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found it necessary to organize special companies to good example of superiors, and loyalty are the sow, reap, and thrash out the harvest. As M. Rai factors which should be brought into play. With berti truly says “It is not enough to mass the regard to the alliances, the main point, the general troops on the frontier ; they leave the country behind says, is England's decision ; but he has too much them, and it is necessary to keep it from starving.” confidence in the German nation to fear that GerIt seems, therefore, very questionable whether it many could not get on without England. would not have been wiser to exempt from military service all French citizens between forty and A RUSSIAN GENERAL ON THE SMALL-BORE RIELE forty five years of age, and to organize them as regiments of workmen and not as soldiers. In any
AND THE CALIBRE OF FIELD ARTILLERY. case, the question raised by M. Raiberti is a serious ENERAL DRAGOMIROV, in a recent contrione, and one which requires long and careful con
bution to the Russian Beresovskys Rasvied. sideration.
tschik, gives expression to some important views in connection with small-bore magazine rifles and the
calibre of field guns. The aim of weapons in war · THE WAR QUESTION.
is, in the first place, to damage individuals, and in TN the politics of the day and in public opinion the second to deal destruction to animate and inT the question of war is judged rather by the utter animate masses. The first of these objects is as. ances of certain statesmen than by the military signed to the rifle, and is admirably fulfilled by the position of the moment. But the latter is of con- modern small-bore with its high velocity and low siderable importance in the event of a declaration trajectory. To fit this weapon, however, with a of war. The editor of the Deutsche Revue has, there magazine, leads only to useless complications and fore, applied to General von Leszczynski, a promi. sacrifices accuracy for the questionable advantage nent man in the German army, for his views on the of rapidity of fire : that is to say, a factor of the matter, and his reply appears in the Revue for Jan. first importance is placed in the background by one uary. The general describes the present military of only secondary value. strength and weakness of the German army, and What is really wanted is many hits and not many seeks to still the universal war panic by killing the shots. In battle what is of consequence is not the illusions and hopes of adventurous politicians and acoustic effects, or the music of the bullets, but disturbers of the peace.
their effectiveness. The magazine is not only comHis comparisons of the German with the French plicated in itself, but it is liable to get out of order, and Russian armies are very interesting. In Ger- while its use at the same time greatly increases the many the underlying principle of all military train probabilities of waste and loss of ammunition. ing is dealing with the individual. No pains is During peace mancuvres it has repeatedly been spared to teach each soldier discipline and skill in found that soldiers continue firing without noticing the use of his weapons, and what he learns he does that the magazine is empty, and this heedlessness is not forget easily. The main object of the training much more likely to be increased than diminished of a leader is to teach him to be independent, and in the heat and excitement of the battle-field. With herein lies the secret of that fresh initiative which many people the principle of the small-bore rifle is has distinguished all the battles of the last wars. indissolubly associated with that of the magazine ; France and Russia are only now beginning ma- whereas in reality there is nothing in common nouvres and exercises which have been in use in between them. A small-bore rifle can not only exist Germany for the last fifty years at least, and then without a magazine attached to it, but as a fighting they are planned out in advance down to the very weapon it has a higher value without one. minutest details-with very different results of The desideratum which is sought to be attained course. Another secret of Germany's strength lies in a rifle of being able to hit a single point is no in her corps of officers, "the first in the world ;" longer the same when the merits of a field gun are and the last, but not least, important factor is the being weighed ; since with the latter the effective. confidence in each other of the nation and the army. ness of the gun depends principally on the multipli.
Russia is not likely to go to war if she can help cation of hits brought about by the explosion of the it. In the first place, new arms are being intro. shell it fires. Hence with guns the desideratum is duced into the army ; and how could a force two sought to be attained not by smallness of calibre, as millions strong be fed in an enemy's country? So in the rifle, but by giving the gun as large a calibre far as arms are concerned France and Germany as possible, subject only to the vital necessity for may be said to be equal, but in Germany loyalty is keeping the gun within such reasonable limits as to a stronger force with the soldiers. They serve the weight as will allow of its being manoeuvred over emperor. The German officers have beeu trained every description of ground by its team of six in active service on the field. In France this is not horses. The problem to be solved resolves itself, so. In times of peace the discipline in the French therefore, into the question of what is the largest army is extremely severe, but on the field, where calibre that can be given to a gun which is to be hundreds of thousands are brought together, strict maneuvred under all conditions of service by a team discipline does not avail much. Their training, the of six horses, which long experience has proved to be
times before disposing of him. As, however, once is sufficient, he fails to see how any arrangement for scattering the bullets at the rate of 600 a minute can be made to work satisfactorily. Moreover, he asks, who would be such a fool as to expose masses to the fire of machine guns? At the same time, he allows that they have their uses in positions where there is no room to place sufficient men to give the amount of rifle fire required. For the flanks of de fensive works and with small bodies of men who have to contend against badly-armed hordes machine guns may prove useful, but they are not required in European battle-fields, where there is seldom likely to be either want of room or want of men.
the best number that can be utilized for the pur. pose.
Up to 1885 the largest calibre field gun in the Rus sian service efficiently was the 4.2-inch, but as it is considerably surpassed in mobility and precision by the 3.42-inch gun, which, moreover, is but little in ferior to it as regards power of shell fire, it is question able whether any sufficient advantage is to be gained in employing two different calibres. In 1885, how ever, General Engelhardt, of the Russian artillery, showed that it was possible to design a 6-inch field mortar firing a shell of 70 1-2 pounds, with a bursting charge of 12 1 % pounds, and, further, that this mortar could be mounted on a two-wheeled carriage and be manoeuvred with almost the same facility as an ordinary field gun. Since then the idea has been thoroughly tested during the manouvres of the Russian army, and the great superiority of shell fire possessed by the new weapon has been so clearly demonstrated that at the present moment there are already eighteen field mortar batteries in the service. We now find, therefore, three classes of field guns actually in use in the Russian army, viz. : The 6-inch mortar, which gives great vertical effect of shell fire and fairly good direct fire; the 3.42-inch gun, with intense direct fire; and the 4.2-inch gun, which combines to some extent the explosive action of the first named with the accuracy of the second.
The most important factor in determining the best calibre for field guns is general suitableness. It is not enough to say a gun of such and such a calibre will be admirably suited for such and such a pur pose, for no general can fully calculate in advance all the contingencies under which he will have to operate in a campaign. The most suitable gun is, therefore, that gun which, while it fulfils certain ballistic essentials, is capable of being used under all possible circumstances. If this is conceded, then, to adopt guns of varying calibres and systems must necessarily be a retrograde proceeding in army organization ; and those who plead for the introduction of any special type of gun for field purposes on the ground that under certain circumstances it will be of the greatest utility, simply forget that in reality they are arguing against its adoption, seeing that a field gun is not wanted to meet exceptional condi: tions, but for use under all contingencies.
In fixing the calibre, General Dragomirov considers that the best limits for field guns are the 6-inch mor. tar and the 3.42-inch field gun, both of which are now in use in the Russian service, and that the medium, or 4.2-inch, gun is clearly destined, sooner or later, to disappear. For the rifle, he considers 8 mm (.315 inch) as the most suitable bore, partly because it is useless to kill a man with a large bullet if a small one will do, and partly because any further diminu tion in the bore would raise the cost of manufacture, increase the difficulty of manipulating the weapon, especially in cleaning it, and inordinately lengthen the cartridge. As regards machine guns, General Dragomirov admits that they would be wonderful weapons if it were necessary to kill a man several
THE CAPE FROM A FRENCH POINT OF VIEW. THE English theory of colonial self-government
1 is so repugnant to French traditions of admin. istration that it is not surprising to find a French historian of the Cape prophesying all manner of evil things concerning it. The anonymous author of an article which appears in the Revue des Deux Mondes under the title of “ An Autonomous Colony” regards it evidently in the light of a bogie with which to scare Algeria. After drawing a parallel between the two communities, he prefaces his study of the institutions of the Cape by the following paragraph, which may fairly be accepted as indicating the bias of his mind :
SELF-GOVERNMENT AS A FRENCHMAN SEES IT. “If to abandon, under the pretext of emancipation, and not to carry this abandonment to its logi. cal completion; if to withdraw, in one fell swoop, both military protection and financial support, to leave only a flag flying half-mast high, to compromise prestige by economy and the independence of others by the permission to perish if they please; if to inspire a third party with the very natural idea of gathering from the ruins of this prestige and the materials of this independence what some do not care to defend and others are not able to achieve-if this is the English colonial policy, and we believe it to be so, then it is a policy which would suit no Algerian.” Nor, the reader may well add, would it suit any other sane inhabitant of any community in the world. But let the last fifty years of the colonial policy of England, which turns on the point of self-government, be compared with the colonial policy of France for a corresponding period, and between the two not an Algerian could waver in his choice. It may be that the art of selfgovernment is an essentially Anglo-Saxon faculty, and that the same liberties would be less successfully exercised by men of another race. There can be Jittle doubt in the mind of any Englishman ao. quainted with the facts that the prosperity of our greatest colonies dates from their acquisition of the rights of responsible government.
THE SOUTH AFRICAN CHESS BOARD. Apart, however, from the prejudice-if South African history can be considered apart from the
essential condition of its existence—the account of the question of the future. The game is in progthe actual position in South Africa which is given ress. The writer of the article has apparently his by the writer of the article is graphic and interest own opinion of the manner in which checkmate ing. He compares the whole of South Africa to will be achieved, but he reserves the development a chess-board, on which the opposing kings, repre- of his forecast for another chapter. sented by England and Germany, stand stately and almost motionless while the action of the game is carried on by their respective queens. These queens,
THE ENGLISH IN BURMAH. it need hardly be said, are on their own squares, THE interest in England and the sympathy in Pretoria and Capetown. They move and move
with what is best in English institutions and rapidly across the whole breadth and length of the in English points of view which has characterized board. But the play is somewhat complicated by the Revue des Deux Mondes of late, and is underthe fact that the queens do not act wholly and stood to be the reflection of a new and serious simply in the interests of their kings. The open current of French politics, is well marked in the game is doubled by a secret one, and the name of number for December. An article upon “Selfthe second game is Afrikanderism. If the Trans Government at the Cape,” which is fully noticed vaal and the Cape could come to terms Germany elsewhere, condemns the English method of dealing and England would both be left in the lurch, and with her large colonies, but is, nevertheless, indican Afrikander nation would be formed.
ative of the care and attention which it is thought
worth while to bestow upon the study of colonial THE OBJECTS OF AFRIKANDERISM.
history. Another study of English colonial methods, A description follows of the rise of the Afrikander
by M. Joseph Chailly Bert, is conceived in a strain party and the formation of the Bond. The prin
of warmer approval and admiration. cipal object of the policy of the Bond is described
M. Bert openly prefaces his narrative of English as being the unity of South Africa. In order to
dealings with further India with the statement that attain it the antagonism between the Dutch and
he thinks France has much to learn from the English races must be, as far as possible, removed.
example of her great neighbor. While he is far Community of interests must be encouraged in poli.
from praising indiscriminately, he devotes himself tics, commerce, industry, agriculture, and all the
to a careful study of what the conduct of the Engother pursuits which influence the life of nations.
lish has been in their new possession, and how, in Mutual respect and tolerance in matters of religion,
the middle of difficulties and in the face of needs law, and education must be developed. And the
which are almost the same (as those of French Indoamalgamation of the European races would be
China), they have known how, not exactly to comineffectual unless it were accompanied by full
plete-for too short a time has yet gone by-but responsibility for the affairs of the native races,
to prepare the pacification, the administrative orwhich so largely outnumber the European popu.
ganization, and the economic development of the lation. Hence the further cry of Afrikanderism,
country. To follow him through the whole article, “South Africa for the South Africans." There
which is only the first of a series, would be to narmust be no interference from without in native
rate the already well-known history of the conquest affairs.
of Burmah. Among the points which he selects THE QUESTION OF THE FLAG.
specially for commendation, it is enough to notice Under what flag, then, is United South Africa to one or two of the most important. take its place among the nations? The work of First, perhaps, of them all, it is worthy of notice union as yet is far from accomplished. It is only that he praises warmly the very principle of trust the second game of the queens upon the chess-board. in the governing capacity of the great colonies and Afrikanderism accepted as a policy in Capetown is dependencies which his companion writer upon the disdainfully rejected still in Pretoria. Are the Cape takes occasion to ridicule and condemn. M. republics to unite with British colonies, of which Bert understands better the principle of mutual at present only one enjoys the even partial inde. respect which underlies this trust, and he attributes pendence of self-government? Are they to find a a large part of English success in Burmah to the place for their free institutions in the heterogeneous fact that it has been administered throughout as medley of chartered company's territories, protec- a province not of England, but of India. “And torates, crown colonies, and responsible government? India was close at hand, rich in resources, in troops, It is impossible. Somehow the various governments and in officials. At its head was a council posmust be assimilated. Either the republics must sessed of extensive powers-powers which, thanks renounce their independence and federate with the to the liberal spirit of the Secretary of State for rest of South Africa on some such model as the India, in London are always increasing; and finally, Dominion of Canada, or the English colonies must as president of this council, holding the position of become independent states like the republics. But Governor-General and Viceroy, there was a man of the old kings stand still upon the board. The nation great breadth of mind, sound judgment, and rare that is to be must look on one or other of them for promptitude in action.” the protection of its coasts. To which of them? is I t was to all these circumstances combined, but
most especially to the fact that decisions were made, not in London, but in Rangoon, Calcutta, or Simla, by men who knew the situation, that success is due. The rapidity and completeness of military operations, when military operations were required; the change from a military to a civil occupation, or, more correctly, from an occupation in force by soldiers to an occupation in force by police as soon as the change became possible; the establishment of the English judicial system; the conciliatory atti. tude of English officials toward such potentates as they saw any hope of trusting; English respect for the religious institutions of the country ; finally, the tact with which negotiations with China have been carried out, and the question of the Chinese boundary postponed to a day when it can be settled with more assured knowledge of essential conditions, all receive in turn their share of appreciative recognition.
But from first to last the entire credit is ascribed to the Government of India. The India Office is only praised for the wise tolerance with which it has allowed the right people to manage everything on the spot.
MARLBOROUGH ON SOCIETY IN AMERICA., I NDER the somewhat absurd and misleading
title of " Merry England,” the Duke of Marl borough writes in the New Review for January upon the development of the English-speaking race in the United States of America. He points out that the English and Americans are practically one peo ple, “dissimilar, no doubt, as Professor Bryce shows us, in many of the fundamental ideas that govern our political constitutions, and yet singularly one in our social conceptions, in our literary tastes and popular ideals. So much is this true that the states man of the future in both countries will lay these facts to heart as he considers the interests of his own particular country, seeing the enormous potential influence that can be derived from a proper amalgamation of all English-speaking interests all over the world, in the interest of peace, of com: merce, and of free trade in thought and language as well as in goods."
His account of America is interesting and fresh. The aristocrat of the “ England across the sea ” is the millionaire. The American has one leading idea that stands above religion, politics, sport, and everything except family-it is the road to wealth. American aristocracy represents the wealth of the country. Everything that produces riches is in its hands, and there is a law which gives more rigid and constant protection to the rights of property than anything that exists in England. The moneyed aristocracy of America is far more powerful than the titular aristocracy of England. The squirearchy of America is the legal profession. Life in Amer ica is hard for the mass; they have no time for politics, little for religion, and of sport, of relaxa tion, there is none in America outside New York
race meetings and those of other large towns; vet the people are much happier, take them as a whole, although they work twice as hard. A kindly and unselfish hospitality is a ruling habit of almost all, while woman's influence is everywhere admitted. Discussing the influence which American ideas will have upon England, the duke says:
“In another generation or so the political functions of the House of Lords will probably disappear, even by the peers' wish, while the aristocracy must be recruited now entirely from trade. There are no great wars to make great generals, there are no powerful sovereigns to make great favorites. The essence of Mrs. Partington's hare soup is, in fact, not there! Besides this, you have an entirely new class growing up, which has great similarity of circumstance-though on a less wealthy scale-to America South Kensington is going to overshadow Belgravia and Mayfair, while the numberless suburban families, with wealth derived from foreign trade and colonial enterprise, form a class that only the income tax collector and a few far-seeing Bel. gravian mammas have the remotest idea of.”
On the other hand, the influence of England will be felt in America in an increasing of those forms of leisure and ease which an older civilization possesses :
“But it is clear that in the not distant future America will be possessed of a representative class of landed merchant nobles who will vie in luxury and in wealth with anything that the Old World ever produced, and that the artistic riches in pictures, in furniture, and in works of art which have been so enhanced in value in nineteenth-century Europe will be raised by American millionaire buyers of another generation to the most fabulous proportions. Not only this, but English ways of life among a wealthy class will become more and more popular.”
After alluding to some drawbacks in the Ameri. can social system, he says:
" With all this there is, however, a higher standard of general refinement in the home among almost all classes in America. Even in the humblest walks of life the home is better kept, more attention is given to small things, dinners and festivities mean more as entertainments than in England. There is less happy-go-lucky sort of Bohemian coffee-housing all round. The tendency to nagging and gossipmongering of an ill-natured character is, I fancy, rarer in that country.
“The American woman is, perhaps, the most different thing in America to anything in England. She has a natural quickness for appreciating the characters of the men around her, and she takes infinitely more trouble, and in some respects greater interest, all round than the English woman displays. Child bearing does not seem to crush every. thing else out of them, as it does with all classes in England. Taking the two people together, there is really far less difference than one might expect to tind."
THE HOME LIFE OF MR. GLADSTONE. vey no idea of the numbers left unnoticed. As a
matter of fact, about one-tenth only of the postal THE Young Man for January gives a pleasant
arrivals are laid before him, and of these he answers T account of Mr. Gladstone's home life, illus
on the average one-half. trated by a new photograph of his study, showing
LUNCHEON TO BEDTIME. his desk for literary work, his desk for political Excepting before breakfast, he does not go out in work, and the basket into which addresses are con- the morning. At 2 P.M. he comes to luncheon, and signed. The following are the more interesting at the present time he usually spends the afternoon parts of this article:
arranging the books at his new library. To this “ NEVER BE DOING NOTHING.”
spot he has already transported nearly 20,000 books, His daily life at home is a model of simplicity
and every volume he puts into its place with his
own hand. To him books are almost as sacred as and regularity, and the great secret of the vast amount of work he accomplishes lies in the fact
human beings, and the increase of their numbers is that every odd five minutes is occupied. No man
perhaps as interesting a problem as the increase of ever had a deeper sense of the preciousness of time
population. It is real pain to him to see a book and the responsibility which every one incurs by
badly treated-dropped on the floor, unduly squeezed the use or misuse he makes of it. To such a length
into the book case, dog's-eared, or, worse crime of
all, laid open upon its face. does he carry this that at a picnic to a favorite Welsh mountain he has been seen to fling himself
A short drive or walk before the social cup of tea on the heather and bury himself in some pamphlet
blet enables him to devote the remaining hour or so beupon a question of the day, until called to lighter
fore post-time to completing his correspondence.
After dinner he returns to his sanctum-a very temthings by those who were responsible for the provision basket. His grand maxim is never to be doing
ple of peace in the evening, with its bright fire, nothing. He and Lord Lyttelton filled up every
arm-chair, warm curtains, and shaded reflecting spare moment. Out of their pockets came the in
candle. Here, with an occasional doze, he reads evitable little classic, Homer or what-not, whether
until bedtime, and thus ends a busy, fruitful day. at a railway station or on any other of the thou
HIS SABBATH REST. sand occasions when the ordinary mortal is content Mr. Gladstone has often been heard to remark: to lose his temper as well as his time. Some may that had it not been for his Sunday rest he would still remember the familiar sight of Lord Lyttelton, not now be the man he is. Physically, intellectulying on the grass in the Eton Playing Fields, watch ally, and spiritually, his Sunday has been to him a ing his sons' batting, bowling, or fielding, and read- priceless blessing. Any one who entered his room ing between the overs.
in Downing Street on a Sunday during the height BREAKFAST AND CORRESPONDENCE.
of the session could not fail to be struck by the atAlthough Mr. Gladstone's daily routine is familiar mosphere of repose, the signs and symbols of the
day, the books lying open near the arm-chair, the to some, yet many inaccurate accounts have been circulated from time to time. In bed about twelve,
deserted writing-table, the absence of papers and he sleeps like a child until called in the morning.
newspapers. From Saturday to Monday morning Not a moment's hesitation does he allow himself,
Mr. Gladstone puts away all business of a secular although, as we have heard him say, no school-boy
nature, keeps to his special Sunday books and occould long more desperately for an extra five min.
cupations, and never dines out that day unless to utes. He is down by eight o'clock, and at church
cheer a sick or sorrowful friend ; he never travels on (three-quarters of a mile off) every morning for the
Sunday, and it is well known that when Her Majesty 8:30 service. No snow or rain, no tempest, however
invites him to Windsor Castle on Sunday for one severe, has ever been known to stop him. Directly
night he makes arrangements to stay in Windsor after breakfast a selection of his letters is brought
the Saturday night to avoid Sunday travelling. Two to him. The enormous mass of papers of all kinds
services at least see him at worship on Sunday in that arrives each morning takes so much time in
Hawarden church. He has a poor opinion of those merely opening, and contains so large a proportion
whom he humorously terms “ once-ers.” In his of rubbish, that the sorting and selecting is done
dressing room can be seen the large open Bible in for him by the son or daughter living most at home.
which he daily reads. Applications for signatures go remorselessly into
HOW HE READS BOOKS. the waste-paper basket. Autograph and birthday Mr. Gladstone's method of reading is more that of books, manuscripts, novels, poetry, essays on every the tortoise than the hare. He cannot read rapidly, conceivable subject, schemes for the government of nor has he ever acquired the fine art of skipping; the universe, inventions, medicines, testimonials, he cannot boast, like Carlyle, of reading a page of are all placed in a box for future return when de. Gibbons with one flash of his eve.” But he is not manded. There is an erroneous idea that Mr. Glad. slow to discover whether the book is worth reading, stone answers any and every letter addressed to him, and if not, after a few pages it is cast aside, though This is only because the answers he does send are as a general rule his judgment is lenient. Scott is generally published and read by thousands, and con- still to him king of novelists; and among the mod