Page images
PDF
EPUB

sertion and abdication of the throne by the provinces with zcal and equity. The taxes former monarch. But the most interest- are uniformly distributed, and each Nea. ing part, is that on which this writer politan, blesses the order and regularity now grounds Murat's preferable claim upon his established by the Government of Joacbim. attention to “ the happiness and prosperity Let us now compare this statement, the of the Neapolitan people.” Here his title work of a few years, with the result of the rests upon a basis that, I trust, will never Government of the last dynasty, during the be undermined. It was a similar title that space of seventy years, that it reigned commanded my respect for the Emperor over Naples, and we shall soon perceive Napoleon ; and it is a title without which, the just motives for which the inhabitants in my estimation, every Chief ought to be of the whole kingdom gike so decided a regarded as a tyrant and usurper, and preference to the actual Government.compelled to relinquish sovereign power. Charles III. was certainly known to possess That the reader may judge how far Murat, a great character for probity, and many King of Naples, merits his present eleva- other distinguished qualities; but he was tion, and is entitled to possess the throne wanting in the knowledge neccessary for be occupies, I have annexed to this article appreciating the resources offered him by our author's remarks

the kingdom of Naples, and the genius of On the happiness of the Neapolitans, and its inhabitants: he only conceived the pro

on the prosperity of the kingdom. ject of a code of laws; he undertook the Every acute observer will have remarked, construction of some public edifices in the that so much trouble and agitation in Eu- capital of his estates, in which he left some rope has happened, only because certain traces of magnificence and utility ; but Governments have too much neglected the every branch of administration, and of poprincipal object of their institution--the litical economy, were entirely neglected. public felicity, and the general prosperity. Naples possessed neither a civil, nor a criIf the happiness of a nation is the truest minal code, nor administrative laws. The title of a King; and if that happiness people of the law, exclusively confined to consists in causing a nation to be respected the knowledge of the laws of the Lombards, abroad, and in protecting at home the per- of the municipal, of the Roman and canon sonal safety of all, the liberty, property, law, disposed in an arbitrary manner of and industry of individuals, we find this the fortune and of the liberty of the citiend entirely accomplished at Naples by the zens. To this species of judiciary desbeneficial effects produced by the Govern- potism and legislative chaos, was joined ment of Joachim, who has inspired a na- the absolute authority of the King, who, tional spirit in a country so long agitated under the name of dispatches, or royal and by violent parties, and rendered amiable ministerial decrees, made a capricious inthe royal authority, which had been for a terpretation of the laws, destroying the long time so persecuting and odions. From effect and dispositions of them. These whence we may conclude, that affection to- dispatches had even the force of latvs, wards a king, is no more than an affec- there not being any power that could stop, tion for his Government, and an acknow- or prevent the execution of them. In ledgment of his justice.-Joachim Murat Naples, with regard to judiciary or admihas succeeded in a very few years in form- nistrative institutions, and the public eduing a navy, as far as is necessary for the cation, there were no traces, except in the defence of the coasts, and for protecting remembrance of what had been done by the the commerce of the kingdom. He bas Princes of the Houses of Suabia and Arexcited and encouraged industry, manu-ragon. The policy of the last dynasty at factures, and commerce, as much as the ge- Naples, was to annihilate every power that neral state of warfare would permit him. might counterbalance or temper the royal He bas formed an army prone to war, and authority. There were no means of opwell disciplined, and which has recently posing the absolute, or despotic power, but given proofs of courage and order, when by the effect of two institutions. The first, it was incumbent on it to protect the Ec- consisted of the strength and opinion of clesiastical States, and the Grand Duke- the feudal lords over their vassals: the sedom of Tuscany, against the calamities cond was in the simulacre of a national which threatened those countries. The representation in the Sedili or Piazze. a jurisprudence has been reformed ; the tri- speejes of corporations chiefly noble, whicle banals administer justice throughout the were permanent in the capital : the deo

[ocr errors]

stroying of these two institutions, was the lout of all proportion to the revenues of same as reducing the inhabitants of the the States, and, above all, with a State that fuest country in the world, to the rank of possessed neither commerce, navigation, tbe wretched population of Senegal, or the por colonies. This great oversight in the country of the Caffres. This species of Government, produced these disastrous connational representation of the Sdili or seqnences that might be oxpected. Piixxe was abolished, aid the places in This was all that was done by the Go. which their sittings were held were de vernment of the former dynasty, from the molished : so much did the Princes yeur 1735, in the beautiful kingdom of dread even the traces of the edifices. In Niples; while, on the contrary, in the order t!e easier to deceive the Neapolitan course of a few years, under the new reign nobility, on the motives of this destruc- of Joachim, Naples possesses a civil code, a tory proceeding, the Government ordered panel cod, an administrative code, and a all the ancient nobility to be numbered by commerciul code. Each province has its classes, * feiyning that these, or rather the own tribunals; people having suits at law privileged few of the royal anti-chamber, are no longer obliged to ruin themselves, would perfectly replace, in the adminis- by coming to Naples to solicit a judgment. trition of the city, those ancient bodies of Fradulism is ablished, as well as all exthe Pixxx', who, joined to some members clusive privileges; the Neapolitans enjoy of the commercial community, for several a perfici equality ne the face of the law. outuries past, rad invigilateil over the 'The abuses of monastic institutions are pinie administration. Morcover, the po- destroyed, the prelates and ministers of the licy of Government was such as, 1st,'to Catholic religion, the only oncs protected oblige the barons and great proprietors to by the law, enjoy all the consideration that rusile at Naples under its jealous inspec- is due to them, with stipends and funds tija : fin a short time all the provinces proportioned to their decent mainte: ance. Were d.prived of their greatest landed Property is very much divided. A regulir proprietors, who, alone, had the power of system of finance, that untolds every year rearing them rich and limppy. 21, To to the Ncapolitau nation the true siate of establish no where but in ilie capital, tri- her wants, and her resources, presents at lunes, colleges, universities, 'honours, the same time a table of the established! eployments, arts, manufactures, com. taxes, and of the disbursements made iriti merce, and even the printing-ofices. It the public revenues, A 1.1tional represtiwas thus that ti: rest of the kingdom 1998 tation assemblis every year, forming the deprived, through a false an: spicious councils of the commons, districts, and policy, of every means of civilization, and provinces; the deputies are chosen by ile dvoned to ignorance, nisery, and servir people. These councils statute a:rd deirbeCuile. It was thus that the provinces were rate on the objects of interior melioration, abandoned, and nine parts in ten of the whether it be relative to the administration, population reduced to a state almost of or to the use niade of the public money, savages, whilst that, the other tenth part, They may propose plans ofʻuseful estabwas destined to live aniilst the intrigues of|lislınents, the king having reserved to himthe Court, and the tmult of the tribunals self the right of approbation. No law is and courts of justice, consuming their published, unless approved of by the Counlives and fortunes in the steril enjoyments cil of States-- All the provinces enjoy the of luxury and citeminacy. The Govern- benefit of colleges, lucerns, primary and ment of Fcrdiaand sought in vain the secondary schools, and charitable establishe means of inspiring a military and national ments. They have printing offices and maspirit : where there is no excumple to fol- az? fuctures; in short, under the new Governlow, and where the concatenated order of meat, all the inhabitants, from Calabria a good administration exists not, there can ultra to the extremity of Abruzzi, have be peithr army vor country.

The Go within their reach all the different institu'vernment of Ferdinand was occupied in tions, political, judiciary, administrutie, establishing a powerful pavy; but it was and of public education; and they have the ' ly decrer for the creation of a register

means of making a progress in civilization, without being

under the necessity of recur1 A nobleanan who mare ino loiro a residence ring to the capital.- 13 to the Neapolitan on his estate became suepeciell as a conspirator; irm, it is numerius, qucll-looking, and in the eyes or

in codony |brarr; it has proved that the southera sintiriman gu to liis estile without permission.

called the salon buok.

[ocr errors]

· Italians have rivalled in courage, and the | and other foreign officers in onr army. · thirst of glory, even the Italians of the During this discussion, it was shewn, that porth, in the fields of battle, in Spain, in it was unlawful to employ such persons in Germany, and in Italy. This army, which, any other corps than in those authorised, led by its king, has distinguished itself by Act of Parliament, during the present under his orders, has nothing in common, war; and this Quintin was particularly nor that can be compared with the army of named, as a person employed contrary to 1798, nor with that of 1806. It has for law. The fact was not denied by the Mii. its cbief, and for its model, a great cap- nisters, and those who justified their contain, who has made his essays in Africa, as duct and the conduct of the military dewell as in Europe. It has imbibed a na-partments ; but, it was asserted, and espetional spirit, because the sovereign who cially by Colonel Palmer, the other Colonel commands it is occupied in promoting ci- of the regiment (the 10th dragoons), that vilization, and causes the rights of the this Quintin was a person of most rure and people to be respected.—I do not here wonderful merit.-With these facts in speak merely of the troops of the line, my memory, it was not without feelings of which are equally remarkable for discipline, great indignation, that I read the other and for exactness in their manæuvres. I day, in the Globe newspaper, a paragraph owe the same praises to 70,000 legionaries, stating, that in the Court Martial now caror national guards, armed, enregimented, rying on against Colonel Quintin, Colonel and all chosen from anongst the body of Palmer acts oficially, not by choice ; that the proprietors of the kingilom. These are the charges have been made by the junior the 70,000 legionaries, that, whilst the re- Officers, and that these charges will revert gular army was employed in Germany and upon themselves, if they should fail in in Spain, have alone defended all the coasts making them good. It appears to me of the kingdom of Naples with as much zeal to be, that this paragraph must have been as bravery; and I might here invoke the not only to cause the question to be pretestimony of my compatriots, the officers judged by the public, but to intimidate and sailors of the English navy, who are the prosecutors and the evidences. Let it ever ready to do justice to the brave of all be observed, that, at the time this paranitions. The stry is not givantic, and out graph was published, the Court-Martial of proportion with the state of the revenue was actually assembled ; the trial was acas in the time of Ferdinand. It is compo- tually going on; and, it is clear as daysed of good cfficers and sailors, and liglit, that the object of this publication a lapted to its principal destination, which must have been to produce a feeling in the is to dufend the coasis, the commerce, and public for the accused, and against the acthe coasting trade, against the pirates, and cusers.Now, who would dare to take Barbary powers.

upon him to say, in print, that Colonel Such are the various titles of the actual Palmer acted an unwilling part in the Government to the affection of the people, performance of the office of prosecutor ? who is Joachim Murat have placed all their who, I say, would, without some extraorbypes of a perfect civilization, of reform dinary cause, dare do this? And thus, in the administration, and of the public not very darkly to give it to be understood, welfare in general.-- After this painting of that the Colonel, at least, looked upon the the prosperity of the kingdom of Naples, is charges as groundless - But, be this it possible to raise a doubt whether it will as it may, whence comes the assertion, that, must promote the happiness of the Neapo- if Quintin be acquitted the guilt will fali litan prople, to continue to live under the upon the junior officers, who, it is said, reina of Joachim, author of so much good, have accused him? Whence comes this or to retrograde by returning under the assertion ? Whence comes the boldness Government of Ferdinand Bourbon ? to broach such a doctrine? If a man be

acquitted on a charge of sheep-straling, or COLONEL QUINTIN.-It appears that of murder, does the charge, or its consethis officer is now before a Court Martial quences, fall upon the accusers ? Is the at Brighton. The reader may, probably, re- man, who accuscs another of forgery, in member, that about two years and a balf case of acquitta), banged in the stead of ago, there was a discussion, in the House the accused? We know that this is not of Commons, on a motion of Lord Folkes-yn ; and, we also know, that, if it were so, tone, relative to the employment of German NO MAN WOULD EVER BE AC

CUSED of sheep-stealing, murder, or fio a manner, elose at our doors, the latter · forgery. This would be the most effectual was deemed too distant, and too insignimode that could possibly be devised for ficant for “the most thinking people in the smothering accusations; and, if adopted world," to tbink any thing at all about it. in the Army, or Navy, it is pretty clear, --Now, however, the case is diferent.that we shall never again hear of any mis. As we bave got Boney, like Prometheus, behaviour of any officer of high rank.-It fairly chained to bis rock; with I suppose, - must be evident to every one, that the in the accompaniment of bis vulture too, in ferior officers have much against them in the shape of remorse, or rather of regret, thc, making of accusations against their we have leisure to look about us, and to superiors; that they must feel the many consider this nice little bit of a war in all disadvantages under which they labour's its bearings.- John Bull has bawled him

that it never can be a trifting matter to self hoarse, hurraing for the peace. He * put them in motion against their Com- has burnt oceans of oil, and tons of tallow, manding Oficer, who has so many means besides abundance of royal rockets, and of annoying the first to complain of his quibs, and crackers, in celebrating the conduct. Therefore, when complaints glorious peace! And after all the noise and are preferred by junior officers against fuss is over, he stands with a stupid stare their Commanders, they mught, it seems to of amazeinent, wondering how the dence me; to be heard with attention ; and sup- this peace feels so very unlike what he export ought to be tendered them; and not pocted.--He feels almost az incredulous threats held forth to intimilate them.- about it, as Lord Peter's brothers did, I know nothing of the nature of the when he wantıd "to palm bis damn'd charges against this foreigner ; I have crusts upon them, as mutton!” He holds never heard them stated ; I have never a dialogue with himself, something like the heard any particulars relative to the following,~“So, we have got peace, have conduct or the character of the man; “ we? -Aye, so they tell me

e ;

but somehow but, I know well, that it is, during the sit- “ or other it does not feel of the right ting of a Court of any sort, upon any case,

“sort.-But what siły the Funds ? risiny, monstrously indecent and unjust, to pub-“ eh? Sinking, sinking. lish threats, calculated to intimidate prose ·

“ Omnium? Below' par. --- Property Tax tutors or witnesses; and, that such is the

"taken off? Not a sous.-Other tares tendency of the paragraph above-mention“ lowered ? No, not one.—Ships paid off; ed, bo man in his senscs can doubt. “ troops disbanded? No such thing.

“Humph! this may be peace; but, odso, CORN BILL.--Since my last, I have the “ it feels, somehow or other, devilish like mortification to hear, that the importation “ war."-Aye, honest John Bull; and of cattle from France is stopped altogether; devilish like war thou wilt find it, let me and that butter, eggs, &c. are to pay a tell thee. The sapient and humane editor heavy duty. I have no doubt, that the of “the Times” talks of " crushing the

Corn Bill is to be tried again ; and, there Americans at once,” just as a giant would fore, I shall, in the course of two or three crush a blind puppy! But good Mr. Times,

Numbers, make all the efforts I am able that is easier said than done. As far as - to prevent the adoption of so mischievous vulgar Billingsgate abase can go, you, and

a measure ; a neasure which would de- sour brother of the Courier, have done your prive us of the only advantage promised us

best to irritate and inflame the Americans. in peace ; hamely, an intercourse with a But, we might as well expect pure water pațion which has freed itself from its from a jakes, as decent language or liberal ancient trammels.

sentiments from two such corrupt sources.

- In the Minister's speeches, delivered AMERICA.

through the Regent, we have been repeatMR. COBBETT, -Since the close of the cdly told of the unprovoked aggression on que grand drama, entitled a war against the part of the Americans ! If he had con- Bonaparte,” we have had a little more descended to mention the instances of ag.

leisure to attend to the lesser drama, en-gression, it would have been more satis-> titled "the American War,” which is now | factory; for I, for one, must be pardoned;

performing for the antusement and satis- for not believing even his royal word upon

Laction of John Bull.-While the former, such an occasion. So far from having - with all its accompaniments was going on, I been the aggressors, they bore with our

-What says

insolent Orders in Council, much longer anxious for humbling the Yankees; bút thill we would have borne any thing similar now that they are getting some raps overon their parts; and all they now ask is, the knuckles from these same Yankees, that we shall not stop their ships, and take they make a mest terrible song about it.am what of their crews we think proper, with Instead of petitioning the Regent to read a out proving them to be British subjects! lecture to bis friend Croker, about cenThis is, on their part, the sole cause of the

voying their

sugar

and tobacco, they war! Give up this, and they will make would have acted more justly and more peace to-morrow.--But, softly; that would wisely bad they petitioned him at once to not suit our worthy Ministers. War is put an end to an unjust and unnecessary their harvest, and taxes and loans are war, instead of singing out about their their crops. Now, no man likes to reap a paltry individual losses, which, compared scanty crop, when he may have a full one. to those of the nation, are as a drop in They have of late been accustomed to the the ocean.- Talleyrand, in the E.xposé of sweets of bandling upwards of ONE Hus- bis budget, says, that every individual in DRED AND TWENTY MILLIONS A YEAR, this country pays five times as much in with all the power and patronage conse taxes, as every individual in France pays. quent upon such an enormous sum; and, Their debt is trifling ; while ours is creepI am afraid, it would require even more ing up almost beyond the power of figure virtue than they are possessed of, to con- to count. The prospect is sufficiently apclude a peace which would deprive them of palling; but, I repeat it, the fingering of one half of their power, besides disobliging the immense sums which the Ministry a vast number of worthy people, who, at have of late been aécustomed to, is too present, are in the best humour possible, precious a privilege to be abandoned-withbut who would grunible sadly, if their sop out compulsion. Let them then be comwas taken from them. The American pelled to abandon it ; let the voice of the War is an entertainment of that kind, that people be heard, in a way not to be misthey can and will spin out just as long---as understood; let petitions and remonstrances John Bull has any money to pay for it.-- from all quarters be poured in, demanding They may burn some sea-port towns, and that an end be pat to an odious and unjust do a deal of mischief to individuals, but, as war; and let them not be misled by a cry to making any'serious impression on Ame about our maritime rights, bat calmly asrica, ! question if even the learned Secre- certain whether these rights are not try to the Admiralty believes it to be pos: wrongs. In short, in judging of these, les sible, We tried it once before, wlen all them apply the universal golden rule of our means were fresh and vigorous ; when“ doing as they would be done by."- I'rethe American population was not one third main, Šir, your's, &c.

GK, of what it is now; when their Government

Sirathmore, Sept. 19, 1814. W.13 weak and without credit; and when

ATTACK Ox Fort ERIE-BATTLE OF we band many partisans in their country.--CHIPAwA_DEVASTATION AT WASHHow our attempt ended, is well known; INGTON: I have inserted below the and how any similar attempt would now

most material parts of the official doci eld, may be very easily conjectured.--..

ments respecting these important oceira Among all the other evils our infatuated

rences, upon

which I will make some reMinistry are bringing upon their devoted marks in my next. At present I shall Coltry; they are forcing America to be only obserre, that notwithstanding all our tome a great naval power; and although boasting about the taking of Washington, our preseat able and active Admiralty may

we have not been the gainers by the event ridicate the idea, yet the oldest of them whatever the Americans have lost. Our w:y live to see cause to tbink very

differ

troops, in fact, were obliged immediately entiy upon the subject. Our merchants to decamp. They could not remain a nav begin to take the alarm; these impu- single day:--and thus must they do every deat dogs of Yankees are taking their ships where they land. Only think of the cita... at their very doors. They deserve to

pence of such a war! We conquer nothing; sufer; richly deserve it. The bulk of we capture nothing; and almost every them lave all along been zealous Govern- action is followed by a rctreat:ment men of the true Pitt breed; strenu- General Brown's Kirport of THE BATTLE ous supporters of the war, so long as they or the 5th uit. AT THE FULLSCF NIACATAR could make a farthing by it; and all niost S18-Confined as I was, and have been,

[ocr errors]
« PreviousContinue »