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orwardh guns thaman o was
get near enough to use their own 12-inch tection of upper sides and upper deck guns. The 12-inch guns on the Ultima together is much reduced by the great are not only very much more powerful tumble home. than any guns on any existing battle- The following boats may be carried ship, but she has many more than any under the armor protection: One subfighter in our navy. Of the Ultima's marine, one launch, two large power cutsixteen 12-inch guns, ten can be trained ters, two smaller power cutters, and a directly forward or on either broadside at the same time. The Connecticut, which is our doughtiest man o'war, has only two 12-inch guns that can be trained directly forward at the same time. Even if the 15-inch guns were omitted and if no other guns were to take their place on gun deck, the Ultima would be more than four times as powerful as any existing battleship.
The two counterpoises, 400 tons each, have together sufficient weight, when moved from right forward to right aft, to elevate these guns 3° above their initial
ON THE DECK OF THE Ultima. elevation of 3o, making 6° in all. For further elevation, water ballast can be
number of little boats, including life
number of little used.
boats. The sides of the Ultima present a small
The Ultima would be a very steady effective target. being about one-half the gun platform, as it would occupy a large length of the latest battleships. This
part of the wave slope or slopes, and shortness and the obliquity of the inner
have always a very fat effective wave shafts, the distance apart of the outer
slope. She has great metacentric weight, shafts and the additional rudder make
and large fresh water tanks and water the Ultima one of the most easily man
ballast tanks. Some of these when partly
filled, could be arranged as "water chamaged gunboats designed. The rudders
bers,” to have an "extinctive effect” tendcontain 350 square feet each.
ing to counteract the wave motion. The Four torpedo tubes are placed on the
counterpoises could also be used for this lower deck and there are facilities for
purpose. placing additional tubes aft on the mez
United States naval experts have exzanine deck."
pressed themselves very well pleased with The Ultima is encased in heavy armor this new fighter and when we go to war where such protection is absolutely neces- again it may be in just such a tub as the sary, but the amount needed for pro- Ultima design.
Car Moved by Weight the passengers in the car. The electric [ANY of the streets in the city of
motors not only start the car but start Seattle are so hilly that a street car
the cable mechanism so that when the car cannot ascend them by means of the or
ascends the weight descends. The next dinary electric trolley, so the electric cur
car which goes down the hill is attached rent is assisted by what is called a coun
to the cable and is prevented from going ter weight. When a car is ready to go
too rapidly by the counter weight, which up one of the hills a cable is attached to it
is of course pulled back to the top by the which reaches to the top, then passes
movement of the car. This picture shows around a large .pulley or wheel sunk be
one of the shorter lines of railroad in neath the street level. The other end of
Seattle which are operated in this novel the cable is fastened to a huge iron cast
manner. ing which slides along in a sort of subway specially constructed for it beneath
Good Roads in India the pavement. The weight of the car is nearly balanced by this counter weight
INDIA possesses many fine highways, so that the electric current is only needed
though this fact is not generally to give it sufficient motion to over
known. One of the best, which runs come the additional load represented by
from Bombay to Delhi, is 900 miles in length. One of even greater length is that on the Afghanistan frontier, from Peshawur to Calcutta. These roads were built before the days of the railroad to serve as military highways. The native princes take pride in keeping them in repair. The automobilist in India is constantly surprised and delighted by the ease with which he may travel from one place to another.
Chairs Made of Grass
grass is an important industry in certain parts of the Mississippi Valley. The ordinary grass, of course, cannot be used for this purpose. It is the wire grass, which may be found in bogs and marshes in the great glacial belt extending from the Ohio Valley into the British Northwest, that is employed. This species of
Owing to its texture, the new metal is capable of filling out the most delicate lines and figures of forms in casting, which, because of its strength and elasticity, will not be easily mutilated.
Alzen, a New Metal
siderable attention in Germany, and which gives promise of becoming of no little importance to many branches of industry has received the name “alzen," the name being a compounding of the first letters of aluminum and zinc, of which it is composed. In alzen there are two parts of aluminum and one of zinc.
It is claimed for the new metal that it equals cast iron in strength, but that it is much more elastic, and that it has a great superiority over iron in that it does not rust easily, and takes a very high polish.
For Fighting Fire I ONDON, Glasgow, Vienna and sev
eral other European cities are fighting their fires with self-raising fire escapes. The extending is done by means of patent gas-raising machines bolted on the main ladders. Double automatic safety catches are fitted to all sliding ladders for securing them at any height. These catches are automatically released
before lowering simply by giving half Bridge Spans Canyon a turn with the handle.
IN building railroads in the Republic of As soon as the ladder is unlocked and I Mexico the engineers have been freswung into position the catches secure
quently required to construct bridges the ladders and they stand firm though
over curious formations. This picture walls fall and flames rage. They can
shows a bridge on the Mexican National withstand a severe shock of water and
Railroad which spans Chone Canyon. there being but little wood about them,
The canyon is a rift in the rocks which they are safe even though placed where
have been worn away by the action of the the fire shoots.
weather, the walls on either side being
eaten away as if by acid. The canyon A New Electric Lamp
traverses a portion of the Mexican des
ert where the rainfall is very slight. At THE “Osram” electric lamp is a new the point crossed by the bridge it is
invention on the German market over 200 feet deep and as the photograph after many experimental but successful shows the walls are almost perpendicutests. It replaces the carbon filament lar, making the region very picturesque.
for glow lamps by fine wires of wolfram,
Nitrates from India which are claimed to employ only onethird of the energy heretofore required. AMERICANS have invaded India, The latest test showed that after use of where, on the River Jhelum they are 1,000 hours there was an average loss of building a 20,000 horse power hydraulic brilliancy of 6.3 per cent, in the case of works. This river has a fall for eighty 25-candle power lamps and 3.6 per cent, miles of its length averaging thirty-one in the 32-candlepower lamps. Of the feet to the mile, and a potential horse sixteen lamps tested eleven were not in power of 1,000,000. The minimum disthe least damaged, and capable of con- charge is 30,000 gallons per second. The tinued use. This new lamp shares with cliffs which wall in the Jhelum River are other lamps of its kind the drawback that of limestone. The recent discovery of it can only be used hanging downward, the fact that by the agency of powerful but it is claimed by the inventor that this, electric currents the nitrogen' of the air the only disadvantage, can easily be over- can be extracted and mixed with lime for come.
fertilizer will make this new power plant
of world-wide value, being so. happily earth is, therefore, simply well tamped situated as it is with respect to lime de- and then the oil is turned in. A crust posits.
forms on the bottom and sides and prac
tically no oil is lost through seepage. How Oil is Stored In order to prevent a loss of oil from THE illustrations show the method of
exposure to sun and wind the reservoirs I storing oil in the oil fields of Cali
are roofed over. A cheap frame work of fornia, while the producers are waiting to
joist is at first constructed within the market the commodity. The attempt was
reservoirs, and upon this frame work a originally made to store the oil in steel
roof is laid, composed of common inch tanks, but this method was discovered to
boards, covered over with tin, sheet iron
boards, cov be too costly and too slow. Storage res- or tar paper. It is thus that cheap storervoirs excavated in the ground were age room, quickly and easily made, is obtherefore substituted. At first the cis- tained; the oil from the wells being conterns were lined with cement. This also ducted to the storage reservoirs by means was found to be too expensive, and the of specially built pipes and conduits.