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branches, at the beginning and the trustees decided to include only the following in the curriculum:
Carpentry; bricklaying, including range, furnace- and boiler-setting; the machine trade in all its usual details; pattern-making; steam and electrical engineering, steam-fitting, etc. All boys admitted are apprenticed to the trustees for the term of three years. Only natives of the United States are eligible for admission and, other things being equal, preference is given in the following order:
To those born in the city of Philadelphia; to those born in Bucks County, Pennsylvania: to those born in Montgomery and Delaware counties, Pennsylvania; to those born elsewhere in Pennsylvania ; to those born in New Jersey; to those born elsewhere in the United States. The school is intended only for those who intend to follow for a livelihood the trades there taught them. Scholars are required to bring with them a plain outfit of clothing, but while at the school no charge is made for boarding, clothing or instruction, the benefits of the institution being free. The total par value of the securities left by the founder of the school amounted at the time the foundation deed was prepared to $1,596,000, so that the school is amply endowed.
The most picturesque work done by the classes at this school is that seen in the bricklaying departments. One of' the photographs accompanying this article shows the boys building a structure on the grounds of the school. The advanced class constructs a complete building thus, and if it is not done to the satisfaction of the expert eye the boys tear it down and build again. Many of the additions to the original school buildings have been made by the scholars under the direction of the teachers.
In the same way a practical training is given in carpentry, machine work, pattern-making and steam and electrical engineering^ The boys are shown how to do the work and are then left to do it. It may readily be believed that after three years of this new kind of apprenticeship the graduate from the Williamson school is able to hold his own with the best of the mechanics who occupy the front rank of the trades in this country and who learned their trade in the schools of the older countries.
The school is non-sectarian, but each pupil, immediately after admission, is required to designate the religious denomination of his choice and thereafter is required to attend services regularly at hi? place of worship in the neighborhood
Sj^SgKgPONVULSIONS of nature / ^m^^kti a,u' tne devastation of I f^l^*??^ ProPerty to a tremendous V \$p~^JJ extent, together with apJ^Vxs^jp^ palling losses of human
*-M-J>s life, marked the year 1906.
The stories of volcanic activity and of earth-shock on two continents have brought to the public mind with startling emphasis the perils of the subterranean forces of nature. During the same period, also, the devastations from greatly disturbed atmospheric conditions, have supplied details quite as impressive.
Destructive storms, with high wind velocities, are of two forms: hurricanes or
typhoons, which are of tropic origin, and tornadoes—popularly referred to in the West as cyclones—which arc very differerent. Both are cyclonic, that is to say they result from greatly disturbed atmospheric conditions with areas of low barometric pressure, about which the air moves in an inward direction spirally. The term hurricane is applied to a tropic storm of this nature on the Western Hemisphere, while in Eastern countries such storms are called typhoons. And because these storms occur where there are large bodies of water, such as the China Sea and the Caribbean Sea, they are usually accompanied by high seas or
nadoes occur during the spring and summer months—occasionally in the winter in the South—and while they are usually limited as to duration and the extent of country traversed, they are more numerous, and more destructive than tropical hurricanes, and therefore are more to he dreaded. A hurricane, on the other hand, may be of such vast proportions that the area of low barometer will vanin diameter from a hundred to several hundred miles in extent—or even a thousand miles—and it may traverse the continent from the Caribbean Sea to Nova Scotia.
There is something grandly terrible in the aspect of nature at the approach of one of these death-dealing storms, for they usually give their warnings several days in advance. First a long swell on the ocean is noticeable, for the wave force is transmitted to a great distance. There is a faint rise in the barometer preceding the gradual fall. Even the sky changes its appearance and wisps of cirrus clouds are observed ; the air is hot and sultry, but in time a gentle breeze begins, which steadily increases until it reaches gale force. But the hurricane has not arrived. The clouds now become matted, the sea black and rough, the rain begins to fall and the winds become gusty : when the vortex of the storm is almost at hand the tempest breaks in indescribable fury, dark
ness comes on, the rain descends in blinding torrents, and vivid flashes of lightning add to the terror of the scene. Then the air suddenly grows cooler, and in the midst of the awful din and uproar, as the forces of nature battle with each other, there is a sudden pause: the sky clears and the winds almost cease. The vortex is upon us—it is "the eye of the storm," for the barometric pressure is at its lowest. The brief respite is portentous, aw ful; there is a strange light in the sky and the ocean surges in mountain swells; then, as the vortex moves forward in its path, the destructive forces renew their violence,, but with the wind in the opposite direction. The carnival of death may continue an hour—a night—but the storm center has passed, and the morning sun rises upon a scene of ruin and devastation.
As there are localities where earthquakes are prevalent, so there are regions where tropical hurricanes are of periodic occurrence, though the larger part of the earth's surface is free' from their unwelcome visitations. They have been of
gulfs with numerous islands in the vast sea to the eastward. In the opinion of Father V ines, the distinguished meteorologist of Havana, who has comprehensively studied cyclonic movements in the West Indies for many years, of all cyclonic regions within the intertropical zone, the Great Bay of North America, with the wide Atlantic Ocean extending to the east as far as the coast of Africa, and northwesterly to Europe a'nd the northern seas, more perfectly and grandly combines all requisite conditions for such storms. In his opinion there is not another region on the face of the globe where cyclones are met with.which offers more favorable conditions for their development.
Hurricanes are formed in the southern portion of this Great Bay of North America, that is to say, in the Caribbean Sea, and in that portion of the Atlantic extending east of the West Indies, the precise locality of formation being influenced by the position occupied by the equatorial zone of calms, by the Atlantic area of high barometric pressure—to which the term "anticyclone" is applied —and by the southern limit of the trade winds, respectively. The point of origin and formation of the storm depends therefore upon the more or less advanced season of the year.
According to the conventional theory of the origin and formation of tropical cyclones, as recently explained in a paper on the subject by Prof. Bigelow of the Weather Bureau, these storms are more likely to occur at the season of the year when the cooling of the Northern Hemisphere takes place. At this season the belt or zone of calm in the tropics
and the heated, moist condition of the air in the region known as the "doldrums" is at its farthest northern limit. The South Atlantic permanent anticyclone, which lies over the subtropical ocean is in its fullest vigor. Superposed upon these states of the lower atmosphere, the colder temperatures of the upper atmosphere, caused by the approaching autumn, on account of the more rapid circulation higher up, overspread the tropic strata near the surface. As the polar air cools first, it flows gradually above the warmer air at the south of it near the ground, and covers it with a circulating sheet of temperature cool or low for the time of year. The effect is to make the atmosphere unstable, that is to say. too warm at the
Wrecked Church Building At Coden. Ala., Where The Storm Was Of Greatest Severity.
bottom, compared with that above it, to maintain the usual equilibrium. The tendency, is therefore, for the lower air to rise by convection in order that the normal equilibrium may be restored.
The whirling .motion of the winds in a cyclonic storm is due to the force of gravity, and the deflective force occasioned by the rotation of the earth. As the upward pressure upon the vortex of the storm or center of lowest barometric pressure, is greater at the center, the air is pushed inwards toward the region of lowest pressure, and the air