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who came out of the battle alive and not into captivity; for relieving his pious and wounded, would, like Job's servants, tell virtuous subjects from the tyranny of the you a different story; unless, indeed, like priests; and for presuming to give them Bobadil, they were (which I am sure they good laws against their will

. All this we would not do) to attribute their beating to were quite indignant and enraged at; and the planets, instead of the American bayo- although, as far as I have been able to disnets. -For my part, I believe General cover, we were neither called upon by the Gaines's in preference to General Drum- royal family of Spain, nor by the people, mond's report. Not because I question to avenge their injuries; to chastise the the veracity of the latter, but because I French Emperor for his presumption; or know that he might be misinformed, and to restore to the nation its adored chiet, its that General Gaines could not be mis. holy tribunal, its saints, relics, miracles, informed, as to the fact. But, as I said and its fraternity of lazy monks, nuns, and before, this fact of the blowing up of the voluptuous friars. Notwithstanding, I angle of a bastion does not materially affect say, it does not appear that we were the merits of the case ; and, unless the solicited by Spain, to revenge her cause, American people be very different in their forth we went, fully' armed for battle, natures from all other people, the event to drive the troops of Napoleon bemust have created a wonderful sensation yond the Pyrennees, and to deliver the in the country; and I am sure, that, in the sacred territory from these impious and ineyes of any man in England, whose reason fidel hordes of Amalekites. And certainly is not totally deadened by prejudice, it we did drive them out, no matter by what must have excited a dread, that, if we means, placed Ferdinand again on his pursue that project of subjugation, so throne, enabled him to re-establish the Instrongly recommended by the writers herc, quisition, and to restore the clergy to the we are now embarked in a war of extra- plenitude of that power, which they had ordinary bloodshed, of no ordinary dura-exercised, for so many centuries, to the tion, and of an expense that will keep on glory of God, and to the benefit ofall our present taxes, and occasion constant themselves. By conferring these unsought annual loans.

for, these unparalleled, and extraordinary

blessings, the promoters of these measures SPAIN..The abettors of corruption, intended, as they said, that the people of who fattened so well while the war lasted Spain should have the full right to think with France, and who have so sincerely and to act for themselves, in every thing and so loudly deplored its termination, are that respected their laws, their Governmaking another effort to produce a partial ment, and their religion. We pretended, war, at least, on the Continent. They in short, that we had no other desire than have tried in vain to provoke France; to confirm to them the rights of nature, they have failed in again embroiling which give to no one a preference in these Austria, Russia, and Prussia ; and the war matters over"another, unless in so far as with America has been so unproductive, his virtues and his talents command supehas given birth to so few contracts, and rior esteem. In return for these advanwhat have been entered into have been so tages, those engaged in conferring them uoprofitable to the contractors, that they might, and, perhaps, had a right, to calcu. and the other satelites of corruption, who late on the gratitude of a people for whom devour the produce of the labour of the they had done so much. But gratitude is country, without assisting in any shape to its a word of so varied and so extensive a increase; these men, finding the profits meaning, that it is not easy to say what of their unprincipled traffic decreasing vicw the instigators of the war in the Pe. every day, are making a new effort to give ninsula entertained of it. One thing, howa more advantageous turn to their own af- ever, appears to be obvious: if it was exfairs, by involving us in a war with Spain ;| pected of the Spaniards, in return for the with that very people for whom we so very pretended good we had done them, that lately professed to sacrifice so many thou- they should relinquish any of their legitisands of lives, and so many milliens of mo-mate rights; that they should sacrifice any ney, merely to deliver them from a foreign part of their trade or commerce; or that qo'se, and to restore them to independence.--they should cease to enact such laws and We were extremely mad at Napoleon for regulations as they considered necessary to leading, as we said, the beloved Ferdinand good Government. If any such expecta

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tions as these were entertained, they were | " Royal Schedule of the 12th July, 1803 most unreasonable, and what, it need not was confirmed. But this Declara now, surprize any one, could not fail, “ tion will be inefficacious and even pre in the end, to be disappointed. --Inde- / judicial, not only to the Company but to pendent of the circumstances of the in " the national industry in general, if such teulvrence on our part being entirely vo “ Asiatic and European commodities, as are Luntary, which precluded all claim of re-prepared likewise in Spain and America Conyence, every restrictive demand which

are not prohibited, and if a clandestine We might think we had a right to make; trade be countenanced under the colour nay, cvery regulation, though noway offen" and pretext of such commodities. To sive in its nature, that we might urge the preserve therefore to the Company its her introduction of into Spain, must be viewed neficial monopoly, and to maintain unimby the Spaniirds as a species of that “paired" the national industry, which is tyranuy, exerciucu by Napoleon, which we engaged in the manufacture of colturs, it professed it to be our sole object to destroy: " becoines necessary to renew the publica But, however unreasonable and unjust suchus tion and annunciation of the said priviFretensions may appear, the supporters of " leges, and to fix the term of four months corruption, resolved on a war, no matter " for the disposal of this description of with whom, nor what it may cost others, "goods by the individuals possessing them , pretend to end a cause for this in a recent “ and after such term the holders shall sell commercial regulation of the Spanish" them to the Company ; but should the Court; a regulation dictated for the ex terms not be agreed upon between the press purpose of preserving to a long esta- |* proprietors and the Company, another blished company “its beneficial mono s month will be allowed for the exportation

poly, and to maintain unimpaired the na-" of the goods abroad, according to the ar“tional industry.”- This measure,“ rangement particularized in Articles 57 the Times and the Courier writers" and 58, in the said Royal Schedule, rehave united in declaiming against, as specting cotton articles made prize of or a decided proof of Spanish ingratitude, “ otherwise. The said Directors further of malice, of narrow petty malignity set forth, that if the Company is to artowards this country; for which, they "rive at the rank, elevation, and splendour say, that people ought to be severely “ which the nation expected at its establishpunished; ought to be compelled, by our ment; and if it is to repair its immense seamen and our soldiers, to recal the royal losses which it has most innocently inmandate, and to conform themselves to "curred, it is absolutely indispensible that those commercial rules which we find be- “ the indulgence sought be granted, ega neficial, without regard to the injury they “pecially at the present moment, when may do themselves; or, in the event of a two e.rpeditions from Dlanilla and Calrefusal, to oblige the Spaniards to repay is "cutta are approaching the Peninsula, all the money we have expended for thein " and the effects which they bring can obtain during the war. Before I proceed to no sue if they are to meet a competition point out the inconsistencies of these ser in the market from other commodities of vile writers, I shall here give the document, " the same class, and the ruịn of the Comat length, which has given rise to their un pany will be thus accomplished by the exprovoked and unjustifiable clamours : “ ertions they have applicd in completing * Royal Mandate.-His Excellency the these expeditions. His Majesty the “ Secretary of State and of Finances, this “King having duly considered these im

day communicated to me the subsequent portant subjects, and being persuaded of - Royal Order :-The Directors of the “ the just reasoning of the Directors re" Royal Philippine Company have commu- garding them, has been pleased to de: “nicated with his Majesty, explaining to " termine, that in punctual observance of “him that by his Royal Order of the 27th the exclusive privilege of the Company, “ July last, forwarded by your Excellency," from the present time private merchantą “ when you discharged the office of Minis- )" shall not be permitted to import either “ ter of State for the Indies, it was com “ into Spain or America cotton manufae" manded that the cxclusive privileges for tures, whether Asiatic or European, con56 commerce, and merchandize, should be “ ceding, bowever, the term of four months "preserved inviolable to the said Company, “ for the disposal of such goods, after

and with the same just intention the" which interval, they are to be offered to

" the said Company, but if the conditions" decree has been issued, we perfectly “ should not be acceptable, another month " coincide with a Brother Journalist, in " is to be granted for the exportation, as "hoping our Government will peremptorily " in the case of prize goods, &e. These demand payment of every farthing ex“ particulars I communicate to your Ex-" pended by us in Spain, and will take " cellency by his Majesty's order for your “ effectual means (for such we have in « information, and that you may impart our power) to EXFORCE the demand." " the same to the proper officers, that they Now reader, having read the above man

may in all respects pay obedience there- date of Ferdinand, do you discover ang " to. God

preserve you, &c.-GONGORA. thing in it to justify the abusive and threa“ Palairo, Aug. 29.To the Superin- tening language of these vile journals “ tendants of Revenue."

It is not the establishment of a new comOn the above regulation, the following pany, with rights prejudicial to our comremarks appeared in the Times of Wed merce, that they complain of: nor

or is it nesday :-"This Prince, who, in all justice conferring any privileges of that descris: “ and equity, is indebted many millions tion upon an old company, that it did not “ sterling to this country in money expend possess before, about which these bireling " ed in replacing him on his throne ; that writers have raised so loud a cry. Tle " this very Prince is the first to set the Royal Philippine Company, like our E: st “ example of an absolute prohibition of our India Company, is an ancient establish“ cotton manufactures. For the honour of ment, and the mandate now issued by the “ human nature, we hope that the mer- King of Spain in favor of the former, can “ chants of Cadiz has received a false be considered in no other light than as a “ alarm.

We are unwilling to believe renewal of its chaiter, which, we know, " that such ingratitude can exist among has been often granted, and is again in

men ; but if it be true, we hope our Go- contemplation of being granted by our own vernment will peremptorily demand pay- legislature, to the latter.---My own opinion

ment of every farthing .crpended by us is, that all monopolies ought to be aboin Spain, and will take effectual means lished ; that what is called regulatir g " (for such we have in our power) to trade and commerce, is prejudicial to both.

ENFORCE the demand.”In the But I cannot permit it to be asserted, with, Courier of the same day, these senti-out entering my protest against the docments were echoed in the following man. trine, that, even supposing monopolies were ner:-“ The gratitude of nations for ser-founded in wisdom, any one nation, or Go“ vices rendered them is not very prover-vernment, should be entitled to grasp at “ bial, and the conduet of Spain furnishes the whole, and threaten to punish all others

us unfortunately with too frequent occa- who presumed to come in for a share of “sions to make this remark. That Spain the general plunder. We, forsooth, are to

owes a debt of gratitude to this nation, be allowed, not only to exclude the çreat

greater, perhaps, than any country ever mass of our own population from a share of “owed another, will not be denied. But our East India trade, but also the inhabi“ in her treatment she has made no diffe- tants of most other States; and yet, when “rence between us her defenders, and the Spanish Government shewa similar “ France her oppressor. It is not merely preference to a favourite body of men “in a commercial point of view that we among themselves, we immediately open deplore this measure—we deplore it our batteries of abuse against them, and upon higher, upon moral grounds ; be- threaten to punish then if they follow our cause it seems to be a gratuitous malice, example. What are all our statutes passed

a purposed proof of ingratitude for the to protect our colonial products, and our “services we liave rendered Spain. Had manufactures, but lays prohibiting the im" she possessed cotton manufactures her portation of foreign goods ? and what do “self which she wished to encourage, and these prohibitions amount to, in reference " therefore adopted this prohibitory decree, to other nations, but a monopoly of trade

we could not have blamed her; for it is with us !---We tax the silks and the wines the duty of all nations to encourage and of Spain, of Portugal, and of France. protect their own manufactures. But This is turning our monopolizing system to

Spain has no cotton manufactures, no some account. But, if the duty which we " establishment that can be injured by the impose makes the article so high in price, “ importation of our cottons. If such a) that few or none can afford to purchase it,

and are obliged to content themselves with | applied to us for assistance; and, seconlly, an article made at home, though much infe- when this is made clear, it must then be rior, the effect is the same upon the country shewn, that they promised to abolish which produces the superior article, as if some of their ancient regulations preju, our Government had granted an exclusive dicial to our commerce, or to establish right to a particular company here to deal some new ones to encourage it, as a rein that article. If we complain of the ward for the services we intended to pert Court of Spain for confirming rights form for them. All this it is incumbent granted its own subjects, by which our cot on us to sliew before we can charge the ton manufactures may be excluded the Pe Spanish Alonarch with ingratitude, top ninsula, they have an equal right to com- enacting a regulation so conducive to plain of us for conferring exclusive privi. the interests of his own people,

IE leges on the East India Company, and for we have lent money to Spain, it is right enacting laws wbich have the effect of an she should pay it back when the stia absolute prohibition of the produce of the pulated term of payment arrives. But, Spanish soil. The bill lately brought into to proclaim war against 4 whole naParliament for protecting, as it was called, tion, as the Times has done, because the agricultural interests of this country, its Government has adopted a policy would evidently have been injurious to the sinsilar to purs, in order to protect its own growers of corn in France, in Spain, and institutions, is an act so outrageous, and in all other countries where crops are so so contrary to all decency, that language abundant as to permit importation. What is not sufficient to stigmatise it as it ought. then would we have said, had these nations It can only be equalled by the canting and complained of us for adopting a measure bypocritical pretensions of the Courier which tended so manifestly to injure them? writer, who affects to deplore the measure Why, we would have laughed at them. of the Spanish Government, on account of We would have treated their remonstrances its immoral tendency! As a proof of the with contempt. And have not the Spa- sincerity of the professions of this stickler niards the same right to laugh at us, who for mcrality, we fir.d he has attempted, on do not merely complain of their following this very subject, to impose a palpablo our footsteps, but who actually threaten to faiseload on the public. He asserts that the go to war with them, and to punish them, Spaniards have no cotton manufactories; because they enact what laws and regula- hence he infers, that the Royal mandate, Lions they consider best calculated to pro- probibiting the importation of cotton, plus tect their own commerce and manufac- ceeded froni malice, and a pre-tleterminatures!--O! but says the Courier, “it is tion to injure ns, without any benefit re

not merely in a commercial point of view sulting therefrom to themselves. It ivould " that we deplore this measure---we de- be difficult to conceive how any people **plore it upon higher, upon moral grounds; could act a part so wanton and atrocious ; 4" because it seems to be a gratuitous ma- and bad as the Spanish Government ap“ lice, a purposed proof of ingratitnde for pear to be, I could not persuade myself that “the services we have rendered Spain.”--- it had gone so far in wickedness. This As to the “ services we have rendered was the impression given to my mind, Spain," it appears somewhat strange, if on reading the paragraph which I have these services were as great as we boast of, cited above from the Courier. When that their effects should have turned out so I came

to peruse tie Spanish docuvery prejudicial, that even those who for- ment, I was not only confirmed in that merly estimated them so bighly, are now opinion, but I found it there stated, in di. the loudest to complain of them; the fore- rect opposition to the Courier's assertion, most to deplore the blindness and fatality that the importation of foreign cotton goods of a people, who could not, or would not, into Spain was prob:bited, in order to enopen their eyes, and be persuaded that we courage and protect the established manuhad nothing selfish in view; but that all we factories of cotton amongst the inhabitants, had done, all the sacrifices we had (made, and also to insure a ready sale, at a fair proceeded from the purest and most disin- price, for several fresh cargces of goods of terested motivès. Before, however, the that description belonging to the Philipmonopoly complained of can be held an im- pine Company, and then on their passage moral'act on the part of the Spaniards, it home to the mother country, l:ut which, it must be shewn, in the first place, that they was foreseen, would not turn out so pro

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dłuctive, if the market was stocked with the , we are said to possess of husnbling tlic manufactures of other nations. If reasons Spaniards, the loss we pretend to like there are to be allowed no weight in the this score tic better. A system that case of Spain, upon what ground is it that depends so much, is ours docs, upon we, almost cvery Session of Parliament, | loans, and that lately found itself under the arc passing bills to protect and encouage necessity of calling upon the East India our owa manufactures, and to procure for Company for the thilling som of one million them a preference over t’iose of all other two hundred thousand pounds, in advance pations? We were lately told in the of Wattie's, for which a discount was given, Times, that it would be the best policy in can neither boast very high, nor very long, the people of France not to attempt, at of its abilities to prosecite new wars. present, to establish manufactories of their wille time enough, at any rate, to think ow, but to purchase from us, by which of punishing the Spaniards, when we have they would, in the course of time, be able completed the drubbing which eve have to imitate our superior workmanship.-pledged ourselves to give to the Americans. From articles that I have already seen of -I had written thus far; when the French manufacture, I see no reason why Paris papers brought me the Report of the that people should take the advice that has Committee, appointed by the French Gom been so officiously given them, although I vernment, to consider the petitions of the can readily discover that the proposal ori- merchants and manufacturers, praving that ginated in jealousy on the part of those a prohibition might be issued against the who gave it. The same drcad of another importation into France of English cotton successful rival starting up in Spain, is goods. It is an interesting document, evidently the true cause of the viperation and as it bears me out in the facts and that has appeared in our prostituted jour-general reasoning which I have stated and nals, against the Government of that coun- adopted above, I shall here insert some of

may serve to gratify the spleen its most striking passages :and malice of those who never c:in be at 66 The merchants and manufacturers of tase, until they aid the monopoly of every sereral cities, alarmed at the vagin, and production of the carth, to that which they no doubt, unfounded rumours of a treaty already arrogantly exercise over the seas. of commerce, allowing the importation of But, ia spite of these malignant passions, English cotton goods, have petitioned what seems to be now vicrred in a proper against a measure which would ruin their 3ight, in many countries that were for- estallislınents, and endanger the existence merly inattentive to their true interests, of 250,000 workmon employed in them. must ultimately prevail. It is truly ridi. - In the midst of the disorders of our Reculous to hear the enemies of general im-volution, it is a voole spectacle to witness provement talking of securing our mono- the progress of sciences, fine arts and mapoly by violent measures, and boasting of nufacturing industry. In our manufacour possesses the means of effectually tures are produced damasks, as finè as punishing other nations, because they have those of Syria; we have fire arms of all at last had their eyes open to the wise kinds, surpassing in elegance every thing policy of giving encouragement to their which Europe can boast of, and executed own artisans, and thereby rendering them with a rapidity inconceivable before our sélves completely independent of their days; files, which polish the hardest Eng meishbours. We may threateo, and

swag lish files ; mathematical instruments as mar, as much as we please ; but unless we correct, and not so costly, as those which 21* prepared to punish not only the people the London workmen boasted of; ornaof Spain, but also of France, Italy, Ger- ments in bronze, unequalled for dignity of many, Russia, Sweden, and Denmark, form and delicacy of execution ; locksmith where improveinents in the arts are every wares executed not only in Paris, but even day making rapid progress, it is idle to ex- in the departments, which, to an exquisite pect that we shall be able to keep up that precision, unite the most wonderful combicommercial importance we have so long nations and magnificence; crystals, not inmaintained, but which, in consequence ferior to flint glass ; velvets which, from of the prevalence of corruption, and the the curious combination of their threads, rehughty manner in which we carry our produce the colours, and even the expression selves towards other nations, is fast verg- of the most finished pictures; tanworks, ing, to its dissolution. As to the means where the discoveries of chemistry are

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