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those disastrous operations, known within addition of some centines to the indirect th: last century by the names visa; reduc- contributions, during a certain number of tions de runts; suspensions de rembourse- years, and this effort, in favour of public mons; reiluctions de valeurs; rembourse- credit, , would not have exhausted the mens; vieurs nominales; mobilisation; strength of the State. But we are happy inscriptions reduites au tiers; liquiditions to be able to present you with a mode of reen valeurs definiciees; revisions; assure paym. nt which does not require an increase mens de revisions; rejets de rents par pre-of turation, but leaves rooin to hope for a soription, &c. &c. Sc. France, at peace diminution. France possesses yet 1,400,000 witli

' the whole universe, ought to aspire to hectares of Forest Land, We propose the new celebrity She ought to endeavour to sale of 300,000 to effect the payment of establish in every department of the adni. the arrears without increasing the burnistration, candour and justice in the ex- thiens on the nation. The produce of the cruise of its powers. To obtain this great sale of the property of the Corporations, 1e5ult, it is necessary to find the means for which was previously ordered, and of the laying all demands on the State, and to other property given up to the Sinking prove that, with the ability, she possesses Fund, will be applied to the same object. iho will to do so.-France has now the If supplementary means be necessary, they mcans of paying all her expences, all her will be found in the surplus of succeeding debts, as will be seen by comparing that Budgets ; and that of 1915 presents a surwhich she has with that which she owes: plas of seventy applicable to this end. The total amount of the debt now demand- | Amidst all the calculations into which the able is 750,000,000. The revenue of the present discussion leads us, it will be pleasyear 1814 is estimated at 540,000,000, ing, and perhaps instructive, to remark, in and that of 1815 at 618,000,000. This the relative state of our burthens with revenue is entirely furnished by taxes, di- those of nations whose prosperity is the rect or indirect, with the exception of 10 most striking, that the situation of France, or 12 millions, the estimated produce of after so many storms, is still promising. the Forest Domains. For the year 1914 According to the last census the population there will be a deficit of 307,400,000 of France was 28 millions. Diviling francs. This is occasioned by the events which preceded the 1st of April

, and con- taves, which we take at 600 millions, the

equally among all : he annual amount of iho sequenily it makes part of the debt of quota paid by each is little under 22 francs. 759,000,000, now demandable. The

In England the produce of the taxes, not expences of the year 1815, fixed at 547,700,000 francs

, leave an excess in the including those of Ireland, has risen of ievenue for that year of 70,300,000 francs.which, divided among 12 millions of in

years to at least 60 millions sterling, The calculations have seemed to some persons to be not sufficiently exact. This habitants

, give five pounds sterling, or desise of perfectness cannot be satisfied. 20 francs, as the contribution for each in

dividual:-that is to say, upwards of five We must for the present content oursclves with approximations ; but the House may vidral in France. In the United States

imcs as much as the amount for cach indibe satisfied that it has before it the maxi

of America the receipts of the Customs, mum of debt; and the minimum of the receipts, so that if there be errors, they will wbich, previous to the two last years of be attended with no danger. If the results war, formed almost the only revenue, proare exaggerated, the surplus, on whatever duced annually 16 millions of dollarse side it will be, will only be advantageons

: inhabitants, gives about 12 francs for each

This sum divided among seven millions of since it removes the inconvenience of a deficit, and gives the State the means of im- individual'; to which must be added thig provement and present credit. France has local taxes peculiar to cach State, amount. been but little accustomed to this sort of ing to about 11 fri:ncs more, making 23 inexactness, which, by increasing the dif- francs for each individual. Whence it fo,q. ficulties of the present year, is an allevia- lows in all respects, whether in population! tion of those of the years which follow. We extent of territory, or taxable property, do not liesitate to declare, that if in the want the advantages of France over these na: of extraordinary resources we had bcen re- tions are great. These relative approxi, duced to taxation alone, we should not mations are sufficient to show us the have the 11:5s proposed an entire liquida- grounds of confidence which remain for tion. It wight have been elected by an i us, and those which should encbprage 2

active and ind isáriutta nation, like our own, whose Government, by an iņviolable fidelity to undertake with ardour all enterprizes, no fuilit iril its engagements towards ite useful to agriculture, industry, and com- creditors, has remained in 'a condition, 1100 merce. Thus is the question respecting our withstanding twenty years of war, in spite power to discharge our burtheas and to de- of tłc fetters and prohibitions which ex: liver ourselves from debts answered. pelled, Irm almost every port on the Conr

“ It would seem useless to take up your tinent, her slips and merchandize, to bore time with the second question, for having row every year, for upwards of len years, shewn that we can free ourselves from at a moderate interest, more than 25 mil debt, we have shewn that we ought to do lions sterling-a sum equal to our ordinary it. But, laying aside for the present the revenue, estimated at six hundred millions consideration of those principles of mora- of francs. And if the state of the ex lity and justice, from whichi neither Go-banstion to which twenty years of Revoluvernments nor individuals deviate with im- tion have brought us, be objected against punity, and let us examine if sufficient us, I shall answer, by pointing to the ana. reasons may not be drawn from the inte logous example of America where the rest of the State alone, for the adoption of Government, by following the systens which the principle of speedy and entire payment we are desirous to see adopted, had raised of onr debts. We must acknowledge that itself from the most critical to the most the Government in France has been but


circumstances.-Emerging little accustonied to make use of the power from a Revolution and a bloody and ruinous arising from fidelity to its engagements : war, that country bad yet to struggle and in this respect we must rather accuse against all the embarrassments which a the nature of things than the men in power: wretched paper-currency entails ; the land for the theory of a regular and constant was uncultivated and unsaleable ; tbe pocredit can only be established under a re- pulation did not exceed two millions and a presentative and constituent Government, half of persons; the Government had to such as that which the bounty of the King provide for an arrear of seventy millions of enables us now to enjoy for the first time. dollars ; the capital of the debt was sold It is because this powerful spring was with difficulty at from ten to twelve per wanting, that France, situated in a most cent. In this situation, the United States, happy climate, and possessed of the richest convinced of the great advantages attending soil, covered with a numerous, active, and a strict fulfilment of its engagements, proindustrious population, heaped in short with vided for the entire payment of the seventy all the elements of prosperity, has never- millions of dollars. A year after, the same theless remained, in some respects, below stock, which might have purchased at ten or, the level which she ought to have attained. twelve per hundred of their noninal value, Thus are explained the disadvantages were at par. The public paper was immewhich have attended some operations of diately increased 346 millions of francs, the Government in the times just passed, This resolution also created, as by enchantas well as during former periods. The ment, capital--the first need in a Country exactness with which the present Go- after a Revolution of which the effects alwaya vernment will acquit all its engage- are injurious to it. The interest of money ments, will give France a new power, soon returned to a due proportion; agriwhich has been too long unknown. The culturists, manufactures, and traders, obJlinisters have thought that they should tained from the capitalists enlarged assistgive the best pledge for the future, by ance, with which they were able to devepaying at present the creditors who have lope all their enterprizes.--If such were contracted bona fide debts with the last the effects of the good faith and strictness, administration, and by ridding the future of the United States towards their credifrom the embarrassments of past times.---- tors, such and greater must they be in

It was necessary to prove by examples the France. It is in France especially that utility of the honourable system which the credit and the lowering of interest must. Government proposes to follow, and which produce all kind of prosperity; its situation it intends to make the basis of our laws is such as to need only capital to multiply and our financial administration, we may ad- useful works and undertakings which difduce the wonderful advantages which other fuse lustre and greatness among nations, and States have derived from it. The first ex are the foundations of a people's prosperity, ample is still furnished us by England The Government believes that it has pre

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pared these happy results by the arrange- ed in France, under the powerful sanction
ments which we have the honoar to present of honour. And may we hope that the in-
to you. One of them tends directly to the fluence which the manners of our nation
lowering the interest of money, by causing have so long exercised over other people,
loans to be opened, for the purpose of will render general throughout Europe this
buying up or extinguishing the ob i ations moderation, which has become more neces-
on the Royal treasures; this facility of bor- sary than ever to the happiness of subjects,
rowing gives the Government the means and the glory of Sovereigns.
of offering the owners of obligations their
discharge, unless they prefer a reduction LORD COCHRANE.---Ia last week's Re-
of the interest. This option will be pro- gister, I insested a communication from a
posed at all times, when there is a pos- ccrrespor:dent, containing a partial extract
sibility of borrowing at a rate lower than from the Address presented to Lord
that of the obligations, and thus the bigh Cochrane by the inhabitants of Culross,
rate of interest on these debts become off with his Lordship's answer. The follow-
nu consequence. We must acknowledge, ing has since been transmitted, with a re-
that to complete the new order of thing quest that I should give it publicity :---
in our financial administration a sinking We, the Inhabitants of the Royal
fund is necessary. The economy which Burgh of Culross and neighbourtood, beg
you may have remarked in all the parts of leave to offer your Lordship our heartfelt
ihe Budget, in all the expences of the congratulations on being re-elected a mem.
Ministries, has thrown a temporary ob- ber to serve in the House of Commons for
stacle in its way, and it is from respect for one of the first cities in the kingdom ;
such an institution that the King's Finis- which event may be considered as the ver-
ters have thought proper to deier all pro- | dict of the last tribunal to whom you had
position in relation to it; they have thought appealed from the charges lately preferred
that it was not necessary to run the risk of against you. While the firmness with
compromising the success of ii by too great which you met those charges has called
haste in its production ; for the establish- forth our highest admiration, we rejoice
ment of a sinking fund derives its strength they have now been so clearly proved to be
and usefulness from its permanence and unfounded, and that the cloud whicha
inmutability. The law wliich creates it threatened your destruction has been dis-
should be inviolable; a single change of it pelled. In tbe joy every where diffused on this
would cause all the fruit of it to be lost, for occasion, none can more cordially partici,
by the laws of accumulation, it is time, pate than the Inhabitants of Cull'oss; and
continuity, and perseverance, which pro- we beg to assure your Lordship of their
duce the prodigious results that seem cx- unabated attachment to, and respect for,
plicable only by the science of numbers. I the family of Dundonald.
thought proper to express regret, that cir. Calling to mind the many heroic ac-
cumstances have not permitted a measure tions your Lordship has performed in your
of administration of such importance to be countıy's cause, we look forward with con-
comprised in the new plan of the system fidence to a renewal of your ardent and
of the finances from its beginning; but I gallant exertions for her advantage, not-
have the pleasure of expressing my confi- withstanding the persecutions you are now
dence, that it will form an essential and suffering. And we sincerely hope, that in
fundamental part of the plans of the next defiance of party and faction, you shall
year's budget. You sce, Gentlemen, ta again shine forth an ornament to your pro-
what degree the King is desirous that the fession--- an honour to your country---and
propositions of bis Ministers, and the acts the boast of this place, the ancient resi-
of his Government, should bear a charac. dence of your noble family.
ter of probity, conformable to the clevation “ We beg also to express our wish, that
of his soul, and which, by providing for all your Lordship may speedily forget those suf-
interests, inspires with a just confidence the ferings an honourable mind must sustain
hearts of all. This is a new era, in which whilst struggling against gross and un-
the justice and moderation of the Prince, I founded accusations.
whose presence amongst us has restored Signed in the presence and by the apa
peace to the world, will make ns, daily, pointment of the Miceting.
more sensible to the reciprocal advantages

" WM. MELVILLE, B, of virtues which may be so easily establis!

“ John Caw, Secretary."

Printed and Publieked by J. KORTON, No. 91, Strand


Vol. XXVI. No. 13.] LONDON, SATURDAY, SEPT. 24, 1814. [Price ls.


-[386 SUMMARY OF POLITICS. great fair for neat cattle at Barret in

Hertfordshire. Hither are brought the Corn Bill.-I have before me the Re- cattle from Scotland, Wales, Devonshire, port of the Committee of the House of and elsewhere, to be distributed amongst Lords, on the subject of the Corn Bill.- the numerous graziers and stall-feeders of The manifest object of the “ inquiry" of the southern and eastern countics of Engthis Committee is to lay the ground for a | land. When exhibited at this fair, the Bill to prohibit the importation of corn, cattle cover a space of ground about two until our own corn will sell at such a paing miles in circumference. Now, I have no as shall enable the grower to;-ánd scruple in saying, that I am fully convinced, to pay his rent and taxes.--As it is my from my own observation, and from inforopinion, that a Bill of this sort will be mation gathered nearly upon the spot, that again brought forward, I shall, before hand, the French bave, since the month of May put in my protest against any such last, brought to, and sold in this country, a measure. I have several objections to it; far greater number of neat cattle than ars and, that I may have the better chance of brought, in any one year, to this great na. being understood, I shall state and explain, tional fair.—Let any one estimate the efas clearly as I am able, the grounds on fect of such an importation. The effect which they rest, under distinct heads.- I really has been the lowering of the value of must first, however, premise, that I do not every man's neat stock above one third. see any injustice, towards the rest of the - France, therefore, freed from the feudal community, in the passing of such a Bill as system, freed from the dronery of the monaswas proposed last year. I dislike such a taries, freed from tythes, possessing a hapBill, because it would be injurious to the pier climate, and paying lower wages for country at large; becanse it would do labour, can, does, and will undersell the general harm; and not because it would grower of corn and breeder of cattle in benefit' the farmer at the expence of the England. Besides the neat cattle abovecommunity.--The state in which this mentioned, the French have brought, and country now is, is a very singular and cri- are daily bringing, great numbers of swine, tical state. A long and expensive war has fat as well as lean; of sheep, fat and lean, created taxes enormous. These taxes (to and the fat, of surprising fatness; of poultry, say nothing of those necessary for the new of all sorts, of the finest quality; of butter, war with America) must be kept on, or it eggs, fruit, and even garden vegetables.will be impossible for the Government to It would really seem, that two or three new pay the interest of the National Debt. To counties of England had risen out of the pay these taxes, and the poor rates, which sea, teeming with food, without having any latter alone amount to nearly half as much one to eat it. The effect of this must bo, as the whole revenue of France, prices must it has been, it is, and it will be, the lowbe, on an average of years, kept up to ering, and the keeping down of, the price of nearly the point of the last five or six years. these articles in England, Ireland, and To keep up prices to this point the pro- Scotland. For, though these products ar. ducts of the earth in other countries must rive on the coast, they bave their effect all be excluded, and especially the prodacts over the kingeom. They swell the general of France, lying so near to us, and now quantity, in the same way, and with as perbecome infinitely more rich in agricultural fect regularity, as your hand, put in on prodactions than at any former periods — one side of a bucket of water, makes the France, in consequence of her happy Revo- water rise in every part of the bucket.--Jution, seems to bave become a new country. Therefore, if you pass a law to "protect the She has now an abundance of all the neces- farmer," as it is callcd, against the imporsaries of life, and her superabundance tation of corn, why not include cattle, sheep, she is selling to us. There is annually a land hogs, which form nearly one half of his

such a

you not

property, and 'which are as necessary as | mers and landholders were amongst the bread ?-My objections to such a law are forwardest in support of the war, must 1st, that, it being a benefit to mankind in they not be unreasonable indeed to object general, that countries should be at liberty to pay their share of those taxes? Yes, to supply each other with their products, they are, indeed, willing to pay their share such a law would be hostile to that great of the taxes ; but they wish to have such and beneficent principle. Why should high prices as will enable them to do this

war be made against nature ; without any distress, any loss, any falling against the universal good of man? Why off in their flourishing state. But, gentleshould we, who live in a less happy climate, men, this is unreasonable. You have had and who tabour under many disadvantages, what you wished for. You have destroyed unknown to our neighbours ; why should Republicanism in France, and are now We not participate of their superabundance? giving a drubbing to the Yankees; and, Here is a person of fixed income in Eng- will pay

for this? Do you think, land. Why should he not eat the cheap that the soldiers and sailors and contractors beet, mutton, and pork, raised by his neigh- and paymasters, and barrack-people, and bour in Normandy?-_Phy.!” exclaims pursors and parveyors, are not to be paid the farmer and landlord: j'hy? why, be for gratifying you? You huzza at the

cause we are compelled to pay as much grant of an immense sum to Lord Welling, "tax and poor-rate as if none of this sup- ton; you almost kiss the shoes of the gal

ply came from France to supplant ours in lant Duke ; you are ready to cram your * the market. Take off the taxes created fists down the throats of those who do not " by the war ; take off the poor-rates, fcel disposed to bawl as loud as yourselves. "created by the war; take off these, place Grant! yes, gentiemen; but ibat is the “ us where we were in 1792, and we shall grant without the money? A grant does “ be able to supply you at as cleap a rate not mean words. Palaces and splendid

as the French can.”- In answer to this, equipages, and pleasure grounds and ample I have to observe, in the first place, that, domains, are not made of parchment. It is if there be any fault in the creation of the money; money, good gentlemen, that the taxes, who is more to blame than the grant means; whence, then, is the money farmers and landlords? Did they, in any to come but out of the taxes ? whence are one instance, oppose the war? On the the taxes to come but, in part, at least, out contrary, did they not address the King to of your pockets? And, as it is in the new undertake it and carry it on ? Did they ture of taxes to produce poverty and misery, not, in all parts of the country, pledge their what right have


above all men living, lives and fortunes for the carrying on of the to complain of bearing your share of that war? Did they not say, that they were poverty and misery? --You appear to have ready to spend th: in last shilling, and the thought, that the taxes you were paying last drop of their blood, in the cause of would support a war, which would so comKingly Government against Republi- pletely ruin the people of France, that they cuism?

Anil, did they not, by volunta- would not recover in a century, or, at least rily arming themselves as Yeoman: Cavalry, before we should be at them again with actually support, physically support, the another war; and you were exceedingly war-party, against all the remonstrances gratified at being told, that Napoleon had an: attempts of the opponents of the war? left nothing but old crippled men, women Were these professions insincere? If they and children, to till the land. How suc were, those who made them

eserve no prised you must have been to see the wheat, piy; and, if they were sincere, ought they barley, oats, ncat cattle, sheep, hogs, and to grumble and ymwl at the loss, which poultry of France come crowding upon our they are now sustaining, sceing that the shores, the moment that peace was made ! object of all their prayers is attained; These old cripples, and the women and chilmanely, the fall! Republicanar, and the dren of Napoleon, must have been very busy re-establishment of Jonsrohy in Franco? in t!c fields! The truth is, that, while The debt, whirli now swalios up more England, by that war against the Repubt'ian half of the taxes, arose necessarily out liçang of France, which you were so eager of the war; the expence of the new war to support, has been loading herself with a painst America have a like sources the unredeemable debts, and unbearable taxes, increase of the poor-rates į; attributable to the ponple of France have been tilling and tushirty cause. Aus, as the far- enriching thcir country; t'rey have been

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