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curate is the construction and so perfect done is to couple a hose from the tank the fitting of these balls, that they are to the tire and turn a valve, one minute measured by micrometer to one ten- being the time required for the tire. The thousandth of an inch and balls varying gas within this tank is a combination of even so much as this infinitesimal amount hydrogen and carbonic acid gas carried are not used in the same bearing. When in a liquid state. The tank is filled under a set of balls exact in diameter is se- a pressure of nine hundred pounds to the cured, the two containing-rings are square inch, sufficient to reduce these ground to fit them and should a ball gases to a liquid state. The exact weight break the company insists on the race of liquid in each tank is five pounds. being returned so that a new ball of the Opening the tap in the end of the tank is same size as that broken can be put in. sufficient to cause the liquid adjacent to
These bearings have been used on Ger- the tap to become gas which can be conman railroad trains and have a record of trolled in its exit to give any desired one hundred thousand miles without a pressure within the tire. When the tank rupture. They vastly enhance the run- is empty it can be returned to the facning qualities of a car, and, of course, tory, where it is refilled at a nominal increase its cost. They are made in over outlay, and, to obviate any additional one hundred sizes to carry loads from trouble in this replenishing, the maker two hundred to fourteen · thousand has established over six hundred agenpounds.
cies throughout the country where exNo greater labor-saving invention dur- hausted tanks can be exchanged for full ing the year has been brought out and ones. no greater welcome extended to any Many other interesting inventions of thing than that accorded a little cylin- the season are little in themselves but drical tank, twenty-two inches long and mighty in their results. · The improved six inches in diameter, which contains gas speed-measuring instruments will doubtfor inflating the pneumatic tires. This less play a leading part. These little wonder, for it is nothing short of that, watch-like devices carried on the dashi does the work previously performed by in full view of the driver not only tell the hand pump and at the expense of how fast the car is traveling each secthe driver's patience and muscle. In ond but register the total miles in each this tank is enough gas to inflate thirty trip and the number of miles traveled. medium sized tires. All that has to be each season. To go still further, the maker of one has added a safeguard against the police stop watch. On the face of the instrument besides the pointer telling the speed in miles per hour there is another pointer which shows the fastest speed at which the car travels, and when the machine comes to a full stop this hand or pointer still indicates the highest speed of the day. It is in short positive proof in cases where disputes ensue between country constables and drivers.
New vehicle in which the weight is carried on the two tandem wheels, while the Also of importance
others are used for balancing only is the pneumatic hub, designed to take the place of the pneu- falls, this jar is taken up by the air cushmatic tire. The wheel fitted with this ion above and below the axle and the device carries within the hub casing jar absorbed at the wheel hub instead of a large space in which is a vertical cyl- at the rim, in the pneumatic tire. To indrical tube and within this is a piston give a uniform action to the piston within on which the vehicle axle is carried. the cylinder, a connection is established Above and below the piston in the cylin- between the air cushions at the opposite der is an air cushion, so that as the ends of the piston and an oiling system wheel strikes obstructions and rises and is also installed. Other makers have aimed at accomplishing this same work road a solid rubber tire is added. All by different styles of tires, one being the these various types have points of value. Schneider, in which the wheel has two Altogether, the year's exhibitions show rims, the inner one attached to the ends astonishing progress of ideas and ideals of the wheel spokes and the outer rim and have brought out some revelations as separated from it by a series of rubber to what the future car will be . Speed, braces arranged in relation to one an- comfort, endurance, convenience-each other like the opposing sides of a house feature of the ideal car has been brought roof. Arrangements are provided for one step closer to perfection and the mosupporting the outer rim against lateral torist has reason to be well pleased with sway; and to make it quiet on a stone the outlook.
The Wanderer's Song
There will be, when I come home, through the hill-gap in the west,
There will be, when I come home, the kindliness of the earth-
--CLINTON SCOLLARD, in The Outlook.
O some natures there is a health of the people by working the little
form movement there are England. It was one hundred years ago
w the doubters and unbe- that Richard Oastler championed the lievers who must have figures; cold, dis- cause of England's tiny industrial marmal figures to supplement the poverty of tyrs. He told of the ravaging effects their imaginations. Notwithstanding the upon little half-grown children, of the health-wrecking conditions under which long hours, the weekly pittance which the boy and girl workers in mills, glass- barely fed them, and the terrible confactories and collieries are employed, ditions under which they labored. It has there remain a few skeptics who declare remained for figures secured during the that the youngsters are accustomed to Boer War to show how literally and pathe work and that it doesn't actually in- thetically true his statements were. When jure them. To these prosaic creatures the Boer War broke out the children who the deadly air loaded with lint, or filled were working at eight, nine and ten years with flying glass and poisonous gases, or of age in Oastler's time had grown up, blackened with the gritty coal dust that their own children had gone through the pierces every tissue of the little workers' mills, and still another generation had bodies, makes no appeal. Luckily, his- taken their places at the looms. Then tory in repeating itself has left startling the sad tragedy of three generations of evidence of the cumulative effect upon factory workers was told in a single senwhole communities of undermining the tence. Out of eleven thousand men ex
amined for the army in the great manuThis is the second of two articles on Child Labor, the facturing town of Manchester, ten thoufirst of which appeared in the March issue.-Ed.
sand could not measure up to the require- tional child labor committee, stated in ments of the service! Only one man in Chicago recently that there are now 60,eleven of the merchants, laborers, clerks 000 children under fourteen years of age and mill hands was healthy enough to working in the South, as compared with pass a fair medical examination! 24,000 a few years ago. The majority
What the factories and cotton mills of them are employed in the textile mills. have done for England, the factories and The North also supports a large cotton cotton mills are doing for the United mill industry, Maine, New Hampshire States. They are creating a race dwarfed and Massachusetts being heavy manuin mind and body. We, in America, are facturers of cotton cloth. beginning to have our factory type—thin, In the cotton mills you can see the wan, sallow-faced, spindle-legged chil- little girls tending the spinning frames dren, an army of sickly bits of humanity or darting after broken threads in the vainly trying to shoulder their unnatural weaving machines. There is such an burdens. It is pitiful to see how quickly endless succession of these simple moyou can recognize that peculiar sickly tions, the work is so mechanical that the pallor and blank, expressionless face. children appear to be automatons, little The mill and factory worker-child has trip-hammers attached to the great mabecome a distinct type in our American chines. But it is a shadow pantomime.
You can't hear them cough from the There are eighty thousand of these lint—the tragedy of their lives is lost in blighted tots throwing their lives away the loud rattle and jar of the looms. As in the textile mills of the United States. in the case of the breaker boys, the same Mr. Felix Adler, chairman of the na- travesty of justice is enacted over the
age certificates where the laws are strict. The mill owners do not even keep their agreements among themselves. Little children of ten, eleven, twelve and thirteen still work at the factories in states where the law places a fourteen-year limit. In Georgia where there was a manufacturers' agreement to employ absolutely no child under ten years of age, and children under twelve in case only of extreme poverty, investigators found in one factory but a single case where poverty justified the employment of the child, and in addition they found a child of seven who had been working for one year, one of thirteen who had been working for five years, one of nine who had been working for two years, one of eight for one year, one of ten for two years, and one little girl of eleven who had been working for five years. These facts were secured by the national child labor committee and are sworn to in affidavits.
These tiny children who should be in school have to struggle against a double evil. They keep up under the terrible working conditions at the cotton mills and then at night must return home after a nine, ten, sometimes a twelve hour day, to the poor food and dingy
tenement which their little wage will proSix-YEAR-OLD SEAMSTRESS, WHOSE FEET Do Not Touch THE Floor AS SHE Toils at “GROWN-UP" Work.
vide. The child, with its brothers and