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even look about him. Here it was actu- A dam was thrown up around the ally necessary to use the breeches buoy foundations, so that work might continue for landing the workmen and taking for some time after the tide began to rise ; them away every night to the mainland. but the moment the water began to over
A cable was stretched from the mast of flow the walls of the dam the men had a ship at anchor to the islet's crest; and to flee for their lives and take refuge on along this line the buoy travelled. It was the staging, taking with them all tools merely a pair of short leather breeches, and movable machinery. The foundamade fast to a lifebelt. You may be sure tion of the lighthouse is twelve feet deep the passage was pretty exciting. One under low water in the hard chalk. At moment would find the travelling mason its base the tower is forty-seven feet in plunged into an icy, angry sea; whereas diameter; and it is over one hundred and the next he would be literally flying in fifty-three feet in height to the top of the the air at a height of eighty feet, having lantern. The work has now taken several been sharply snatched out of the water years. Over 50,000 cubic feet of granite by a heavy lurch of the ship that held one has been cut for it, while 5,000 cubic feet end of the cable.
of concrete were needed to fill in the Great Britain has altogether more than lower courses. nine hundred and fifty "coast-wise But perhaps the most difficult of all the lights," which are controlled by an an- British lighthouses to erect was the Skercient corporation known as Trinity ryvore. It towers proudly from a subHouse, which collects nearly three mil- merged reef on the coast of Argyllshire lion dollars every year from ship owners in Scotland; is exposed to the full, trefor the maintenance of these towers. mendous force of the North Atlantic;
One of the very latest built, is on the and is surrounded by innumerable ledges foreshore below Beachy Head, a towering and sharp points of rock for nearly nine cliff, six hundred feet high, on the south miles. coast of England, near the town of East- No secure anchorage could be found, bourne. There was already a lighthouse and the prospecting vessel drifted along on its summit, but it was often veiled in this terrible coast at the mercy of the sea fog. And for this reason the Trini- waves. As to the rock itself, while buildty House authorities fixed upon a new ing operations were going on its treachersite, some six hundred feet out at sea ous surface was swept by great green icy from the base of the cliff, and of course seas, while the intrepid workers, with in quite deep water at high tide.
limbs and bodies drenched and benumbed, It was necessary to establish work had to save themselves from destruction yards on the cliff-top, at a point four as best they might. On one occasion the hundred feet above the chosen site, and working crew were cut off from the ship transport both men and material to and for four or five days, and were within an fro by means of an aërial ropeway of six- ace of dying from starvation. inch cables. Upon these the great five- It is no wonder that the Skerryvore ton blocks of granite for the foundations proved one of the costliest lighthouses in and walls of the lighthouse were carried the world ; nearly $400,000 was spent upswaying and swinging on their dizzy on it from first to last. Indeed, very few journey from the four hundred feet cliff, of the public have an idea what this magdown and out to sea, and pumps, steam nificent service costs the nations of civiliengines, cranes, cement, shingle, and zation; the bill our own government has every other requisite, also made the jour- to meet every year in this respect is not ney.
far from four million dollars.
Butter's Rival Gaining Favor
By Fred Haxton
WEATEN by a Frenchman most cases where it is thus consumed it
in the discovery of a sub- is purchased under its true name. When stitute for butter, the it is put on the table, however, it passes American has now far out- as genuine butter and probably not one stripped his scientific rival person, in a thousand who eat it, guesses
across the sea in turning it is anything else than the natural prothat discovery to commercial uses. One duct of cow's milk. result is that American manufacturers Oleomargarine in reality is not a subare shipping hundreds of tons of oleo- stitute for butter; neither is it an imitamargarine back to the land of its origin tion of butter. It is genuine butter proevery year, and are selling it there duced artificially. In these days there is cheaper than the Frenchmen themselves nothing secret about its composition or can make it. Chicago is now the center its manufacture. Powerful machinery, of the oleomargarine industry of the proper equipment, a careful regard to world.
temperatures, skilled labor and the right Despite the enactment of federal and kind of "raw materials” are all that is state laws designed to protect the dairy required to manufacture oleomargarine. and creamery against this once hated pro- The formula itself, which won a prize
theory that the butter fat in the cow's Immediately after the steer is slaughmilk was absorbed from the animal tis- tered the fat is removed and thoroughly sues of the cow. He believed that same washed. When perfectly cleansed it is butter fat could be extracted directly conveyed to a room kept at a temperafrom the beef fat of the slaughtered ani- ture almost as low as the freezing point. mal. His experiments proved successful. The animal heat soon vanishes and the But his artificial butter was crude com- fat becomes hard. pared with the dainty that the American A process similar to the grinding of manufacturer puts into the hands of pa-. sausage is the next step. The fat, howtrons. The American has perfected and ever, is not ground, but is chopped into improved on his discovery.
minute particles. It is shoveled into a Nearly all of the “raw materials” en- great hopper, goes through a machine tering into the manufacture of oleomar fitted with numerous keen knives and garine are obtained from the big packing comes out a spout in a steady stream of houses. Many of these packing houses finely comminuted fat. A giant caldron, maintain oleomargarine plants of their holding at least ten barrels, is its next own; others sell the raw materials to in- stopping place. This caldron has an dependent concerns that make nothing outer jacket, called a steam jacket. but oleomargarine. The raw materials When the caldron is sufficiently full of consist in the main of oleo oil and neutral the chopped fat, steam is admitted into lard. The finished product—oleomarga- the space between the jacket and the calrine—may contain, however, cottonseed dron itself. This melts the fat. Inside oil and real butter, either butter that is the caldron is a shaft with side wings, mixed with the other ingredients or ob- which is revolved by machinery so that tained from cream with which they are the fat is kept in motion till completely churned in the process of manufacture. melted.
The oleo oil is obtained from the fat While still hot the fat is piped to anof cattle. Usually only the best fat of other steam-jacketed caldron. Most of steers is employed, the caul fat and the the solid substance of the fat—the anifat that corresponds to the leaf in hogs. mal tissue-remains in the bottom of the first caldron. After a fresh heating and oleo oil out of the stearin slowly but perstirring in the second caldron, large fectly and completely. quantities of salt are thrown in. The T he stearin is utilized for fertilizer or liquid is then permitted to stand awhile some other purpose. The oleo oil is piped to “settle," the salt helping to clarify it. from the press to vats where it remains Before any portion of it begins to harden till the oleomargarine manufacturer every particle of animal membrane has wants it. Of the original fat put into gone to the bottom of the caldron. The the first caldron, about fifty per cent beclear liquid is now piped to a big vat comes oleo oil. About twenty-eight per where it is allowed to stand four or five cent is tallow and stearin. The rest is days. During this time the stearin in it animal tissue or shrinkage. crystallizes, part of it rising to the top Neutral lard is obtained in a manner and part settling to the bottom, thus precisely the same as oleo oil. The obforming crusts above and below. Be- ject in putting the lard through this protween the two crusts is the pure oleo oil. cess is to remove the characteristic odor
The next process begins with the and flavor of the fat of the hog so that breaking up of the stearin crusts, which neither can be observed when the lard are stirred up with the oleo oil until the becomes a part of oleomargarine. Any mass looks like corn meal pudding. The portion of the hog's fat may be used, but mush-like mass is shoveled into cars and customarily only the leaf is employed. taken to the hydraulic presses. Here it is The back fat, however, is often used in shoveled into burlap and formed into making the cheaper qualities of oleomarbales three feet in width and several garine. inches thick. The bales are formed in We have now obtained the raw materithe press itself and when all the holes als and are ready to manufacture oleoof a press are full a lever is thrown, the margarine. Almost every manufacturer hydraulic power applied, and a weight has his own formula. Each figures out of twenty tons descends, squeezing the the proportions of the raw materials to
be mixed. Some use a greater propor We have now seen how all the simple tion of oleo oil with the neutral lard thai ingredients are obtained. We have also do others. Some simply mix the o'eo inspected the formula for the finished and lard and churn the mixture in creain; product. We will now enter the oleomarothers put in butter and churn the triple garine factory and see how they are put mixture with milk or buttermilk. While together. First the oleo oil, the neutral still others use cottonseed oil or sheep lard and the butter are melted separately. oil. It is practically impossible, how. The proper amount of oleo oil is allowed ever, to destroy the odor and flavor of to flow through a pipe into the mixing cottonseed and sheep oils and these are vat, a pair of scales weighing it as it practically discarded except in the manu- enters. Then the proper proportion of facture of the cheapest grades of oleo neutral lard is run in and after that the margarine and of oleomargarine for ex- right quantity of genuine butter. These port to countries in Europe where they ingredients are mechanically mixed and do not prove objectionable. One Chica- then are piped or pumped into churns go manufacturer combines his ingredients seven feet high and twenty-two feet in in the following proportions for making circumference. In the churn the milk a medium grade of oleomargarine: and cream are added, together with the
Pounds coloring, if coloring is to be used. Oleo oil ......
315 By steam power the churns are kept in Neutral lard ..
500 motion for half an hour, a central shaft Cream .......
with paddles attached doing the churning Milk ..........
..280 inside. The churned mass then flows out Salt ....
........120 into ice cold vats, a stream of ice cold If the manufacturer desires to have water falling from a pipe above on the his product look like real grass butter mixture to prevent crystallization from made in June he adds a pound and a half taking place. The vats into which it runs of coloring matter. From the above are also kept cold with ice water, the obformula he then obtains in the neighbor- ject being to harden the oleomargarine hood of 1,075 pounds of oleomargarine. before any of it forms into crystals. The In view of the internal revenue tax of ten salting and stamping are all that remain cents a pound on colored oleomargarine, to be done, but these processes are the however, he leaves his product white and most interesting of any. lets the consumer or some unscrupulous When the oleomargarine is cold and retailer do the coloring.
hard it is shoveled into cars and wheeled