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Most Trees in Smallest Area

. By H. C. Dunlavy

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HE deltoid system will probably prove of more interest to pomologists than to people of other vocations. LSy using this system, a greater number of trees per acre may be planted at a given distance apart, than by any other system. It seems to be the general impression that the system of planting in squares is the one which accomplishes the above desideratum, but the following will prove that this impression is a delusion.

Figure 1 represents seven trees planted by the deltoid system and we will suppose them to be one rod apart. The inner hexagon represents the exact area occupied by one tree exclusively, which area is equal to that of two of the equilateral triangles formed by the trees. Since the sine of 60° = .866 it is evident that this area equals .866 square rods. Figure 2 represents nine trees planted one rod apart in the form of squares, and the inner square represents the exact area occupied by one tree, which area is one square rod. It is now evident that when planting the same distance apart .866

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Fio. 1. Thk Way Trees Are Ordinarily Planted.

Fig. 2. The Deltoid System Of Planting Trees.

trees, at a given distance apart, it would, under the deltoid system, contain or 1,154 trees the same distance apart, or an increase of 15.4%. With suitable machines the farmer might utilize this system in planting his corn and have this percentage in his favor, but even though the hills of corn should be their usual distance apart the rows would have but .866 their usual width and although he would be able to plow it in three different directions instead of two, the second plowing would be at an angle of only 60° to the first instead of the 90° angle as at present. Since plants generally cover a circular area, the ground at the corners of a square is of litttle use to a plant, and since the deltoid system allows each plant a hexagonal area it conforms nearer than any other arrangement to the shape of the plant.

Dry Farming in the West

By W. Thomas

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J ODERN science has deu creed that deserts may be fertile, though there be ^ present neither running streams nor even so much as a pool of stagnant water. Mr. H. W. Campbell, a native of Vermont, now residine in Lincoln, Nebraska, has accomplished this seeming marvel. Without irrigating ditches or wells, but solely by his already famous method of dry farming, he is making the "Great American Desert" bloom. His svstem is quite simple. It consists in retaining the moisture in the ground by a process of packing the sub-soil, so that twelve inches of rainfall, properly conserved, will suffice to turn a region from cattle-raising to agriculture.

In North America there is a comparatively arid region extending eastward from the Rocky Mountains some hundreds of miles, and linking the plains of Assiniboia with those of Texas. Parts or the whole of eleven states and territories and two provinces are included within this area. From a povertystricken desert, plagued by crop failures and heavily ridden with mortgages, the system of dry-farming is gradually but surely restoring this region to a prosperout farming land.

And this is the way Mr. Campbell's method is put into operation. The nature of the prairie soils is such that water is absorbed by them as oil is by a wick. Here, then, deep beneath the surface, moisture is retained as in a reservoir. Exposure of this sub-soil means speedy evaporation and, of course, no crops. But

mere deep plowing will not secure retention of the moisture. A packing process must follow hard upon the turning of the soil. A special machine is used for this purpose. Mr. Campbell has made several inventions to be applied to this use.

After the crop is once in, constant surface cultivation must be maintained, but that no moisture may be squandered penetration of the soil ends with a depth of two or three inches. Perhaps the most peculiar feature of the Campbell system is that as time goes on, year by year the soil will be found to have gained in its accumulation of moisture. The dust that is scratched up from time to time covers the soil below like a protecting blanket.

Each fruit or grain, according to its kind, requires a varying degree of attention. Garden vegetables and corn must be cultivated a dozen or more times in the season; small grains after each rain until they are several inches high; fruit trees must have constant care.

Mr. Campbell began his experiments in 1883, though it was ten years before the discoverer won his first triumph. This was in South Dakota, where in 1893 he turned out 124 bushels to the acre, while his scoffing neighbors, who stood by their New England methods, met with a total crop failure. Since then thousands of acres have been reclaimed. Irrigation has found a rival in a system that makes a single drop of water go twice as far as in climes where rainfall is more abundant. Government experts are now conducting important experiments with the Campbell system.

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Without the aid of a glass, an Australian is said to have written 10,061 words on a postal card.

Postal development in China has necessitated a revision in the spelling of Chinese city names.

V

The United States Patent Office is months behind in its work.

The floor area of St. Peter's, Rome, is 227,069 square feet, being the greatest of any cathedral in the world.

The aggregate of wealth buried with Turkey's Sultans would pay Russia's national debt.

V*

At Rheims, France, portable bathtubs filled with hot water are delivered to order.

How mosquitos exist, within the arctic circle, without a blood diet, is a mystery. V

The railway commissioners of New South Wales are adopting a system of electrically synchronized clocks.

V

On the Tombigbee river, Alabama, is enough limestone to supply a cement plant for 100 years.

From the hawksbill turtle of the Carribean Sea comes the tortoise shell of commerce.

The gold mines of Western Australia have paid dividends amounting to over 70 millions of dollars.

Air that has been inhaled has a higher electrical conductivity than has normal air.

A professor in Copenhagen University is said to chloroform plants. After several days they bud in great profusion. V»

Lava may be blown into beautiful green-colored bottles, lighter and stronger than ordinary glass.

Norway's seaweed, used as fuel, yields a greater revenue than do the fisheries of that country.

The Baltic Sea is not salty enough to sustain the life of the oyster.

Cabbages in Cuba grow to such size .that a single head often weighs 20 pounds.

In Belgium, 70 per cent of telegraph messages are delivered in from one to 15 minutes.

A Hindu catamaran can go to and from ships when ordinary craft can not be launched

The gold mines of ancient Egypt have been reopened by English capital.

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says he can make a thousand dainty and delicious dishes out of SHREDDED WHEAT—so wide and varied are its culinary uses.

But yc u don't need a Chef for Shredded Wheat. For breakfast simply heat the Biscuit in an oven to restore crispness, then pour hot milk over it. This brings out the delicious aroma of the baked wheat, making it more palatable and appetizing. Then add a little cream and a dash of salt.

SHREDDED WHEAT contains all the muscle-building, brain-making material in the whole wheat made digestable by steam-cooking, shredding and baking.

A FOOD TO GROW ON, TO WORK ON, TO LIVE ON.

A breakfast of SHREDDED WHEAT BISCUIT with hot or cold milk or cream, will supply the energy for a whole day'* work. TRISCUIT is the same as the Biscuit except that it is compressed into a wafer and is used as a TOAST for

any meal, instead of white flour bread. At all grocers.

NATURAL FOOD COMPANY,

NIAGARA FALLS, N. Y.

Mention Technical World Magazine

A French invention, consisting of bulb thermometers, predicts at sundown whether there will be a frost.

Beira, a little town in Africa, is built almost entirely of galvanized sheet metal.

A half-century ago William H. Parkin discovered the coloring properties of coal-tar.

Whether whales and dolphins ever sleep observation so far has been unable to discover.

The Chinese bury their dead close to the surface, thus affording fertilizer to plants.

The Bavarian government will install a locomotive claimed to make 94 miles an hour.

The cocoanut tree is so elastic as to withstand the fiercest storms, even on the sea-coast.

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The State of Pennsylvania exports large quantites of ginseng at 50 cents a pound.

Ox wagon competition makes certain short railroad lines in South Africa unprofitable.

Great Britain gives the best protection in the world to the inventor.

V

A Frenchman is said to have discovered a means of firing torpedoes by wireless electric power.

Portugal is making an effort to reclaim 10,000,000 acres, nearly one-half the country's area.

■V

It is proposed to grade French troops hot according io height but to length of stride.

Trill Rhodesia, Africa, at Broken Hill, nearly 1,000.000 tons of lead and zinc are in sight.

Cotton growing in Peru dates back beyond the time of the Spanish conquest. V*

The cattle egret of India is a bird that follows grazing cattle to secure disturbed insects.

V

The North Star is estimated to shine with a light 190 times that of the sun.

Rock temples at Ipsampool on the Nile arc believed to be the world's oldest architectural ruins.

The woods of New South Wales are so varied as to meet the world's requirements.

Crystal, melted and electroplated, has been successfully used in France to counterfeit gold coins.

A cottonwood tree recently cut in Mississippi contained 4,800 feet of lumber.

V

Giraffes and elephants are said to play havoc with telephone lines in Africa.

Peat artificially dried, is being made into wood under heavy hydraulic pressure.

Fresh eggs, a French scientist says, often are infected with poison before being laid.

A violin played with four bows by electricity is the latest invention of a Chicagoan.

The inhabitants of ancient Gaul of France built houses of terra cotta.

The Frzberg, Austria's iron mountain, will furnish ore for 1,000 more years.

The only substitute for San Domingo mahogany is that of East India.

The huge serpent, the boa constrictor,

has 320 pairs of ribs.

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