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THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW.

THE WESTMINSTER REVIEW. THE January Fortnightly is hardly up to its usual THE most serious paper in the Westminster for Janu

T high standard. A fair paper on the “ Conservative T ary is Mr. Walter Lloyd's article on “ Inspiration Foreign Policy,” by Sir Charles Dilke, begins the number, and Truth.” Mr. Lloyd claims that the most elementary and Mr. Mallock's story ends it. Sir Robert Ball pub conception of the divine influence upon human thought lishes his remarkable British Association address on " The demands that we ought to refuse to accept as inspired any. New Astronomy," and Sir Henry Pottinger describes how thing which is demonstrably untrue. Mr. D'Acosta has a he shot bear and elk in Norway. Mr. Coulson Kernahan brief paper on English Indian frontier expeditions, the discourses upon Philip Bourke Marston.

. gist of which is that India will become bankrupt by the AN IDEAL FOR THE ENGLISH SQUIRE.

growth of military expenditure, chiefly incurred by un

certain and heavy demands for frontier expeditions, The best paper in the Fortnightly is the second instal

Miss Matilda L. Blake strings together a list of offences ment of Mr. Auberon Herbert's paper, “ Under the Yoke

against women which have been treated with comparative of the Butterflies.” Mr. Herbert is an admirable writer,

leniency, while offences against property have been treated and when he condescends to rein in his Pegasus is full of

with severity, in order to support her thesis that women helpful suggestiveness. He preaches his gospel faithfully

are not protected, and she presses the plea for the recogwith eloquence and fervor. His satire is light and search

nition of the citizenship of women. Charles Kingsley ing, and his picture of the monotonous uniformity of life

said: “Women will never obtain moral equity until they in English country houses is painfully true. But why

have civil equality,” and Miss Blake adds that without need it be so? he asks:

moral equity any high spiritual development is impossible. “Given their great opportunities, why should not each of

Lady Florence Dixie takes up her pen in order to dethem have served our little English world in its own way?

nounce the horrors of sport. Never again in life, she Might not some of them have been devoted to the cultiva

suys, will she raise gun or rifle to destroy the life of an tion and spread of music in their neighborhood, or to

animal. She has seen the horrors of sport to the utmost. some form of art, or to the effort to spread the taste for

Sport, she says, is horrible; the memory of her exploits dancing and acting among the people; or to the cultiva

in the field haunt her with a huge reproach; she fain tion of some form of local history, or of sanitary knowl

would never have done those deeds of skill and cruelty. edge and household economy? Might not some of them

She thinks that it is quite possible to have sport without have possessed their chemical laboratory, and have been

cruelty, and she would rather ride to the hounds after a devoted to experiments in agriculture, after the fashion

well-laid drag than after a living fox. of which Sir John Lawes has set such good example; and

There is a somewhat Spencerian article on the “Nature others to experiments in small holdings, much as the late

of State Interference," the writer of which explains the Lord Tollemache has done; in a word, might not every

law of anticipatory interference and the working of the great house, that was not simply a butterfly haunt, have

law of compensation. played the part on a smaller scale that the Italian cities once played for Italy, each famous for the pursuit of some art or some knowledge, each impressing upon the general

HARPER'S MAGAZINE. life the seal of its own peculiar talent? Unhappily fate LROM the January Harper's we select the Vicomte and the nineteenth century have decreed otherwise."

r de Vogüé's paper on “The Neo-Christian Movement THE BLIND GUIDES OF ITALY.

in France" as a Leading Article. * Quida" indulges once more in a wild and passionate

THE EXPOSITION. wail over the destruction of all that is distinctly Italian

Julian Ralph occupies quite his share of Harper's this in Italy.

month in two long descriptive articles, one of which is “In other centuries she was the light of the world; in concerning “Our Exposition at Chicago.” Mr. Ralph has this she deliberately prefers to be the valet of Germany been studying the plans and buildings, and enthusiastiand the ape of America.

cally predicts success in fullest measure for the World's " Italy might be now, as she was in the past, the Muse, Fair. He says that the general spectacular effect of the the Grace, the Artemis, and the Athene of the world; she

fair will be Venetian, or “what the poetic comprehension thinks it a more glorious thing to be only one among a

conceives that Venice might appear if she were in gala sweating mob of mill-hands.

attire, and her beauties, seen under a flood of electric “ Italy, beautiful, classic, peaceful, wise with the wis light, were effectively concentrated along two miles of dom inherited from her fathers, would have been the gar the Adriatic shore." den of the world, the sanctuary of pure art and of high Many people, especially of the Knickerbocker persuathought, the singer of immortal song. Instead, she has sion, are grumbling that Chicago should ask Congress for deliberately chosen to be the mere imitator of a coarse help after having promised to furnish herself the sinews and noisy crowd on the other side of the Atlantic, and the of war. It may be said in answer that the $5,000,000 mere echo of the armed bully who dictates to her from asked of Congress is to be secured by the gate receipts; the banks of the Spree.”

and the explanation of Chicago is not to be ignored, that

“the necessity for this sum was brought about by the TN the New England Magazine for January Julius H. National Commission, which so enlarged the classification

1 Ward contributes a sketch of Phillips Brooks, in lists of exhibits as to greatly widen the projected scope of which he fully appreciates the significance of the election the exposition and to make $10,000,000 inadequate for the of the new Bishop of Massachusetts. “Bishop Brooks is purpose." in that central position in public interests among Ameri This paper is accompanied by a plan of the exhibition cans which Milton occupied in the political and religious grounds, which resembles a feeble edition of that pubconvulsions in England during the middle of the seven- lished in the December REVIEW OF REVIEWS. teenth century. He is not only a distinguished preacher, Mr. Ralph's second paper is on British Columbia, but, to use the language of one of his friends, “a twelve- “Canada's Eldorado," the home of the salmon, the grizzly, sided man.'"

and the coast Indian,

Walter S. Drysdale writes on that most picturesque incident in American history, “Aaron Burr's Conspiracy hd Trial.” We don't see that Mr. Drysdale is very successful in his attempt to put a better light on Burr's char. acter. Instead of a “crafty and dangerous traitor," he would make his subject “ only a sharp, ruined lawyer, at bay with his countrymen and with his times, seeking at a dash to become the Napoleon of Mexico."

“Had Burr's boats," says he, “moved down the Ohio in the beginning instead of the end of 1806, his expedition might have had official countenance and been a splendid

The opening paper of the number has also to do with the tribe of Abraham, being an elaborate description of " The Jews in New York and Their Customs," by Richard Wheatley.

“ The face of the Jew is toward the future," he concludes, “ but whether that future will bring repatriation is a matter of indifference to the reformer. He wills none of it. “New York is my Jerusalem,' he says. "The United States of America is my country. In fact, my Jerusalem is wherever I am doing well. I don't want to go to Canaan and would not if I could.'” But Mr. Wheatley does not mean to say that there are not more orthodox Hebrews who would consider such talk sacrilege.

E.L. Godfrey, one of Custer's troop commanders, gives a graphic history of “Custer's Last Battle," illustrated by the admirable drawings of Frederic Remington. The much-talked-of tragedy has rarely been brought so near as in the story of this soldier, who was all but a participant.

success.”

“The London of Charles II.” is Mr. Walter Besant's theme this month. It is the period of the Great Plague and the Great Fire of London. The fact stated by Mr. Besant that Charles sent £1,000 every week to help feed the plague-stricken citizens may make “The Deplorable" a trifle less to be deplored.

In the literary vein proper, Harper's contains two very attractive contributions, which happen, in subject and treatment, to be as far apart as the poles. The first is Mr. Howells' one-act comedy-drama, “ A Letter of Introduction," a delicious little affair. “The Sorrow of Rohab,” a poem by Arlo Bates, in the first place is quite excellent blank verse, and, in the second, there is a strength of plot and sensuous passion of beautiful description which really holds one captive.

IN

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There are two remarkable and undeniably eloquent pages, over the signature "Josephus," dealing with “The Jewish Question.” After analyzing in a masterly way the essential factors of the situation, this anonymous writer concludes:

“ Deep in the heart of Judaism is enshrined a sacred, an immortal, word-duty-which makes of man a moral being and links him to the moral source of the universe. Deep in the heart of Christianity is enshrined a sacred and immortal word-love-which makes of man a spiritual being and links him to the divine source of all life. Humanity needs both these words in order to become the perfect creation it was meant to be. The one gives the conscience, the other the heart of mankind; the one is the masculine, the other the feminine, element of the world. Judaism gives the Ten Commandments and Christianity the Beatitudes. But only the two together can yield the perfect ideal—the love that is simply the highest duty and duty that is lost in love. And in order to come into this closer, higher union, into the faith which makes humanity whole and not a thing of parts and the truth which makes men free, fixed and formal codes must disappear; the outer framework of history and theology must fall away, and spirit be left free to seek spirit. Then, and then only, will life have its whole meaning, as part of a larger life whose beginning and end are hidden from mortal vision. Religion will have its full sway, and yet there will be none who persecute and none who are persecuted, ‘for the earth shall be full of the knowledge of the Lord, as the waters cover the sea.'”

A glorious dream, if only a dream! Perhaps one of those visions which the people were once without.

SCRIBNER'S MAGAZINE. N Scribner's for January appears an article by Fred

erick Smyth, Recorder of the City of New York, on “ Crime and the Law,” which we treat at greater length among the Leading Articles of the Month.

Mr. and Mrs. Blashfield have an exceptionally lively article this month under the title "A Day With the Donkey-Boys.” Karmak, Luxor, and Thebes quite lose their ponderous proportions under the treatment of these gay travellers. Of all the sights, they say the most fascinating are the small children of Egypt.“ Imagine Barbedienne's bronze Cupid transformed to softest flesh, all melting curves and deep dimples; look through smoked glass at the round-cheeked, grave-eyed cherubs of the Renaissance; or fancy the dusky-tinted Tanagra Loves with their little cloaks and printed hoods, and heavy wreaths, dancing, frolicking, laughing, and you may have some idea of the baby graces of the young Egyptians, graces that even ophthalmia, wretched feeding, and neglect cannot destroy." The illustrations of E.H.Blashfield are quite spirited.

William F. Apthorpe contributes the first of a series of papers on “Paris Theatres and Concerts." This first chapter concerns “The Comédie Française and the Odéon;" it is unusually well done, and the accompanying illustrations and portraits are examples of Scribner's best style of work. The Théâtre Française was founded away back in 1680, and of all the Paris theatres is the “most evidently and unmistakably historic."

Art subjects appear in the “Correspondence of Washington Allston”—which gives occasion for the reproduction of some of that artist's vigorous work in chalk-tracingand in “ American Illustration of To-day," the latter by William A. Coffin. Mr. Coffin's remarks and the reproductions accompanying his article are calculated to have some bearing on the question lately mooted of what Americans are accomplishing in art. Mr. Will H.Low, who is getting a good deal of—undoubtedly deservedmagazine mention these days, is fully appreciated in text and illustrations,

“ Bokhara Revisited" is the title of a good descriptive article by Dr. Henry Lansdell, who for a second time has bearded the Emir in his den. He finds the Bokhariots visibly improving under the influence of Russia and the guidance of their progressive ruler. “So indeed, and so ignorant were they on my former visit that, on my thinking to surprise the young bek by describing our 110-ton guns and their enormous projectiles, he replied, 'Yes, ours are like that too.'”

THE CHAUTAUQUAN. A N uncommonly good paper is a brief résumé of the o progress of the past century, by Professor E. A. Freeman. Whatever the French Revolution has done for France, it has undoubtedly awakened England to notable reforms-reforms won not by breaking with the past, as did the more mercurial nation across the Channel, but reforms wisely and steadily worked out. The removal of the disabilities of Non-conformists, the popular reforms in the House of Commons, the repeal of corn duties, the establishment of general education, all this, combined with numberless minor changes. has rendered England democratic, even more so than America, as the real ruler, the prime minister, can be got rid of whenever the House or the people will it, instead of holding on to the close of a fixed term. The English Church, prodded on one side by the movements of dissenters, on the other by the Roman Catholic movement, has thrown off its lethargy and be come a living body. Religious thought is unconfined. The social changes have been even greater, while science can almost be said to have had its birth within these past hundred years. A tendency not to be lost sight of is the awakened interest in the past, which, though seemingly a paradox, has been one of the most potent factors in the progress of art, literature, and religion.

Mr. Edward Arden reviews the progress of Nationalism, whose platform, he thinks, “is made of principles which have stood the test of business applications." So great has been the growing control of municipal government of industry that the public is prone to lose sight of the need of national control. The chief conditions for the transference of monopolies to the central Government is that “the state should pay for the actual capital invested, as represented in the working property and improvements, according to a fair valuation, as they exist. For this franchise there should be no compensation, unless it originally cost something, and then only the price of its purchase in the first place should be paid.”

Professor John Trowbridge, of Harvard, discusses the feasibility of transmitting power from Niagara Falls to the World's Fair by means of an alternating electric current. Such an experiment has not as yet succeeded for a distance greater than 100 miles, but Professor Trowbridge thinks that, with the numerous recent improvements, the 500 miles between Niagara and Chicago can be overcome.

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ETHICS. THE opening and longest paper in the January num.

ber of the International Journal of Ethics is by Brother Azarias, on “ The Ethical Aspects of the Papal Encyclical.” The paper is almost entirely exegetical. bringing out in stronger relief the ethical side of the encyclical. Apart from that its most striking feature is the vigor with which Brother Azarias heaps contumely on the devoted head of the Malthusi devoted head of the Malthusian theory, which is d propos of the papal assertion of individual freedom in the matter of celibacy. “Malthusianism," this writer thinks, " is false in its premises, immoral in its application, and misleading in its conclusions.” . “A Palm of Peace from German Soil" has a pretty sound. It is a fine review, by Mary Kertz, of a powerful work from the pen of Frau von Suttner. “Die Waffen Nieder !" (Lay Down Your Arms !) is a volume which has attracted very general notice in Germany. Frau von Suttner's object is to paint the horrible anachronism of war in its most repellant colors; and writing always at “white heat,” she neglects to combat and disprove not a single objection, no matter how apparently insignificant, to her beloved gospel of peace. Her novel is in the form of an autobiography of a woman who, introduced to us first as a young girl, grows up in the atmosphere of a war-loving society-her father a warrior by profession, her husband killed at Solferino, her boy destined from the cradle to be a soldier. The reaction caused by her husband's death and, no less, by her own good sense, leads her and her second spouse into a life of condemnation of the war-solecism.

OVERLAND MONTHLY. IN the January Orerland Kate Douglas Wiggin tells, T in most lively manner, how she spent "A Day in Pestalozzi-Town,” which is Yverdon, on the southern bank of Lake Neuchatel. She found there the celebrated old educator's methods still in active operation, and the recog. nition of the simplest villagers showed that he was not without honor in his own country. The name of Froebel, however old, did not prove so talismanic.

That very picturesque region, Lower California, is described by Charles Howard Shinn, chiefly as to its old Spanish churches and the traditions connected therewith.

Professor Edward S. Holden makes the first of a series of contributions descriptive of the work at the great Lick Observatory. “ Photographs of the Moon” is the title of his paper this month. Of our nearest astronomical neighbor he says: “There is almost no atmosphere, its temper ature probably never rises above zero; there is no running water, therefore its volcanoes are probably all extinct; it is in all respects probably a dead and not merely a dying world; there is certainly no human life there, and very likely no life at all.”

THE ARCHITECTURAL RECORD. THIS quarterly is thoroughly alive, from its simple T but graceful cover to the end.

Perhaps the most important contribution in this midwinter number is Prof. A. D. F. Hamlin's paper on “The Battle of the Styles." The forms of modern architecture are spread thin over a multitude of schools, or "styles," especially in America, which are about as tolerant of each other as church sects. Moreover, these different schools of form have often been determined, as Professor Hamlin says, "by no more serious consideration than the architect's personal predilection and the changing fads or fashions of the day."

The conclusion the writer draws from his historical arguments, which we have not space to summarize, is that "the only safe pilot between the Scylla of servile imitation on the one hand and the Charybdis of an eccentric originality on the other is a thoroughly disciplined and cultured taste.”

There seems to be one fact that the contributors to the Record are generally agreed upon, whatever be their "styles "—that Philadelphia, architecturally speaking, is “the most backward and provincial of American cities.” The opening article on “ Architectural Aberrations" applies to the Quakers' commercial buildings Carlyle's comparison of village society to an Egyptian pitcher of tamed vipers, each struggling to get his head above the others; this forcible simile is transformed into a metaphor and sustained with enthusiasm and success by the Record's contributor.

To the lay reader the quaint charms of " Colonial Annapolis" will, perhaps, most appeal. T. Henry Randall describes, between “profuse” illustrations, this oldest, deadest and most picturesque of Maryland towns, many of whose houses and gardens are hardly changed since the haleyon period, a hundred and fifty years ago, when the gayest society of the colonies held its levees in them.

part of the Bostonian as to the importance and superiority of his town. Of course it is Emerson writing, and it would be absurd to praise his eloquence.

The literary feature of the month is contained in the first three chapters of Marion Crawford's new novel. He calls it “Don Orsino," after the young hero, and the scene is modern Rome. It promises to have a good deal of interesting character study. It is strange how the atmosphere of the historical novel seems to linger inappropriately about it.

THE MONIST.

THE COSMOPOLITAN. THE two more important articles of the January Cos

1 mopolitan, “The Special Correspondents at Washington," by T.C. Crawford, and Joseph W. Richard's paper on “ Aluminium-the Metal of the Future," are reviewed at greater length elsewhere.

Albert E. Greene, of the Kansas Railroad Commission, sketches the political struggle for that institution, which was won by the people from the railroad interest in 1883. Nowhere else, probably, has the problem of State control of common carriers been made such an important issue in local politics. The sensational fight that took place was the sign of the wide-spread reaction from a too generous policy toward the railroads. A reduction of fifty per cent. in rates during the past eight years is, in Mr. Greene's estimation, largely owing to the work of the Commission. It has also very important supervisory powers over the roads.

M. Riccardo Nobili contributes à readable article, illustrated by himself, on the Paris “Salon," the yearly exhibition which began in 1667 under the auspices of L'Académie Royale.

If Stanley's officers havelanything to do with it, the light of the Emin Pasha Expedition will not be left under the bushel. “In Camp with Stanley " is the Cosmopolitan's share this month, brightly written by A.J. Mounteney Jephson.

“Old New York," by James Grant Wilson, is especially striking in its illustrations; one of them shows the present site of the Equitable Building in the days when it was the Damen farm-house--a little cottage so charmingly cosey in appearance that one is apt to wonder if, after all, it were worth while.

ATLANTIC MONTHLY. THE Atlantic presents in its January number an un

I usually large variety of important papers. We notice at greater length elsewhere Henry James' paper on “ James Russell Lowell,” Professor Gildersleeve's on * The Creed of the Old South,” Walter Crane's explanation of “Why Socialism Appeals to Artists,” and “ The Greatest Need of College Girls," by Annie Payson Call.

Nor are these the only contributions of importance. An unsigned paper, presumably the work of Mr. Scudder, reviews “The Political Situation," without extracting much cause for satisfaction with the outlook. “We all recognize,” says the writer, “a steady decadence in our politics. The men in public life to-day are, with few exceptions, intellectually and morally inferior to the great statesmen of the war and the years which preceded it. Political preferment is less and less tempting to good men, The conditions of public life are more and more repellent. The tendency is dangerous, and it is our duty to arrest it.” The remedy is a somewhat vague proposal for a “con ference of those who think alike,” to devise a course of action.

C. Marion D. Towers edits and comments on an interest ing batch of letters showing John Stuart Mill's relation with the London and Westminster Reviews. The most striking points brought out are John Stuart Mill's irreconcilable dislike and almost contempt for Harriet Martineau, and his consequent quarrels with Robertson, his fiery young co-editor. The great logician gives the impression of being a very crusty individual.

A hitherto unpublished essay of Emerson's is given. It is on the inspiring subject of Boston, and is in a tone calculated to conquer any little diffident hesitation on the

THE Monist makes its quarterly appearance in Janu

ary, and, as usual, presents some able essays. Dr. W.T. Harris' contribution, "The New Civilization Depends on Mechanical Invention," is given fuller mention elsewhere.

"A "ROBERT ELSMERE' OF REAL LIFE.” Moncure Conway is.generally interesting, even to those who do not agree with him in the slightest—and their name is legion. His paper in the Monist under the title “Religion and Progress" is a brief sketch of Wathen Wilkes Call and a review of his work on “Final Causes."

Mr. Conway's felicitous characterization of Call as the " "Robert Elsmere' of real life” sums up in a phrase the mental history of this quondam theological student, Shel. leyan sceptic, clergyman of the Church of England, and, after the storm, fervent Humanitarian. Here is the eloquently prophetic conclusion of “Final Causes :"

"As Humanity will be the sole Ideal Object to which dutiful obligation and exalted sentiment will be referred, so the world of Humanity will be the world revealed, not by divine inspiration or metaphysical intuition, but by Positive Science. ... The great and majestic truths of the stellar universe, the mysteries of life, of light, of heat, of sound; the wonders of natural history, the magic of geologic lore, the epic of man's progression in time; the exaltation, the solace, the delight which flows from poetry, music, painting, sculpture; the interest in the arts, industrial no less than æsthetic; in the fellowship cf work which ameliorates the common lot; in friendships of man and woman short of passionate love, and in the happier, profounder affection of wife and husband. . . ; all these incidents of thought and varieties of emotion and action will possess the intellect and fill the heart of future generations, in a mode and degree which we can now only imperfectly realize, and which, in the end, will leave men but little reason to regret that the raptures of saint or prophet, or the splendors of ancient theocracy or the power and glory of the Mediæval Church, or the imposing premise of Hellenic or of Teutonic speculation, are as the dreams of a night which has passed forever away."

If one have the opportunity and inclination to concentrate his attention for an hour on C. Lloyd Morgan's essay, “Mental Evolution,” he will find fascination in the study of the question whether there is a conservation of consciousness, as there is a conservation of energy. If, finds Mr. Morgan, we generalize our definition of consciousness to include absolutely all forms of it, then “the modern tendencies of scientific thought suggest conservation which is but the antithesis of creation ex nihilo."

The most considerable paper of the number, the editor's essay in answer to the question, “ Are There Things in Themselves?" we pass reverently by. One notes without surprise the warning against the new French “mysticisın" which Lucien Arréat throws out in his review of M, Paulhan's now famous work.

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for. Each suite of rooms consists of sitting-room, bed room, kitchen, closet and bath, and vestibule. Mr. Potter also makes some suggestions as to the improvement in ventilation of existing tenements. The evils most complained of in New York, Brooklyn, and Jersey City are almost wholly unknown in the neighboring city of Philadelphia, in Dublin and in London.

G

C. McCulloch, written by Alexander Johnson. This article speaks appreciatively of the work of Mr. McCulloch, who was, at the time of his death, one of the foremost of practical philanthropists of the day. He was president of the Eighteenth National Conference of Charities and Correction, president of the Indianapolis State Board of Charities, and prominent in all charitable enterprises in the city of Indianapolis.

In a paper under the title of “The Christmas Society and Its Critics" Mr. Robert W.de Forest reviews the evidence in relation to the work of this well-meaning society. All the more important documents concerning this society are quoted in full, and Mr. de Forest sums up the case in a few words. Whatever difference of opinion, he says, there may be about the scheme of the Christmas Society --this scheme was to collect twenty or thirty thousand poor children in Madison Square Garden and give them presents and sweetmeats on Christmas Day—there can be but one opinion about the good effect of the discussion it has provoked. “While giving toys through the machinery created by the Christmas Society doubtless ‘has its reward,' that reward is greater just in proportion as the children's charity is personal services, not mere largess, and is given in such a way as to minimize class distinction and recognize most fully the common brotherhood of all children, ‘rich' and 'poor.' If as the result of this experiment, each ‘rich' parent will next Christmas bring his «rich' child into personal relations with some 'poor? child at the poor child's home and this ‘rich' child give that “poor' child not only 'candy and gingerbread cakes,' but some words of sympathy and love, all the better if at the cost of some self-denial, then the enterprise of the Christmas Society will be truly “a great success.' The lesson, too, will be quite as profitable to the 'rich' as to the 'poor.' The problem of true charity,” he continues, “is quite as complex as that of statesmanship. It is a science, not exact, to be sure, but in which some experience has been gathered and some pri ples have been established. Its practice is a profession, and the best results can only be accomplish3d under the leadership of those who are qualified for this office by study and experience. In war against pauperism we need not only the enthusiasm of the volunteer, but the judgment of the veteran officer."

The paper on “Every-Day Economy" by Mrs. Georgia B.Jenks is one of much practical value in its suggestions of economy in consumption. Care is taken in every step of the processes of production, but little care in consumption. There is an almost universal thoughtlessness and carelessness in the every-day selection and preparation of food. There is ignorance of the nutritive value of foods, and a wasteful expenditure is often made because of this ignorance.

The paper by Mr. E. T. Potter entitled “A Study of Some New York Tenement-House Problems" enumerates features which every good tenement-house plan should embody. With the highest rate of concentration of residence, there must be combined the avoidance of evils which naturally accompany such concentration, namely, poor ventilation, bad light, a lack of privacy, etc. Mr. Potter's plans, which are described at some length and shown in the illustrations, insure sunshine exposure one or more hours daily in every dwelling and adequate ven. tilation; a private food cellar, fuel cellar, clothes-drying loggia, bleaching space and garden-bed are also provided

GOLDTHWAITE’S GEOGRAPHICAL MAGAZINE.
OLDTHWAITE'S reviews Mr. Justin Winsor's work

on Christopher Columbus in its January number and criticises the historian for lack of sympathy with his subject. “Of Christopher Columbus," says this reviewer, “ whether he was the hero Irving describes, the saint as Mons. de Lorgnes believes, or a weak and false man as Harrisse and Mr. Winsor imply, it is impossible for us at this late day to determine—it is sufficient for us to know that he discovered the New World." Even if this is sufficient for the geographer, to the historian it will naturally be far from satisfying.

Captain William H. Parker touches the same theme in the first of his series of papers on “Columbus and His Times." But this introductory chapter deals principally with the Scandinavian voyages as related in the sagas. Illustrations of Iceland cities and landscapes tend to bring the conception of the Ultima Thule nearer to us.

Emin Pasha, thinks another contributor, is not half as bad as he has been painted, especially by Stanley's brush. “In spite of Stanley's criticism, he did wonders in the Equatorial Province, reducing it to order and enabling both the Egyptians and the natives there to live at peace during several years when there were no other means of communicating with the outer world. He is, perhaps, the most accomplished linguist who has engaged in geographical labors since Burton. He has a thoroughly scientific spirit, and has used his varied gifts for advancing civilization in Africa."

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LIPPINCOTT'S. N Lippincott's for January the veteran journalist, Colo

nel A. K. McClure, briefly reviews his editorial career, casting wistful glances back to the early days when he was editor of a backwoods newspaper in the Alleghany Mountains. He found then more pleasure, comfort, and freedom than he has since found as editor-in-chief of a great city daily. Then he was responsible for what he wrote, but now he is responsible for all his associate editors, for reporters whom he scarcely knows by sight, and for correspondents whom he never laid eyes on. This responsibility has brought upon him twenty-nine libel suits. It is not strange that he longs for the Alleghanies and the old weekly sheet.

A very wise article on a matter not trivial is Mrs. Amelia E. Barr's paper on “The Decline of Politeness." That true courtesy is largely disregarded now is unquestionable, and Mrs. Barr finds more causes for this effect in the spirit of pushing competition of the time, which doesn't leave men time for politeness, in the vast number of wealthy upstarts in society, who, with all their wealth, cannot purchase that which is in the blood. But more than these does she blame her sisters, the women; it is with them that the responsibility of courtesy rests, and they have despised it in their frantic rush after “a career and “a mission in the world.” They jostle men on the street, in the counting-room, everywhere; and very truly does Mrs. Barr say that “the very element of rivalry makes chivalry meaningless and impossible.” Children are no longer taught reverence for their superiors; and

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