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mented upon by almost every chemist come recognized in the last few years as who has been asked for an analysis. the best orange and truck producing Claus Spreckels, who operates great su

lands in the United States. Single acres gar plantations in the Hawaiian Islands, which elsewhere produce a few bushels in writing to Mr. Disston after having of wheat or corn, a bale or two of cotton, made a personal inspection of his lands or support a cow or two, in this region says in part:

are producing oranges and truck farm "The soil is rich and fertile and with products aggregating in value from $500

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proper cultivation the yield should be to $1500 per acre. Land now worthless equal to that of any other country on the will sell for $100 an acre when drained. face of the globe.'

The importance of this immense unD. G. Purse of the United States De- dertaking can with difficulty be comprepartment of Agriculture in writing to hended. It is estimated in figures which Governor Broward concerning specimens can scarcely be understood by the ordiof cane found in this section states that nary mind. The reclamation of this land "its analysis shows the cane in question means the addition to Florida of nearly to be the richest in the world in sugar as much cultivated land as she now has. contents, affording a basis for exploita- It means the throwing open to cultition exceeding and surpassing anything vation of an area twice as large as the in the United States, Cuba or the Ha- State of Connecticut. It means that Florwaiian Islands."

ida will become the sugar producing Analysis of these specimens of cane state of the Union, and that for her sushow them to contain between eighteen gar products the $150,000,000 will be and twenty per cent of sucrose, the ele- paid, which is now annually sent abroad ment in the cane convertible into sugar. for imported sugar, an amount expended

These lands are not only adaptable to for an import which exceeds by sevsugar cane culture, but are also the best eral million dollars the value of our united of their kind for truck farming and citrus exports of corn, wheat, flour, beef, and fruit culture. The lands of Manatee, naval stores. It means that Florida will Hillsborough, Lee, De Soto, Polk, Dade, in a few years become one of the richest St. Lucie, and Volusia counties have be- and most important states in the Union.

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New Wizard of Power

By Charles Frederick Carter

Cheap power is the prime secret of commercial success. Steam held the field alone for years. Then came electricity and, more lately, water power on a vast scale. Now the great shadow on the power horizon is cast by producer gas. The largest gas engine at the World's Fair in 1893 was of thirty-five horse power. To-day a single plant in California contains four gas engines each of 5,400 horse power. There is one producer gas power plant in the United States with a capacity of 40,000 horse power. Producer gas can be made, as Mr. Carter says, “anywhere, at any time, in any quantity, and from anything combustible." This article is of vital importance to every business man and manufacturer.-EDITOR.

HEN a man has to shovel coal burned under its boilers. If it is a

a dollar bill into the fur- small plant, the results are likely to be nace every time he wants the former figure or less; if it is a very a dime's worth of power, large plant, conducted with unusual he may be pardoned for skill, the latter may be approximated.

harboring a germ or two Corliss and quadruple expansion engines, of discontent with the present stage of feed water heaters and kindred accesindustrial evolution. Yet a modern steamı sories, and finally the steam turbine have power plant will only deliver at the resulted from endeavors to reduce this crank shaft from ten to twelve per cent excessive waste of heat. Altogether they of the potential energy contained in the have only served to accentuate the necessity of finding something more effi- When these later investigators took cient than steam to perform the func- up the internal combustion engine, the tions of the world's prime mover. most obvious thing they found was that



These engines consume all kinds of waste gases.

Recent developments would seem to to make it universally useful a fuel supindicate that a clue to this much needed ply which would be cheap and available improvement has been discovered. At everywhere at all times was required. least it looks suspicious to find a gas en- Illuminating gas, even if it were always gine plant of 40,000 horse power, an- accessible, is altogether too expensive. other of 31,500 horse power, and still another of 21,500 horse power in the United States, one of 31,500 horse power in Johannesburg, South Africa, and goodness knows how many smaller ones in successful operation all over the world. And when one finds the same type of engine that is assembled in these great plants humbly doing the churning at a rural creamery, driving automobiles and

A MODEST LITTLE MACHINE OF 125 HORSEPOWER. motor boats and running everything else that can be run, and saving money for its owner So is gasoline. And none of the other whenever it turns a wheel, suspicion al- gaseous fuels will fill the bill completely. most deepens into conviction.

The difficulty was solved by the develInventive genius has been precious opment of producer gas, which can be slow to recognize the merits of the gas made in any quantity, at any time, anyengine. As long ago as 1794, Robert where, from anything combustible. For, Street, an Englishman, built the first one. bless you, the gas engine as now conThat was a year after William Murdock stituted is no more fastidious about its made the first practical use of gas by fuel than a 'longshoreman is about his lighting and heating his house in Corn- liquor. Any kind of coal or coke or lignite wall with it. Street's invention was 'al- or peat or even refuse will make gas lowed to languish in oblivion until 1861, quite acceptable to the internal combusbefore it was developed into an engine. tion engine. And if none of these be that would really work. But then it con- available it will gratefully draw its frugal sumed one hundred feet of illuminating sustenance from the cast-off heat units gas per horse power per hour, which, of in a blast furnace chimney. Yet this course, was economically impossible. most advanced type of prime mover has Finally, in 1876, N. A. Otto, a young an appetite as delicate as a school girl's. German merchant, hit upon the funda- One pound of coal per horse power per mental principle of accomplishing the hour or its equivalent is all that it readmission of the gas mixture, its com- quires, thank you, to keep it going at pression, ignition, expansion and the ex- its maximum efficiency. Some gluthaustion of the spent gases in one cylin- tonous little steam plants have been der. Upon this principle all successful known to consume from ten to twelve gas engines have been based. The real pounds of coal in doing the same work, development of the gas engine dates while the best of them exact from two from the expiration of the Otto patents, and a half to four pounds. when it occurred to others that it would To appreciate fully the modest rebe worth while to get to work on the quirements of the internal combustion problem.

engine it is well to bear in mind that a

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