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work which, while being started at any printed at the bottom of this page. desired moment, cannot be arrested in the This ingenious outfit for transmitting same way as any one of the four effects mechanical effects to a distance can be referred to.
used for a multitude of purposes. By It may be said that the experimental providing 25 discs controlling as many difficulties are less in the case of these effects, the apparatus may thus be used telemechanical effects than in 'wireless to print the letters of the alphabet, and telegraphy. The operator is informed of so constitute a wireless telégraphic typethe results obtained by him by means of checking signals arranged on the distributing axle. The latter carries for this effect outside of the interrupting discs above mentioned, other discs serving the purpose of checking and each of these is provided with a tooth. Each effect has its special checking disc, closing, by means of a
Effects CONTROLLED FROM SENDING STATION. PISTOL FIRED AND tooth, the circuit of the induction coil of the self-acting telegraph and thus giving out writer. A steam engine or a railway a checking spark at each revolution as train may be started or stopped by its long as the corresponding effect is con- means, the lamp in a lighthouse lighted tinued. These checking sparks, pro- or put out, airships, as well as submaduced in the intervals between the other rines can be controlled without crew, torsparks, are recorded automatically on pedoes launched, mines exploded, etc. It the telegraph tape of the starting station. is moreover easy to eliminate the disThey are recognized by their lengthy turbing effects due to accidental sparks shape. Whenever the operator sees one of coming from other sources. While the these lengthy flashes in front of one of apparatus in question has not yet been the ordinary signalling dots, he will be used outside of the laboratory, Dr. sure that the effect in question has been Branly is actively engaged in developing obtained as desired, the checking dash it to the greatest possible perfection, and disappearing immediately after the dis- fitting it for commercial use. continuance of the effect. The aspect of The writer is indebted for the photothe telegraph tape, including the checking graphs above reproduced as well as for dashes in addition to the ordinary dots, the particulars relating to Dr. Branly's is seen in the lower part of figure 6, apparatus to the courtesy of the inventor.
Water-Wheel Saves Big Farm
By James Cooke Mills
willows. It was built up by an immense drainage system, which dredge, digging out its own channel, beeffectually and quickly ginning at the river, and throwing up the drains a 1,200-acre farm earth on the outside, so that in the one owned by the Oneida operation, the opening up of an enormous Farm Company,
ditch, thirty-four feet wide at the bottom, Saginaw, Michigan, has recently been and about sixteen feet deep, was also accompleted, so that there is not a square complished. Five smaller ditches run foot of land, formerly mere waste of straight across the farm, joining both marsh, which can not now be utilized. ends with the main ditch. The system consists of two principal At one corner of the farm, in a special factors, namely, a series of high and power house, is located the immense wide dikes with broad and deep ditches; water-wheel and the apparatus to operate and a monster water wheel, of which it. In some parts of the country, in the photographs are reproduced.
western states, crude water wheels, fitted The first factor, the dike, which en- with buckets, are used to irrigate waste tirely surrounds the farm, is seven miles barren lands adjacent to the streams. long and about twenty feet high, leveled Such wheels are operated by the force off at the top and set out with young of the current of the stream, and many
acres are reclaimed for cultivation. On gearing, as shown in the photograph. the Oneida farm the conditions are the It is evident that to operate this imexact opposite. Here it is a case of too mense wheel, lifting 2,000 barrels of much water. The surplus must be re- water per minute, requires considerable moved, the huge water wheel being the power which must be positive and relia
ble. The apparatus used is very simple but strong, and, when operated at its greatest capacity, the wheel will take a foot of water off an acre of land in six minutes. Operated every day under the conditions here existing, the great wheel could drain at all seasons of the year, a tract of 10,000 acres.
The propelling force consists of a steam engine of the ordinary slide-valve type, developing 120 horse power, and a countershaft. This countershaft runs
across the outside rim of the big wheel, METHOD OF BOLTING WOODEN PADDLES TO THE STEEL
on a horizontal line with its axis, and carries two twelve-inch spur-gears, with
five-inch face, which engage the gearing all-important factor in lifting the water on the wheel rims. On the other end of from the main ditch to the river beyond. the twelve-foot shaft is a broad thirtyIt is of much interest on account of its novelty and great capacity, and also in being the only wheel so used in this country. The success of the system is evident from its having drained the seven miles of thirty-four-foot ditch of five to six feet of water in a little more than ten hours.
At the corner, the two branches of the main ditch lead into a concrete sluiceway, four feet wide, sixteen feet deep, and thirty feet long, which is cut directly through the dike. In this flume the immense wheel is set on an axis, and placed so snugly that the edge of its wood paddles are but a quarter inch from the concrete walls of the sluice. The wheel, made entirely of steel, is twenty-eight feet in diameter and four feet wide, and is supported on a six-inch shaft, which PADDLE-BLADES THE GREAT WATER WHEEL. holds it in the sluiceway so that the bot-tom very nearly touches the ends of the six-inch pulley, carrying a belt direct paddles. There are sixteen of these pad- from the large pulley on the engine shaft. dles, which are not set parallel to the Steam is supplied by two small tubular spokes of the wheel, but at a decided an- boilers. gle, to permit the water as it reaches the During the summer and early fall, the top of the six-foot lift, to flow off more wheel is operated only one day in about readily. Around the outside of both rims twenty, as this is sufficient to keep the of the wheel are bolted heavy continuous main ditch free of surplus water.
The Blood-Price of Progress
By George Ethelbert Walsh
MERICA'S tremen- minimum of danger in earning a liveli-
we pay for our material progress is some000 human beings times appalling. When the death-rate killed and crippled. reaches startling figures, a reaction folMore men than were lows, and the demand for preventive killed and wounded measures grows persistent. But the anduring the civil war nual toll in life in small ways goes on
lose their lives yearly heedlessly. Inventions and safeguards in the great industries of peace. Today
Today are niade in some part of the world to there are half a million people alive and correct a destructive evil, but for lack of in good health, whose death-warrants detail and knowledge their use is often have already been signed by their indus- merely local. There is no law to entrial masters. They have been sentenced force their adoption, and the sacrifice of to death or to mutilation because human human victims to greed and ignorance life is the cheapest kind of raw material. continues. It is impossible to escape the charge that Of the thousands of inventions and dewe fail to encourage protective measures vices made in this country to safeguard which will insure to the individual the workmen in the different industries prob
MINERS USING OXYGEN INHALING APPARATUS IN A POISONED ATMOSPHERE.
ably not more than a hundred are of gen- to warn operators of danger. Every eral public knowledge, and probably not part of the machinery in motion that is more than half as many more are in not protected by outside casing has red general use among the employees of the paint freely daubed over it. The eye is large operating companies. The lack of instantly attracted by the color. . uniformity of safety appliances, and ig- Simple hoods and screens protect dannorance concerning them nullify the best gerous parts of machines from careless efforts of inventive geniuses and con- workmen. The buzz saws are sheathed tinue the high death rate among workmen in many lines of industrial life. The prejudice, born of ignorance, manifested among many classes of employees, which refuses to accept innovations intended to eliminate danger, is a real factor in the present movement to safeguard life that cannot be ignored.
In the opening of the Museums of Security at Amsterdam and Milan, the hope of educating workmen to a higher appreciation of the value of scientific safeguards was kept in view fully as much as the encouragement of employers of labor to adopt the latest devices for protecting their workmen. The arrangement of the exhibits with this view in mind has been pre-eminently successful. It is not uncommon to see hundreds of employees with their families studying with enthusiasm the various devices invented for their special protection.
The modern Museum of Security deals with present, vital questions of the day. Its very life-like exhibits appeal to the man of action and progress. The safety devices are in actual operation so far as it is possible, and the eye and judgment
GEARS AND BELTS SAFEGUARDED. are appealed to by concrete illustrations. The roar of machinery greets the ear of by hoods, which, while not interfering the visitor everywhere. The eye is cap- with the operators or their work, effecttivated by queer screens, life-like wax ually protect them from danger. In fact, figures flashing danger signals, helmeted every imaginable machine that threatens and goggled effigies, and miniature to kill or maim careless workmen has its mines, shops, factories, and mills. Here special safeguard. Some of the most are collected the hundred or more suc- modern machines offer points of weakcessful inventions for protecting life and ness for which no solution has yet been limb in all the various industries of the discovered, and liberal rewards are ofworld, for all the world has contributed fered for inventions which will cover to the collection of safety devices, and such cases. The modern open-type dythe genius of no one nation is here ex- namos and generators are opposed on the clusively exhibited. It is a clearing house ground that they threaten the life of for all the ideas which strive to eliminate some ignorant or careless engineer or danger from industrial occupations. assistant.
Visiting superintendents of large Numerous strange devices are worn plants can witness the working advan- by the effigies to protect the nose, throat tages of model establishments. In the en- and lungs from inhaling foul and dangine room, the whirring fly-wheels, shafts
gerous fumes and gases. The stone cutand piston-rods are painted in vivid red ters and lathe workers are protected by.
COURTESY AMER. INST. OF Soc. SERVICE