with unbroken testimony to the prosperity, freedom, thrift, of the laboring peasant, as due to the facility of acquiring land at will and cheaply, consequent on the extinction of great land-owners at the Revolution, and the centrifugal distribution of the soil which followed it."
In England, says Mr. Tuckwell, the peasantry is miserably housed, underpaid, servile, despairing; in France he is decent, well-to-do, independent, hopeful. The French village commune is what our English parish council will be. The councils are elected for five years by all the villagers twenty years old and upward, in the proportion of one councillor for every hundred of the population. The councillors choose a mayor from among themselves, and they control sanitation, public-houses, the octroi, poorrelief-everything except the church and the school. Next month Mr. Tuckwell will give us a companion picture in contrast, which will show us the miserable state of things in an English rural district.
THE DANGER BEFORE LABOR. In the story entitled “ A New Capitalist” Mr. Francis Adams preaches his favorite doctrine of the necessity of cultivating intelligence, at all costs and all hazards, as the first thing needful. Mr. Adams says:
“ Labor shows us in Australia, where it is alone yet powerful enough to have anything like a free hand, what it is really after, and the civilization which it rules will be a hell of mediocrity, pullulating into corruption and decadence; at best a China, at worst an easy prey for the first incursion of a more vigorous stock. It will not advance us one step toward the true civilization, not to say toward the resolution of the great human problem. Already the labor men decree that none but a labor man shall stand by them. Do you guess what that means? It means that the masses are to 'run' talent and genius tomorrow, just as the classes 'run' them to-day, for the profit and pleasure of the 'runners; ' and once more the weary, heart-sick web shall be spun by the stupid spider, and Nature shall sit, savage and sardonic, enthroned on our bones, and drinking our blood from her cups of gold, while Time, in the gray depths of space, waits in his lethargic stupor till she, too, falls prone in an everlasting oblivion.”
of the occupying government in Cairo. The net effect of her paper, however, will be the reverse of that which she desires. She maintains that whoever holds Egypt holds the canal, and whoever holds the canal can prevent any effective action in the extreme East. In that sentence she justifies the determination of England, whose interests in. the East immeasurably exceed those of all Europe put together, not to surrender a position which she cannot honorably abandon until Egypt is strong enough to stand alone. Unfortunately for the wishes of those who clamor for evacuation, the more England reforms the Egyptian Government the less possibility is there of her withdrawing. As Mr. Edward Dicey says in the article which follows Mme. Adam's:
“The plain truth is that Egypt, though more prosperous, better administered, and more civilized than she ever was before, is less able to govern herself by herself than. she was before the British troops set foot in the country. We have, by the very nature of our reforms, weakened the authority of the khédive, curtailed the power of the pashas, and overthrown the influence of the sheiks by whom the village communities were kept under a sort of rude control."
Mr. Dicey is very clear and outspoken as to English. duty in the matter. He says:
“Mandate or no mandate, we have got to remain in. Egypt. Our military occupation has taught us that the possession of Egypt involves the command of the Suez ( anal. Whether we like it or not, the Suez Canal is our highway to India, and as long as we continue to be masters of India we cannot allow the Suez Canal to pass out of the control now secured to us by the presence of our troops in Egypt.”
THE FUTURE OF THE ENGLISH DRAMA. Mr. Henry A.Jones replies to Mr. Traill with a defence of the literary drama. Mr. Jones says:
“Eminent literary gentlemen must not be contemptuous of those who are fighting a tough fight with all the giant forces of theatricality, conventionality, indifference, jealousy, folly, and ignorance, that they may gain a little secure foot-hold where the art of portraying our national English life can be practised without the terrible necessity of immediately pleasing the crowd. We may not succeed. The English theatre may drop back into imbecility, im-potence,, disrepute, and paralysis. But if it has any future as an art, if it ever becomes operative in the life of the nation, it must come the way I have indicated. It cannot grow toward conventionality, toward tricks, toward violent and outrageous situations, toward stagedevice and illusion. There's nothing but death before it that way. If it lives and flourishes, if it grows as an art, it must draw its nourishment from the spiritual and intellectual forces of the nation, not from the stale air of the footlights. And the English drama is beginning to tap these great reservoirs and to find nourishment there.. And its enemies and false friends rage. But it holds its. way."
OTHER ARTICLES. The Duchess of Rutland, in the first part of a paper entitled “How Intemperance Has Been Successfully Combatted,” explains the work of the Church of England Temperance Society, and pleads ardently and earnestly for the establishment of institutions which would take the place of the public-house. She says:
“ Would, indeed, that every hamlet in our land possessed a public-house without the drink, open to all, with no rules or regulations! Would that a village hall, a reading-room, and a tenperance society existed even in the smallest village !"
THE NEW REVIEW. HE first shiHing number of the New Review appears T this month with the first three chapters of Mr. Carlyle's unpublished novel of “Wotton Reinfred.” On turning over the pages of Mr. Carlyle's effort we are reminded of Goldsmith's criticism of Samuel Johnson as a writer of fables. “He would fail,” said Goldsmith, "for he would make his little fishes talk like whales.” Mr. Carlyle makes the characters in his novel talk too much like Scotch philosophers. It will have to improve a great deal, if it is not to make Mr. Carlyle's admirers wish that it had remained unpublished.
ENGLAND IN EGYPT. Mme. Adam gives us a summing up of those opinions which have been awakened in a French mind by the acts