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properly. For this purpose tie ten or coal and the other end extending nearly twelve ears in a string with binder twine. to the top of the sifter. There is no shakHang them in an open shed where the air. ing nor any dust. Ashes are emptied can circulate freely, but where they will into the top of the sifter, the coal being

carried over the sieve of. the coal box while the ashes go through into the ash box. The sieve should be about 21/2 feet long and a swinging or sliding cover can be used. The diagram will give a good idea of this sifter.

Discharge

Floor Level

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Strainer

SYSTEM FOR DRAINING CELLAR,

Watch as Compass Can a watch be used as a

compass, and how?-H.L.B. BUDOD 20000 DODDODDO

· Due south can be readily ascertained if one possesses a fairly correct watch and the

position of the sun is be out of range of the sun's rays. distinguishable. Point the hour hand

The rack here illustrated will render to the sun, and the south is exactly satisfactory service for storing the corn half-way between the hour and the when dried.

figure XII on the watch. For instance, .suppose that it is 4 o'clock. Point

the hand indicating IV to the sun and II Draining a Cellar

on the. watch is exactly south. Suppose How can I drain a Cellar?-B. L. E. that it is 8 o'clock, point the hand indicat

In the sides of a box. about an inch ing VIII to the sun, and the figure X on from the bottom, a row of holes should

f holes should the watch is due south. be bored. The box should be connected with an ordinary steam syphon, as shown in the illustration. The function of the holes is to allow the subsoil water to enter. When a sufficient quantity has accumulated it will be drawn off by the syphon, which is controlled by a float through valve B. A bracket, D, supports the float. This bracket is attached to the steam pipe and can easily be constructed out of an old tin can, and when it rusts out can speedily be renewed. In place of steam, water under pressure may be used.

SIEVE

I ASH

To Make an Ash Sifter Please describe an ash sifter that can be made at home.-E. L. R.

A wire sieve (already woven) can be bought at any hardware store. It may be tacked to a frame made to fit the sifter, one end just reaching over the box for

Box

If the

To Make Sand-Paper Holder

If the force required to punch one Please print directions on how to make a hole is 58,900 pounds, the force required sand paper holder.-A. D. F..

in punching several holes by means of a This is an article familiar to the wood- multiple punch is enormous. worker, and which he finds use for every A good, ductile plate is but little inworking day. It may be made as fol- jured by punching; but if of a hard,

steely nature, it is likely to be seriously injured. For this reason, wrought-iron plates are usually punched and steel plates are drilled. On the whole, a

drilled plate is somewhat stronger than a SAND PAPER

punched plate for any kind of joint.

Some boiler makers punch the rivet SAND-PAPER HOLDER.

holes slightly smaller than the desired lows: To a piece of 18-inch pine, 41/2

size and then ream them out. By this inches wide and 6 inches long, glue, on

process the injured metal around the each end, a strip of similar material one

holes is cut away. half inch wide. Next take a piece 41/2 inches wide and of sufficient length to fit closely between the two 12-inch strips.

To Smooth a Painting Take a piece of felt and on the wood, as Can a painting, whose surface bulges out in indicated in the illustration, glue on

places, but which is not cracked or broken, be the side opposite that to which the strips

smoothed?—T. R. R. are glued. Then take your sand paper

The best way, probably, to remove the and fasten in place by pressing the 41/2

inequalities referred to, is to wet the canby 6-inch piece between the strips.

vas on both sides and keep it under pressure till dry. If the picture is small, take it off the stretcher and lay it in press,

under light pressure, with soft sheets of Drilling vs. Punching Rivet Holes

paper intervening. Which is the better practice, to drill or to punch rivet holes in boiler-shells ?—T. R. A. In boiler-shell work, drilling has en

Portable Saw Horse tirely displaced punching, and today all

I should like to have you print directions for holes are drilled. Punching is cheaper the construction of a portable saw horse such than drilling, but it is more injurious to as carpenters use.-E. J. C. the plates and not as accurate. It is The accompanying illustration will easy to see that drilling rivet holes, even give a better idea of how such a saw if twenty are being drilled at once, is horse may be made than a verbal descripdone with less strain on the plates than tion can give. The whole is quite simple when done by a multiple punch forcing and will be readily understood by any several holes at once. The force re carpenter, at a glance.. quired to punch a plate gives the best idea of the harm done to the plate. Experiment shows that the resistance of a plate to punching is about the same as its resistance to tensile tearing. Suppose this to be 50,000 pounds per square inch; then the force required to punch the plate is the area cut out times the shearing strength, or d x'TT xt x 50,000. In which formuļa

d= diameter in inches and

t = thickness in inches. For a hole 34 inch in diameter in a 1/2 inch plate, the force will be 34 x 3.1416 X 12 X 50,000 = 58,900 pounds.

Portable Saw Horse.

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1% FLAT IRON

Bracket for Ladder

tering fusible substances on the surfaces Please publish a diagram of a scaffold to be united, as these protect the work bracket for a ladder.-M. N. D.

from oxidation. These substances are The drawing shows the bracket in termed fluxes. Among those most complace, with dimensions designated. Flat monly used are borax, clay, potash, soda,

sand and sal ammoniac. Ordinary red clay, dried and powdered, is an excellent

Aux for use when welding steel, and is C HIROUND IRON

one of the cheapest known. Borax melted and powdered is called the best of known fluxes, but it is so expensive when used in large quantities, that its use is confined to the finest tool steels and alloy steels where it is not possible to heat the metal as hot'as a lower grade of steel.

A very good flux, whose cost is about ROUND IRON one-half that of borax, is a mineral

barite, or heavy spar. It does not fuse as readily as borax, however, but forms an excellent covering for the heated surface of the steel. It is necessary to furnish this coating for the surface of the steel, in order to prevent oxidation; for if any portion is oxidized, no matter how small the portion may be, it furnishes a starting point for a break or fracture when the piece is under heavy stress.

BOUND VOLUMES
For the benefit of those desir-

ing back numbers of the TechADJUSTABLE LADDER BRACE.

nical World Magazine, we have

bound up a limited number of iron one by one-eighth inch and one-inch round iron are used. The key-holes are copies

copies—Volume VI.-Septemfor adjusting the slant of the ladder.. ber, 1906, to February, 1907,

Mailed, prepaid, to any address Principles of Welding

upon receipt of $1.25. In a general way will you please explain how welding is done ?-R. L. D.

It is accomplished by heating the metal TECHNICAL WORLD to a temperature that makes the surface

INDEX of a pasty consistency, which for soft steel should be a dark white, for iron a

Complete Index of the Tech. scintillating white, while for tool steel it should be a bright yellow. The forma- nical World Magazine is tion of a soft pasty layer on the surface now ready, and will be mailed of the steel is an absolute necessity, in order to effect a union of the pieces of

to any address upon receipt of metal. This operation is assisted by scat- Ten Cents.

Kingston Earthquake Pictured Scenes of Horror and Desolation in the

Stricken Capital of Jamaica

THE earthquake of January 14 last, by which the city of Kingston, Jamaica,

was destroyed caused the loss of probably more than two thousand lives and the destruction of hundreds of thousands of dollars worth of property. Great

suffering of survivors resulted and among those upon whom the greatest hardships of the following days fell were many Americans, residents and tourists. As a consequence of alleged mistreatment of these American sufferers by certain Englishmen who were in a position to aid them, resentment in this country ran to a very high pitch. The British governor of the island, also, gained tremendous notoriety all over the world by his manner of refusing aid offered by the United States navy for the purpose of caring for the injured, protecting property and preventing lawlessness. The following reproductions of photographs illustrate some of the scenes of horror immediately following the disaster.

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PHOTOGRAPH, UNDERWECO UNDERWOOD, N. Y. (COPYRIGHTED)

WHEN THE SHOCK HAD PASSED,
The offices and yard of the Hamburg-American wharf with the ruined sheds seen to the left. It was on this wharf

that the American and other refugees, assembled and remained in desperate cir-
cumstances until the arrival of ships of the American Navy.

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PHOTOGRAPH, UNDERWOOD & UNDCAWOOD, N. Y. (COPYRIGHTED)

SHATTERED TOWER OF CONSTANT SPRING HOTEL. This building was occupied at the time of the great catastrophe by many prominent English men and women of title.

Though the edifice was wrecked no one was injured.

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