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degree where a carbon filament would be perfectly black or merely a dull red and with the increase of the temperature there is an increase of both brilliancy and efficiency, the lamp giving off a dazzling white light.
During the course of the experiments many discouraging setbacks were met by the two men. In one case Professor Parker left a test tube for exactly forty seconds to answer the telephone, but in that seemingly trifling space of time was ruined the work of days and he had to
In addition to the Helion lamp enclosed in a bulb similar to that of the Edison, the inventors have added one that burns effectively without such enclosure. The filament is imbedded in fused quartz and glows uninterruptedly amid the heaviest of commotions. It has been tried aboard several of the United States warships during target practice with the heaviest guns and has been unaffected by the terrific concussions, which shattered all the Edison lamps in their immediate neighborhood.
In appearance the Helion lamp is similar to the incandescent lamps now in use, except when burning, when, instead of a yellow glow it gives out a white light. The filament is apparently impervious to ordinary heat, for when a current sufficient to fuse the copper leading-in wires has been introduced the filament showed not the slightest indication of fusing and when accidentally broken by force it welds itself when the ends are again brought into contact.
In a series of demonstrations at Columbia University recently, at which the writer was present, a Helion lamp was attached to the same wire that lighted an Edison of 16 candle power. Placed side by side on the table, when the Edison lamp was turned off the diminution of light was not noticeable to the unaided eye, but when the Helion was turned off and the Edison left burning the table could scarcely be seen. The test showed a power of eighty candles for the Helion to sixteen for the Edison, with a voltage of about ninety.
Ordinarily, the Helion will emit threeand one-half times as much light as the Edison, of an improved efficiency by reason of its spectrum color, as against the yellow of the Edison.
Flashlight photographs of the Helion and Edison taken side by side show distinctly the heated Helion filament while the coil in the Edison is hardly visible. In one of the photographs shown, Mr. Clark is working beneath the glow of a Helion lamp while on the table beside him is an ordinary gas flame. In the light of the new lamp the gas flame is not distinguishable except for its shape and the tip from which it burns.
In a recent conversation with the writer, both Professor Parker and Mr. Clark said that they were by no means content to rest where they are at present but that they will go on until they have
assured themselves by exact scientific tests that they can go no farther in their search for efficiency. If they can now produce a dazzling white light, showing a spectrum exactly like that of the sun and giving off that light in a proportion of three, four or five to one, as compared with the Edison and at an expenditure of energy of one watt per candle power, they believe that they can go still farther than this and thus decrease the cost to the consumer. Every watt saved, at no loss of efficiency in light, means a lessening of the cost, a goal toward which electrical inventors have been for years striving.
The present rate of manufacture, there being only two men in all the world who can make the Helion filament, Professor Parker and Mr. Clark, is not greater than a dozen lamps daily. A company has been organized, however, and preparations are being made to begin the manufacture of the filament at the starting point of a thousand or two daily. As improvements may be discovered by the inventors, this output will be increased and the public will have at its disposal the best electric light, or, for that matter, the best light of any kind that has ever been discovered at a cost below old makeshifts.
Prairies Spout Great Riches
By Geo. W. Harper
Central, were contemplating measures for a better exploiting of the oil discoveries of the county, the boom burst upon the little city, with such force that every train that passed through the town from any direction was so crowded that standing room in the cars was at a premium.
But this was not all. Freight trains were loaded down with tools and machinery for drilling, with piping and all necessary supplies and paraphernalia connected with the oil business. At one time the sidings of the Big Four railroad in Robinson held eighty-one loaded cars, with consignments in the yards at Paris, Terre Haute, Indianapolis and one or two smaller points awaiting room for entering there.
Six miles west of Robinson was a little flag station on the Central called Stoy. It was two miles north of the first wells drilled in southwest of Robinson, and is the location of the receiving tanks. There had been no agent at this place. When pipes were laid there, and shipping of supplies demanded a local agent, a wire was put into a box car and a telegraph and station office opened. On the 10th day of the month the business opened and totaled a little in excess of twenty thousand dollars for the remainder of the month. With ■ the two roads at Robinson the oil business for that month exceeded s e v e n t y-fi v e thousand dollars.
Harry Martin, a man
of seventy-five years, had a little farm of eighty-four acres, which he would willingly have sold for $2,500 before the oil boom. He leased it for one-eighth of the oil. It has paid him as high as one hundred dollars per day, and he has refused $1,000 per acre for the fee.
David Guncheon has leases on a block of four hundred acres four miles west of Robinson, on which he has a fine gas well, and a few oil wells. He has refused $200,000 for his leases, which he holds at half a million.
It is estimated that over $25,000,000 have been spent in the oil and gas business in this county.
The population of Robinson has doubled in the past year, many persons living in tents, and one-half the residents of the city have roomers. Eating-houses and boarding-houses are numerous. A $35,000 hotel is in course of erection. Carpenters sufficient to erect the houses demanded could not be had the past season. Business rooms are in great demand. A half dozen or more machine shops have been put in operation. A glass factory is contracted for, and a refinery is assured. The deposits of the two banks doing business before the boom increased over a million dollars, and a third bank has just commenced business.
There are some fifteen hundred wells in the county, and less than a hundred dry holes. For ten miles west of Robinson, along the line of the Illinois Central, and in the north and southwest oil sections of the County, the derricks are so thick as to present the appearance of old-time deadenings of timber.
Like many other points in the United States, Crawford County got the oil craze in the sixties, about the time of the close of the Civil War. Companies were formed and wells put down, but no success of moment crowned these early efforts. In boring deep wells for water, gas was encountered in different parts of the county at different times, in years following and, as gradually the gas fields of Indiana began to prove such a great incentive for the location of factories, the hopes of finding gas in sufficient quantities for fuel and manufacturing purposes raised high hopes among the Crawford County people.
About ten years ago in drilling a deep
homes, where the gas continues to be used for heating and lighting purposes At about the same time gas was found in drilling a well at the home of L. N. Marbry.a mile east of this city. Six years ago a local company was formed here to drill for coal, oil and gas. An expert from the east, with machinery was brought here, and drilling commenced on the Marbry farm. Two veins of coal were found at 600 and 800 feet, and some little gas between-800 and 900 feet. A strong vein of salt water was encountered at some 900 feet, and the well was abandoned, and other experiments of similar character produced no satisfactory results.
In the fall of 1904 a company was formed at Palestine, and an expert driller and machinery was imported. A find of gas which furnished the town a temporary supply, was the chief result.
In the summer of 1865 a company formed in Clark County, which joins Crawford on the north, found some gas and enough of a showing of oil to give to the place the name of "Oilfield," though the work was abandoned because of caving.
In 1903 the facts relating to the operations of nearly forty years previous were brought to the attention of Messrs. J. J. Hoblitzel & Son, of Pittsburg, oil operators of prominence and much experience. The representations made to them were sufficient to enlist them in an enterprise to experiment with modern methods. The first well drilled by these
Big Oil Pool Adjoining Well.
men, which was in Oilfield, proved a good gasser, but not much oil. A second well was completed and shot in October, 1904, with an initial production of thirtyfive barrels per day. This was sufficient to attract the attention of other operators from the east, and leasing became quite active, as well as drilling. Several good wells as pumpers were brought in, but there were no gushers. The work then extended southwest, and Casey soon became known as the center of operations. The average depth in Clark County for oil is about 650 feet.
As about all the territory that looked desirable, and which could be leased for an oil royalty was taken up, leasing over the line into Crawford County began. In August, 1905, drilling was commenced on the Athey farm, Licking Township, twelve miles northwest of Robinson. In the Illinois field there is what is known as gas and oil sand that takes the place of the Trenton rock of Indiana and Ohio. This well on the Athey farm was designed to be a test well for the benefit of the lessee only. The intention was -if a showing of gas or oil, or both, should be found, then operations should stop and the hole be plugged until such time as the lessees had secured surrounding territory on favorable terms. But the drill, at a depth