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most trying hardships ere they reach Commodore Islands, and the little islands home, sometimes traversing hundreds of off Sakhalin. To these places the furmiles of storm-swept ocean in open seals resorted in millions. So long as the boats, and at others having to spend supply of sea-otter skins continued little weary months on desolate rocks until a attention was given to the fur seal. It rescuing sail heaves in sight.

is a curious fact that the first business · The history of the fur-seal affords a in fur-sealskins was with China, and

that they were then used there, not as clothing but for covering packages. The demand in China led to the development of the fishery, seals being indiscriminately slaughtered in thousands, with the result that they were soon cleared out from many of the islands to which they used to resort and they are now found south of the equator at three places only, namely, at Cape Horn, on the little island of Lobos at the mouth of the Plate, and on three small islands near Angra Pequena. It is computed


and 17,000,000 of fur

seals were killed on the good illustration of what man can do to southern sealing grounds, between 1790 the denizens of the deep when his inter- and 1830. ests lead him to pursue them with The Bering Sea fur-seals, as already avidity. Before its skin became a fashion- shown, are now nearing extermination able article of attire in Europe the fur- also, and hence the call for a revision of seal frequented at least thirty island the regulations of the Paris Tribunal. groups in the southern hemisphere dur- It is not a fanciful or a pessimistic preing the breeding season, as the Falklands, diction that unless some prompt measSouth Shetlands, Galapogos, etc., while ures are taken to secure the perpetuation in the northern regions it visited only the of this species the fur seal will become Pribyloff Islands in the Bering Sea, the extinct in the not distant future.




Cutting Steel by Electricity

By J. Mayne Baltimore


HE work of demolishing An extremely novel and unique electhe grim and gigantic trical process is being employed in the skeleton of the Old Pal- work of cutting up the structural steel ace Hotel, in San Fran- girders which formed the supports of the cisco, is now in active great glass roof of the court. These fell

progress. It is proving an into a disordered, twisted heap to the immense task. Even with a large force bottom of the court, and it was found imof men, supplemented by teams, and possible to remove them by even the most powerful machinery appliances, a con- powerful hoist. siderable period of time will yet be re- The method now used is what is known quired in which to tear down the massive as the “electrical arc process," and is of walls and remove the wilderness of debris. very recent invention. By the forcing of And the work presents many problems. electrical heat of 5,000 degrees, generated by a large dynamo, into the mass of means of laying low the immense steel iron, a gash is rapidly melted out, and the giants of construction. When the plan of girder cut into sections easy to handle the steel structure was first conceived no with small cranes. It requires about 20 provision was made for rendering the minutes to cut, or melt, through a foot work of the wrecker easy. As a result, girder. The glare from the tip of the when the first steel building was wrecked, electrical "needle" used is so very intense, a tremendous problem faced the men that it can not be looked at with the who undertook the task. Electricity has naked eye, and the men operating are solved it for them. Now a building is compelled to wear a queer looking cap taken down almost as readily as it is put and thick colored goggles. By means of up. As it is very readily handled and this electrical process the work pro- accessible wherever the steel building has gresses rapidly and effectively.





found a place, the process has doubtless The process here depicted has been a permanent foothold in wrecking work. used recently in many of the larger cities It is difficult, indeed, to know what would since it has become necessary to devise be done without it in such a case as this.

Making a Cranberry Bog

By Marcus L. Urann

3 NE hundred and fifty thou- impossible. From this meagre start,

sand barrels of cranberries however, the industry has grown to one are eaten every year by the of first magnitude and has been extended American people at into other states. Massachusetts has

Thanksgiving and Christ- about 6,000 acres of bogs; New Jersey

mas dinners, and prob- 8,000 acres; and Wisconsin 6,000 acres. ably not one in one hundred and fifty In point of area next comes Rhode thousand of the diners ever stops to Island, followed by Connecticut and New think about where the delicious berries York. Several other states have from come from. The pleasure of turkey and one to fifty acres. cranberry sauce prevent even a thought All plants show a preference for cerof the cost or method of cultivation tain soils and climatic conditions, and of this fruit, the demand for which is none are more exacting in this particular increasing so fast that it bids fair within than the cranberry, which, while easily a few years to be a luxury which only the and successfully grown on congenial rich can enjoy..

soils, will never pay under adverse conCranberries are native to a narrow belt ditions. From its habits we determine along the Atlantic coast from Maine to that a cold climate is necessary, provided New Jersey, and in isolated areas of the either by northern latitude or high altimountains and along the northern border tude. The conditions necessary for sucof the United States. The mecca of the cess are a peaty soil, the best evidence of industry, however, and the place where which is the occurrence of native plants; it is the greatest commercial success is good drainage, which must be at least on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, especially 18 inches, providing warm land so the in the great cranberry þelt some twenty- plants will grow fast and produce good five miles wide, extending from Buzzard's Bay northerly to Massachusetts Bay along that line of change from the gravelly soil of the state in general to the sandy soil of the Cape.

The first plantings of the cranberry were in this region early in the nineteenth century, and the first man to cultivate the fruit was the subject of an indignation meeting, at which it was claimed that by building a bog of twelve rods he would supply the market and render the sale of the wild cranberry PULLING OUT STUMPS IN PREPARATION FOR BUILDING A CRANBERRY Bog.


GRADING CREW AT WORK. Photograph shows lateral ditch, at right angles to main ditch, thirty inches wide and two feet deep.

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