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into the “tempering" room. This room tured in the United States. The oleois kept at a temperature sufficiently warm margarine industry grew amazingly, to soften the oleomargarine gradually, however, in spite of the tax and by 1902 but not to melt it. When the product is the annual output had grown to 99,382,of the same temperature of the room it 803 pounds. It was then being sold withcan be “worked.” It is then taken to the out any restrictions except the two cent "worker.” This consists of a round table tax and was being colored in imitation in whose top there are grooves an inch of butter. deep. The table stands under a steel hop- In 1902 the dairy interests made such per. The grooves are filled with salt and a protest against the practice of coloring the oleomargarine is shoveled into the oleomargarine that Congress imposed the

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hopper. The table top is made to revolve ten cent additional tax on the product if under the hopper, the oleomargarine colored. Various states also passed laws drops through the hopper to the table, requiring that each package of oleomarwhere automatic workers roll it over and garine offered for sale be labeled with its over and thoroughly mix in the salt, at the right name. The result was that for the same time working out the buttermilk. year ending June 30, 1903, only 2,312,

From the worker the oleomargarine 493 pounds of colored oleomargarine and goes to the packing rooms, where it is 66,785,796 pounds of the uncolored, were packed into wooden tubs or pressed into manufactured, but on all this the makers cakes, wrapped in tissue paper and made paid taxes and still sold their product ready for shipment to market.

cheaper than butter. In the year ending When oleomargarine began to be June 30, 1906, the output was 2,503,095 manufactured on a large scale and pounds colored, and 50,536,466 pounds palmed off in the market as butter, the uncolored, showing considerable loss. It dairy interests made a loud complaint. is estimated, however, that the report for The result was that in 1886 oleomarga- the present year will show a tremendous rine was taxed two cents a pound. In that increase on account of the prevailing high year 21,000,000 pounds were manufac- price of butter.

The Men Who Will Dig the Ditch

By René Bache



TOP AID President Roosevelt, keep out the dreaded mosquitoes which

when visiting the Isthmus: are the carriers of malaria and yellow

“I used to say to my fever.
D) children, when they were Thus, by doing away with every

younger: 'There are three tainable source of mosquito, supply, the

kinds of mice—the house- strip over which Uncle Sam holds sway mouse, the mousekeeter, and the hippo- has been rendered as healthful as any potamouse. But,' I would add, 'the most part of the United States. All is ready dangerous is the mousekeeter'-a fact of now for the pushing ahead of the work. which I am seriously convinced after of actual construction, thirty-two milseeing what sort of houses you are build- lions of dollars having been already ing down here."

spent in preparations chiefly—including The President referred to a type of seven millions for sanitary and other inidwelling somewhat new in architecture, provements. which the government has introduced in It is estimated that the cost of the Canal Zone for the housing of clerks pleting the canal will. be about one hunand other employes of the better class. dred and eighteen million-making a It is entirely enclosed in fine wire net, to total of one hundred and fifty millions




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of dollars, without counting the forty Thus it was that, bids having been remillion paid to the French company for cently invited by the War Department, its rights, outfit, etc. At the War De- Mr. William J. Oliver made the lowest partment in Washington it is confidently offer, proposing to undertake the task stated that the ditch will be finished for six and three-fourths per cent—the within ten years at most, and quite pos- prospect that he would be the digger of sibly within eight years.

the interoceanic ditch causing him to leap The main trouble is to procure the in a day into something approaching right sort of labor; and this is one reason celebrity. The recent decision against why the idea of farming out the job to letting out the great work, however, and

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contractors has been so seriously enter the ensuing appointment of Lieut.-Col. tained. Contractors would furnish high- George W. Goethals to take charge of grade experts to superintend the dredg- the task, has altered the whole situation ing, the excavacing and the concrete and Col. Goethals is the man to whom work for the dams and locks; in addi- the country is now looking for the realition to which they would hire all the zation of the great plans laid. laborers required—the upshot of the ar- When the Panama steamship pulled rangement being that an immense out from the dock on the sixth day of amount of trouble would be taken from March quite a crowd of friends and offithe shoulders of the government, which cials assembled to wish the new chairwould merely pay all the wages and pro- man of the Panama Canal Commission vide the food and other supplies, as well good luck and a safe voyage. A number as materials for construction.

of enthusiastic people on the dock showUnder such an agreement the con- ered the decks with snowballs, and the tractors would receive their own remu- Colonel waved his hat and smiled beamneration in the shape of an agreed per- ingly upon the playful compliment, for it centage of the total cost of the work. was the last glimpse of snow that will greet his eyes for some time. Just be- you take these; I won't need them down fore the ship sailed the Colonel was there.” . called upon to pose before a crowd of The man who succeeds John F. Stesnap-shot artists. The sun beamed vens looked as if he meant it. It ran brightly upon the white decks and as the through the minds of those who saw the tall, commanding army officer stood for act that this brilliant army officer at that the ordeal a shadow fell across his face. moment and by that sign, divested him“Put your hat back on your forehead,” self of the gold braid and red tape of shouted a friend, laughingly, “it casts a officialdom. He is a tall, sturdy, muscushadow across your face." The Colonel lar looking man, with a ruddy comshook his head and smiled. "Well, there plexion, a small, round face of pugis no shadow across your reputation any- nacious caste and has a broad forehead way,” called out his friend.

set off by a crown of pure white. OtherColonel Goethal's departure was not wise his appearance is youthful, his smile characterized by the official distinction is pleasant, his lips are full, and he has that was. accorded previous Panama the appearance of the typical well poised Canal Chiefs. A number of Congress- army officer. His eyes alone are the dismen who are visiting the zone were tinguishing characteristic in his counteaboard, and the President's emissary, nance. They are large and flash with James Bucklin Bishop. When Colonel quick appreciation and perception. His Goethals got ready to board the ship he hands are large and strong and indicate found himself encumbered with his a practical nature. Col. Goethals gives sword and some other official regiment- the impression of strength and ability als. He impetuously threw them into above the average. the hands of Mr. Drake, the Superinten- Col. Goethals was pressed to give his dent of the Panama Steamship Company, opinion upon the situation at Panama and with a bland remark, “Here, Mr. Drake, a forecast of what his immediate duties

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