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One Wisconsin farmer who owns a farm of 400 acres had 200 acres that was infested with wild mustard. An oat field containing twenty acres was cleaned of mustard for him. He said that he considered that $25 was added thereby to every acre he owned. From 15 to 20 acres can be easily sprayed in a

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day.

A good deal has been said by chemists as to the comparative values of sulphate of copper and sulphate of iron for the purpose of spraying. Sulphate of iron is less in cost and has the added value that it acts as a stimulant to the cereals and fertilizes the soil. English authorities have noted the more lively green of grain that has been sprayed with sulphate of iron. This gives a double value to the process of spraying.

Agriculturists everywhere confront the experimenter with the question as to why the weed is killed and the cereal left uninjured. Various theories have

been offered. It is a WILD MUSTARD.

botanical question of At this stage of the weed's growth the spraying will kill it less quickly. much interest. It is

found that sulphate of It dissolves readily in water and in five iron sprayed on turnips will produce or ten minutes has gone into solution. serious effects. Turnips belong to the It is not poisonous, so will not injure same order as mustard. One theory of stock. One man can do the work of the difference in effect is that it is due spraying

to the varying quantities of oil in plants. The cost of spraying an acre of grain This has now been disproved by Profesis such as to make it entirely practical. sor Stender of Breslau. A second theThe sulphate of iron costs fifty-five cents ory held that the difference in effect per acre. The cost of labor is estimated arose from the position of the leaves, at twenty cents, making a total of seventy- whether more or less vertical, but this five cents per acre. The opinion of the has no apparent foundation. Still anfarmers as to this cost will afford the best other argument advanced is that the criterion by which to judge as to the roughness of the leaves produces the diffeasibility of the use of the solution. ference in the results. The rough mustard leaves were thought to retain the wanago, directly after the crop was harspray better and therefore to feel the full vested from the field where the experieffects of the solution. This theory also is ment was tried, wrote, “The experiment untenable for there are many other plants for killing mustard was a success. When that retain the spray equally well and I harvested the grain I could not find yet escape injury. It is probable that the a straw of mustard, and no mustard came plants injured contain substances peculiar up in the stubble after the grain was cut. to the order, substances which react

as it usually does. I also think it prechemically with the iron salts. This subject is being investigated by Mr. Ingles,

vented my oats from being infected with agricultural chemist of Yorkshire Col rust. The fields on both sides were lege. England, and has been extensively troubled badly with rust, but none apdiscussed by Professor Stender, of Bres- peared in the field sprayed." leau.

All indications seem to show that this The farmers of Wisconsin consider discovery will go far towards making this plan of weed destruction a pro- easier the farmer's lot as well as greatly nounced success. C. O. Perkins of Muk- increase the yield of cereals.

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WORKING UNDER DIFFICULT CONDITIONS. A narine wrecking derrick picking up Pullman sleeping cars from a river bed.

How Railway Wreckers Work

By Herbert Lawrence Stone
N a railroad wreck, the moving a locomotive weighing 160 tons

cost of the disaster is on its side in a ditch or at the bottom
not confined to the of a "fill." Not only was it neces-
actual damage to sary to get something that could handle
rolling stock which these heavy weights, but additional
occurs at the time of speed had also to be gained. With the
the accident. Aside amount of traffic now hauled on any
from possible sacri- large system, a delay of a day in clear-
fice of life, often ing a wreck, would mean a freight
the greatest loss is blockade that would take a week to
occasioned by the straighten out, to say nothing of the

tying up of traffic passengers held up by the delay. after the event. “Hurry” is not a So steam was resorted to, and the evoword that sounds well in the mouth lution of the hand derrick has produced of a railroad man, but it is nevertheless, the steam crane, which is now the chief one of the most important words in part of every modern wrecking outfit. his vocabulary, whether he ever speaks These cranes are built with lifting cait or not. And never is its application pacities up to 100 tons, or more, and are as a goad to strenuous effort better illus- placed on especially patterned steel cars. trated than when it becomes necessary These cars have arms or outriggers unto open the road speedily after a wreck. derneath which slide out from sockets

While the railroads of this country and can be blocked up from the ground have made wonderful advances in the on either side so as to give an absolutely safeguarding of trains, and while the per- firm base, enabling the crane to lift its centage of accidents to the number of full capacity no matter at what angle the trains run is less, yet with the enormous increase in the volume of business the actual number of wrecks does not diminish.

With the growth in the size of locomotives and cars, the operating men have had to revolutionize the methods of handling them when off the track. The old handderrick built on a flat car which could perhaps, lift one end of a fifteen- or twenty-ton freight car, so that a pair of trucks could be slipped under it, was useless when it came to A MODERN 150-TON STEAM WRECKING-CRANE AND Crew,

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The engine and base of the crane rest on the same bed-piece, the weight of the engine acting as a counter-balance to the weight of the jib, the whole swinging on a pivot to give a wide radius of action.

The crew required to operate these cranes consists only of an engineer to work the engine, and a cranemanexclusive, of course, of the wrecking master and laborers to handle the wreckage. On arriving

at a wreck the first conLIFTING A CAR BY ITS Sills.

sideration of the wreckThis photograph shows the difficulty of handling loaded box cars when broken up. ing crew, if there are no

injured to be looked out jib, or boom, may be, or in what position for, is to clear the road so that the rails it may be swung. Indeed the capacity may be relaid and the stagnant traffic sent of the cranes is only limited by the power on its way again. To do this properly is of the engines operating them. It is on often a matter that requires considerable record that a crane with a rating of only judgment, not only as to the manner in 60 tons lifted unaided an entire locomo- which it shall be done, but also as to what tive, weighing 100 tons, from the bottom of the equipment it is desirable to save of a river and set it on the track again. and what is worthless and can be pushed

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