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CLASS IN BRICKLAYING BUILDING A STABLE, WITH CARPENTER CLASS LAYING TRUSSES.
branches, at the beginning and the trus- The most picturesque work done by tees decided to include only the following the classes at this school is that seen in in the curriculum:
the bricklaying departments. One of the Carpentry; bricklaying, including photographs accompanying this article range, furnace- and boiler-setting; the shows the boys building a structure on machine trade in all its usual details; the grounds of the school. The advanced pattern-making; steam and electrical en- class constructs a complete building thus, gineering, steam-fitting, etc. All boys ad- and if it is not done to the satisfaction of mitted are apprenticed to the trustees for the expert eye the boys tear it down and the term of three years. Only natives build again. Many of the additions to of the United States are eligible for ad- the original school buildings have been mission and, other things being equal, made by the scholars under the direction preference is given in the following of the teachers. order:
In the same way a practical training To those born in the city of Philadel- is given in carpentry, machine work, phia; to those born in Bucks County, pattern-making and steam and electrical Pennsylvania ; to those born in Mont- engineering. The boys are shown how gomery and Delaware counties, Penn- to do the work and are then left to do it. sylvania; to those born elsewhere in It may readily be believed that after three Pennsylvania ; to those born in New Jer- years of this new kind of apprenticeship sey; to those born elsewhere in the
the graduate from the Williamson school United States. The school is intended
is able to hold his own with the best of only for those who intend to follow for
the mechanics who occupy the front rank a livelihood the trades there taught them.
of the trades in this country and who Scholars are required to bring with them a plain outfit of clothing, but while at the
learned their trade in the schools of the
older countries. school no charge is made for boarding, clothing or instruction, the benefits of the
The school is non-sectarian, but each institution being free. The total par pupil, immediately after admission, is revalue of the securities left by the founder quired to designate the religious denomiof the school amounted at the time the nation of his choice and thereafter is refoundation deed was prepared to $1,596,- quired to attend services regularly at his 000, so that the school is amply endowed. place of worship in the neighborhood
In the Track of the Hurricane
By Charles Richards Dodge
ONVULSIONS of nature typhoons, which are of tropic origin, and and the devastation tornadoes—popularly referred to in the property to a tremendous West as cyclones—which are very differextent, together with ap- erent. Both are cyclonic, that is to say palling losses of human they result from greatly.disturbed atmos
life, marked the year 1906. pheric conditions with areas of low The stories of volcanic activity and of barometric pressure, about which the air earth-shock on two continents have moves in an inward direction spirally. brought to the public mind with start- The term hurricane is applied to a tropic ling emphasis the perils of the subter- storm of this nature on the Western ranean forces of nature. During the Hemisphere, while in Eastern countries same period, also, the devastations from such storms are called typhoons. And greatly disturbed atmospheric conditions, because these storms occur where there have supplied details quite as impressive. are large bodies of water, such as the
Destructive storms, with high wind ve- China Sea and the Caribbean Sea, they locities, are of two forms: hurricanes or are usually accompanied by high seas or
tidal waves. The tornado which is of ness comes on, the rain descends in blindcommon occurrence in regions east of the ing torrents, and vivid flashes of lightRocky Mountains and sometimes in the ning add to the terror of the scene. Then Southern States, is a small cyclonic the air suddenly grows cooler, and in the storm—that is, a storm with a very lim- midst of the awful din and uproar, as the ited area of low pressure, but of extra- forces of nature battle with each other, ordinary violence and intensity. Tor- there is a sudden pause : the sky clears
and the winds almost cease. The vortex is upon us—it is “the eye of the storm," for the barometric pressure is at its lowest. The brief respite is portentous, awful; there is a strange light in the sky and the ocean surges in mountain swells; then, as the vortex moves forward in its path, the destructive forces renew their violence, but with the wind in the opposite direction. The carnival of death may continue an hour-a night—but the storm center has passed, and the morning
sun rises upon a scene of ruin and deSteamer Mary, one of the Large Boats TOSSED OUT
vastation. OF THE WATER AT MOBILE.
As there are localities where earth
quakes are prevalent, so there are regions nadoes occur during the spring and sum- where tropical hurricanes are of periodic mer months—occasionally in the winter occurrence, though the larger part of the in the South—and while they are usually earth's surface is free from their unlimited as to duration and the extent of welcome visitations. They have been of country traversed, they are more numerous, and more destructive than tropical hurricanes, and therefore are more to be dreaded. A hurricane, on the other hand, may be of such vast proportions that the area of low barometer will vary in diameter from a hundred to several hundred miles in extent-or even a thousand miles—and it may traverse the continent from the Caribbean Sea to Nova Scotia.
There is something grandly terrible in the aspect of nature at the approach of one of these death-dealing storms, for they usually give their warnings several days in advance. First a long swell on the ocean is noticeable, for the wave force
OUT OF COMMISSION. is transmitted to a great distance. There L'. S. Revenue Cutter Alert swept up on dry land is a faint rise in the barometer preceding
and wrecked, at Mobile. the gradual fall. Even the sky changes its appearance and wisps of cirrus clouds are frequent occurrence in the West Indies, observed ; the air is hot and sultry, but in and they are prevalent in the East Intime a gentle breeze begins, which stead- dies, the Indian Ocean, the China Seas ily increases until it reaches gale force. and in the Philippines. But the hurricane has not arrived. The A study of the regions of occurrence clouds now become matted, the sea black show more or less of a similarity in their and rough, the rain begins to fall and geographic features. To the westward the winds become gusty ; when the vortex in each locality extends a large continent, of the storm is almost at hand the tem- following very nearly a northerly and pest breaks in indescribable fury, dark- southerly direction, indented by bavs and
gulfs with numerous islands in the vast and the heated, moist condition of the air sea to the eastward. In the opinion of in the region known as the “doldrums' Father Viñes, the distinguished meteor- is at its farthest northern limit. The ologist of Havana, who has compre- South Atlantic permanent anticyclone, hensively studied cyclonic movements in which lies over the subtropical ocean is the West Indies for many years, of all in its fullest vigor. Superposed upon cyclonic regions within the intertropical these states of the lower atmosphere, the zone, the Great Bay of North America, colder temperatures of the upper atmoswith the wide Atlantic Ocean extending phere, caused by the approaching autumn, to the east as far as the coast of Africa, on account of the more rapid circulation and northwesterly to Europe and the higher up, overspread the tropic strata northern seas, more perfectly and grandly near the surface. As the polar air cools combines all requisite conditions for such first, it flows gradually above the warmer storms. In his opinion there is not an- air at the south of it near the ground, and other region on the face of the globe covers it with a circulating sheet of temwhere cyclones are met with, which offers perature cool or low for the time of year. more favorable conditions for their de- The effect is to make the atmosphere unvelopment.
stable, that is to say, too warm at the Hurricanes are formed in the southern portion of this Great Bay of North America, that is to say, in the Caribbean Sea, and in that portion of the Atlantic extending east of the West Indies, the precise locality of formation being influenced by the position occupied by the equatorial zone of calms, by the Atlantic area of high barometric pressure—to which the term "anticyclone" is applied -and by the southern limit of the trade winds, respectively. The point of origin and formation of the storm depends therefore upon the more or less advanced season of the year. According to the conventional the
WRECKED CHURCH BUILDING AT CODEN, ALA., ory of the origin and formation of tropical cyclones, as recently explained in a paper on the subject by Prof. Bigelow of the Weather Bureau, these storms are bottom, compared with that above it, to more likely to occur at the season of the maintain the usual equilibrium. The tenyear when the cooling of the Northern dency, is therefore, for the lower air to Hemisphere takes place. At this season rise by convection in order that the northe belt or zone of calm in the tropics mal equilibrium may be restored.
The whirling.motion of the winds in a cyclonic storm is due to the force of gravity, and the deflective force OCcasioned by the rotation of the earth. As the upward pressure upon the vortex of the storm or center of lowest barometric pressure, is greater at the center, the air is pushed inwards to
ward the region of lowCOMPLETE WRECK OF A BUILDING NEAR THE BEACH AT PENSACOLA. est pressure, and the air
WHERE THE STORM WAS OF GREATEST