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Armor Costs U. S. Less generally adopted, although experiments IN the United States where charges for
are also being made with all-steel and
reinforced cement ties. As a result, an government work are supposed to be
industry of considerable magnitude has excessive, armor plate for battleships is
been developed in this country. At said to be furnished at a price lower than
Brainerd, Minnesota, e. g., a plant is that at which England can buy it. The
being built that will have a capacity of London Times estimates that Great Brit
from 3,000 to 5,000 creosoted ties a day. ain is paying for armor about $150
The process of impregnating the ties per ton more than is being paid in the
with the preservative is as follows: The United States for armor of equal quality.
ties are first loaded upon steel hand cars, On a vessel of the King Edward type this
where they are chained together in involves an increased expenditure of
fasces or bundles. The cars are then from $500,000 to $600,000. The use of
shoved into a specially prepared retort, Krupp patents by manufacturers in En
into which the track leads. Then the gland is responsible, in part, for the dif
huge door is closed and sealed and the ference in price in the two countries.
preservative fluid is turned on under Five first class firms practically control
great pressure. After the pores of the the output of armor plate in that country.
wood have become saturated, the creosote is pumped off into storage tanks.
When this has been done the retort is Saving Life of Ties
unsealed, and the tie-laden cars are THE rapid disappearance of the na- shoved out at the end opposite to that at
tion's forests and the comparatively which they entered. Other cars take short-lived duration of even such tough their place, and so the process is conwoods as oak, have compelled the rail- tinued. roads to cast about either for a new ma- The all-steel tie is made flat and as terial for ties or for some method of pro- thin as is practicable in order that it may longing the life of the old material. have the greatest amount of elasticity Creosoting of ties has been the method possible. The cement tie is reinforced
PART OF NEW CREOSOTING PLANT UNDER CONSTRUCTION AT BRAINERD, MINN,
with iron straps, and is said to render very satisfactory service. No substitute, however, is “just as good” as wood. Hence the industry of creosoting ties is rapidly increasing in importance.
Fate of Old Engines AN interesting question in connection n with the present electrification of many of the steam railroad lines in the suburban service is the final disposal of their locomotives. It can hardly be imagined that the engines will be converted into scrap, and yet, if electricity should become the motive power on the steam railroads within the next few years, there would be a great number of steam locomotives thrown out of service and a vast amount of invested capital lying idle. Even the electrification of the suburban service of the New York Central's lines entering New York City, will throw out of service upward of half a hundred steam locomotives, while similar changes on other great lines are rapidly adding to this list of displaced engines.
The average value of the serviceable locomotives on the different trunk lines today can be placed at $14,000 each. Some cost a good deal more, and are worth nearly double this amount, but there are many others whose days of usefulness are short and their value is below this average.
The New York Central and other
large roads have added entirely new electric locomotives to their stock, and the displaced steam engines are being utilized in other branches of the system.
A number of steam locomotives have been equipped with electric motors in an experimental way, and they have demonstrated their ability to perform satisfactorily the work demanded of them. The Pennsylvania has several old steamconverted locomotives employed in the short-haul traffic near the Pittsburg iron and steam terminals, and the New England roads have also converted a number of steam engines into electric locomotives for short-haul service. In nearly all of these instances, the locomotives were of the old types, and their years of usefulness were short. Their service in the new field was sufficiently long to prove experimentally the value of such converted locomotives.
“Some way will certainly be found to utilize the old steam locomotives,” said an official of one of the large Eastern roads to the writer, “if we are ever confronted with the problem of adopting electricity as the motive power for both long and short distance traffic. They will certainly not be sent to the scrap pile yet awhile. If they cannot be converted into electric locomotives of the most powerful kind, they can at least be utilized for lighter traffic while newly-designed electric locomotives are built for the heavier and faster service."
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To Make Ice Describe a device for making ice in small quantities.-L. M. B.
The following is a device by which good results can be obtained. In Fig. 1 is shown a cylindrical case, A, suspended on trunnions in a frame and capable of rotation by the crank handle shown. The cylinder is open at both ends, to which covers are fitted, however, as shown in the figure.
In Fig. 2, B represents a nest of cylinders seven in number and secured between heads. No two of these vessels are of the same size, the diameters decreasing from the largest down in regular proportion. This assemblage of cyl
inders fits into the case, A, and it is into
gether to produce a solid block of ice weighing about eleven pounds.
ated from the boiler, in the direction indicated by the arrows, the water at the top of the boiler always being much hotter than at the bottom. When the hot cock is open, cold water instantly begins to flow into the boiler at D, by reason of the pressure on the city main, and forces hot water out of the boiler at C. Thus it will be seen that hot water cannot be drawn unless the cold water inlet is free,
Kitchen Boiler Explosion What is the common cause for explosion of kitchen boilers ?-C. R. G.
The direct cause, of course, is a greater pressure in the boiler than it can withstand. Accidents of this sort can easily be avoided by exercising a little intelligence and care. The hot water cock should always be opened the first thing on entering the kitchen every morning. If the water flows freely, fire may then be started in the range without danger. The diagram shows the connections, and when water is turned on from the main supply, the entire system is filled. When it is filled all outlets are closed, and it is evident that no more can run in, although the boiler is in free connection with and is subjected to the full pressure of the source of supply. When a fire is started in the range and the water in the circulating pipes or water back is heated, the water expands, is consequently lighter and flows out through the pipe into the boiler at A, as this connection is placed higher up than the one at B. This starts the circulation, and the water, as it be
Barrow For Driving Posts.
and it is equally evident that cold water cannot enter the boiler unless the hot water cock or some other outlet is open.
HOT WATER SUPPLY
Platform for Driving Posts Can you direct me how to construct a platform for driving posts? A wagon drawn by horses is very unsatisfactory.-B. O. S.
What you desire, probably, is a portable staging that is light enough to push about. Build a platform of the kind indicated in the drawing, and attach a pair of wheels. Old wagon wheels, or wheels made of boards, will suffice. They should be not less than twelve inches in diameter. The dimension of the other parts should be: length of platform, three to four feet; width of platform, two and a half to three feet; height, 'thirty to forty inches. A board nailed across the handles will render it easy for the worker to ascend and descend.
A. R. S.
Splicing Rubber Belts
It can be done if proper care is taken. BLOW OFF
Strip each ply of the ends to be joined
for some eighteen inches, overlap two of PROPER PIPING FOR KITCHEN BOILER.
the corresponding plies and apply cement. comes heated, constantly flows into the Let the work remain thus for from three boiler at A, and rises to the upper part of to four hours. In like manner treatment the boiler; while the colder water at the is given the next plies, and finally the bottom flows out into the circulating belt is vulcanized in the press. To secure pipes at B, and if no water is drawn a the best results the work should be done slow circulation goes on as heat is radi- by some manufacturer of rubber belting. To Make Liquid Air
it may be drawn off. With a 3-horseDescribe the apparatus necessary for making power engine the yield is about a quart liquid air in small quantities.-G. F. B. of liquid air per hour.
One of the simplest methods of liquefying air is shown in principle in the figure. After thorough drying, the air to be liquified enters through the pipe, a, and
To Drill Glass in the compressor, C, is compressed to Will you please explain a method for drillabout 200 atmospheres (1 atmosphere = ing glass ?-H. L. B. 14.7 pounds per square inch). R is a Take an old three-cornered file, one water cooler, to remove the heat of com- that is worn out will do, break it off and pression. The air thus cooled and sharpen to a point like a drill and place strongly compressed passes down in a carpenter's brace. Have the glass through the inner tube of the helical coil, fastened on a good solid table so there H, to a valve below.
will be no danger of its breaking. Wet Through this valve it escapes into the the glass at the point where the hole is to reservoir, G, the expansion producing a be made with the following solution: considerable fall in temperature. The Ammonia, 672 drachms. cold air then passes from the reservoir Ether, 31/2 drachms. up through the outside tube of the helical Turpentine, 1 ounce. coil, which surrounds the tube down Keep the drill wet with the above sowhich the air comes, thus cooling the lution and bore the hole part way from compressed air in the inner tube. This each side of the glass. cooled air is allowed to escape in its Another solution is to dissolve a piece
of gum camphor the size of a walnut in one ounce of turpentine.
Still another method is to use a steel drill hardened, but not drawn. Saturate spirits of turpentine with camphor and wet the drill. The drill should be ground with a long point and plenty of clearance. Run the drill rapidly and with a light speed. In this manner glass can be drilled with small holes, up to 3-16th of an inch in diameter, nearly as rapidly as cast steel.
Smoke for Protecting Fruit Is smoke sometimes used to protect fruit from frost?-S. A. T.
Yes. Tar makes the best fuel for the purpose, as it creates a dense smudge. The smoke acts as a protecting mantle. Other material, of course, may be burned -old hay or straw, leaves, etc.
To Make Liquid AIR.
turn, becoming still colder by its expansion. As the process continues the temperature falls until liquid air begins to collect in the bottom of G, from which
Polish for Hard Wood
The following simple method is said to be excellent: take a piece of waste and dip it first in linseed oil, then in shellac, and apply it with vigorous rub