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steel hardening metals are comparatively ing processes involving the machining of rare, and are correspondingly costly, the metal parts, the actual time required for price at present ranging from about cutting is but a part, sometimes relatively forty cents to six or seven dollars per insignificant, of the whole time necessary. pound. Not only this, but special So that the new tools when put to allprocesses are used in the manufacture of round work do not effect economies sucii the steel to secure perfect homogeneity as would be possible were most of the and uniformity. While, therefore, ordi- operating time devoted to cutting. nary carbon tool steel can be had for Nevertheless it is a rather rare case something like two cents per pound, where the cost of production could not high-speed steel sells for sixty-five to be cheapened in the tool maintenance acseventy-five. Even at this price, how- count, even if not in the actual time and ever, considering what it does, and the labor saving. savings it is capable of effecting in many T he new high-speed steels are indeed a kinds of cutting jobs, it is by far the marvel; but they are as yet only in the cheaper in the end. In a certain case infancy of their development and useful(extreme, of course) it has been found ness. Only a bare six years old, they that a small high-speed tool costing about are, but they have already had a marked eight cents has made it possible to dis- influence upon productive industry, and pense with the labor of one of three men nothing is at present more evident in the employed on a job, and thus to effect a metal working trades at least than that saving of the man's .wages in connection an actual revolution is in process—not so with the manufacture of that particular rapid indeed, relatively, as the performpiece. If such a saving were possible in ances of the steels themselves, but neverall cases, the industrial revolution cer- theless in a way still comparable to ittainly would be not only at hand, but and in a fair way to be accomplished very quickly accomplished. As a matter within a very few years. In fact, every of fact, however, in most manufactur- day is seeing a new stride toward it.

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. Government Ownership in

Canada
By Herbert Vanderhoof

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IMMUNICIPAL ownership is bore fruit. In the wake of these
A not a campaign cry in West- cities came Calgary, Prince Albert, Ed-

Pern Canada. It is a condi monton, Moose Jaw and Medicine Hat. aktion that excites no com- And the first failure is yet to be recorded.

ment. It had no spellbind Here they begin at the beginning; they ers to blaze its way. It is coeval with the construct while cities of the United cities wherein it exists, and that is to States are reconstructing. say in almost every town from Port W ith the opening up of the vast areas Arthur on Lake Superior to Calgary in -the foothills of the Rockies, and Edmonton at the northern outpost of steam railway transportation.

While older communities spend idle hours wondering if it is possible for municipalities to own their public utilities, the cities of Western Canada step boldly in. Forty years of national obscurity gave Canada good preparation for future performance. The government machinery, municipal, provincial and national had been well tested before it felt the strain of a rapidly increasing population. · Therefore, it was not hampered by Old-World traditions or handicapped by New-World inexperience. Fort William attempted municipal paternalism, and the attempt was successful. . Port Arthur was not to be outdone, and her efforts, too, Power DAM AT CURRANT River FallS OWNED BY THE Town of Port ARTHUR.

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of cheap land in Western Canada there cient men—the Royal Northwest Mountoccurred a tremendous migration of ed Police-keep a tract of land larger homesteaders. As the hitherto unknown, than Europe in as peaceful, law abiding a or at least unappreciated, possibilities of condition as one would today find in a the new country were realized, the small quiet little Ohio village. stream of immigrants became a flood. As a striking result cities springing But they were not drawn into the nortlı- full grown in a season on the rich plains west by gold, as were the forty-niners of swing into the advanced line of municiCalifornia, but by wheat. It will be in- pal government with municipally owned teresting to compare the development of street car lines, water works, telephone the west and the northwest, and to see systems and electric lighting plants. whether or not history will repeat itself Single tax is being tried, and with sucin the way in which the two localities cess, in more than one community. To have handled the problems incident to an observer fresh from the decade-old their growth.

wrangles in cities of the states over the The picturesque features of the Wild untried problem of city ownership, the West, the wide open frontier towns, the way in which the Canadian towns rush gambling resorts and the shooting into things is amazing. These people scrapes, which Bret Harte has handed actually seem not to care to raise political down and preserved in American litera- issues. They carelessly begin underture, are lacking in the northwest. Un- takings in a day that would furnish maquestionably the fact that a different class terial for a hundred campaigns and of men are drawn into gold camps, is secure untold numbers of fat offices in largely responsible for this. Another rea- American cities. son is that a body of eiglit hundred effi- These new ideas are being made ap

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plicable, in a sense, to the larger govern- makers, and gives their services gratis ments also. While the Dominion govern- to the creameries. It sees that there is a ment is helping to build railways, the sufficient supply of pure water and suitprovinces are churning the butter for the able drainage. The government stamp, farmer and marketing his eggs for him. which is a guarantee of purity and saniEighteen creameries operated by the tation, goes on every pound of butter Alberta provincial government, in one manufactured. year manufactured one and one-half The operation of the provincial creammillion pounds of butter and marketed eries has been remarkably successful, beit at twenty cents a pound. There are cause of the quality of the butter offered as many creameries operated as private for sale. Better prices are received for enterprises as there are government it and a surer market provided than creameries, but their total product is not would be possible through individual enso large.

terprise. It is the belief of the dairy The provincial government establishes commissioners that as great or greater refrigerators or warehouses for storing progress will be made in the building of the butter, and holds it under insurance creameries during the next few years without expense to the farmer until there than has been made during the last five is a market demand. The chief ware- years, when the number has trebled. One house is in Calgary, but there are of the great advantages to the farmers is branches in other towns. The provincial in the educational features of the govgovernment superintends the work; sees ernment plan. that the buildings are properly con- The popular demand for municipal structed, and supplies the administration ownership of public utilities is universal for the enterprise. It educates butter- through the new northwest. As these towns' grow and face the conditions of dentally he will explain that Fort Wilthe future, the attention of the world liam is helping to pay the taxes due on will be upon them.

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.. . Port Arthur real estate. When a Fort Fort William and Port Arthur are ad- William citizen pays five cents to the joining cities. In fact the two are prac- street car conductor he contributes a mite tically one. In this double city. the peo- to every individual taxpayer in the rival ple operate and own the water, electric town. light, telephone and street car systems. Although the street railroad charges a Port Arthur has owned its street car five-cent fare, the telephone service is system for fourteen years and during the much less than the old rates charged by last few years has paid all operating ex- a private company. The old company penses, one-half the city taxes, and has used to charge thirty-six dollars a year laid away a certain amount for a sinking for a business telephone, unlimited serfund, all of which the profit arising from vice, which is now supplied for twentythe street car system has enabled them four dollars, and a residence telephone. to do.

costs only twelve dollars a year. Meanwhile, their citizens use their Port Arthur is the only town on the present energies in a healthy rivalry and American continent which owns and in devotion to their municipal ownership operates all of its utilities. The most experiment. Every stranger who comes conspicuous citizen of the town is a into Port Arthur has to make acquaint- member of the railway and light commisance with the town's manner and method sion. The membership of the commisof doing business before anything else sion is restricted to three, and one is is done. If he comes to talk about wheat elected each year. It is a greater honor he must hear first how the city telephones to be a member of the commission than are run. Every citizen of Port Arthur it is to be mayor or alderman. The citicarries about with him the last quarterly zen who has been honored by his mu- . statement of the railway and light com- nicipality as a member of the board must mission. He knows how much profit serve without pay. He is not allowed to there was in the operation of the water- issue a pass for a ride on any of the lines, works and the telephone system. Inci- not even to a member of his own family.

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