« PreviousContinue »
particles follow a spiral path. The veloc- It has been shown, through the obserity and destructive energy is greatly aug- vations of the U. S. Weather Bureau, mented as the center is approached. that a hurricane is commonly more vio
The direction of the wind movement lent in the region where it recurves. does not follow the direction of the path. When held back, or obstructed by an area of the cyclone, this path, or track, being of high barometric pressure, the storm indicated only by the changes in atmos- acquires a greater intensity before dissipheric pressure, as the vortex, or point pating, or assuming an abnormal course. of lowest pressure moves onward in its course. The movement of the “storm center," or lowest pressure, may be so gradual that one of these storms will require a week or more to move from the point where first observed to the point of disappearance.
The wind vane at a fixed point veers continually as the vortex or center of the storm moves forward, and the wind may at one stage blow almost in an opposite direction from the course of the storm, wind direction changing according to fixed laws as the vortex moves farther away. In illustration, it may be said that in the westward course of a cyclone, the wind at the commencement will blow from a northern quarter, and during the latter part of the gale from a southern quarter. The direction of wind change always corresponds to the changes in the direction or course of the cyclone. The direction of rotation in a hurricane is always from left to right in the Northern IN THE SECTION OF MOBILE WHERE THE GREATEST
DAMAGE WAS DONE, LARGE Boats WERE LIFTED Hemisphere.
The wind at the time of greatest violence in a hurricane may acquire a rate The storm which .clevastated Indianola, of 70, 80 or even, in extreme cases, 100 Texas, in August, 1886, was a storm of miles an hour velocity, and the poten- this description. It was unable to recurve tial energy displayed under cyclonic con- owing to the high barometric pressure to ditions may reach hundreds of millions the northward. Forced westward, inof horsepower.
tense energy was developed at Indianola, The courses, or paths of many of the after which the storm lost itself on the more destructive hurricanes which pass Eastern Slope of the Rocky Mountains. through the Eastern United States de- The recurve, therefore, is dependent scribe a section of an ellipse, though there upon general meteorological conditions, are marked exceptions. The path of a particularly upon the distribution of athurricane may be considered as made up mospheric pressure. As the path of the of three sections, the first branch, the hurricane soon carries it beyond the recurve, and the second branch. As an tropics, and into temperate regions, it asillustration, one of these storms may, sumes more and more the characteristics after formation, start in a northwesterly of a cyclone, spreading over a larger area direction with little change while in the and finally losing its energy. region of tropic heat and moisture, but In some instances, the course of a storm when it strikes a cooler region, it will as- has been marked by loss of energy, after sume a northerly direction, and recurv- doing great damage in a certain locality, ing, in the temperate zone, pass north- its violence being renewed again, after easterly and disappear in the region of a lull, at a point far remote. The hurriNew England or Nova Scotia.
cane of September 26, 1906, was such a storm. It exerted its greatest violence in $3,000,000. Much damage was done to Georgia and Florida, but a second period the railroads, 30 miles of road-bed having of violence occurred in Virginia and the been washed away in one section of the District of Columbia, and after a second Louisville & Nashville R. R. Forty-four lull it again renewed its activity in New · light houses were swept into the sea or York State. During the two days in wrecked, and four keepers drowned. For which this storm passed over nine states, the illustrations of the effects of this hurit destroyed 114 lives and seven million ricane, I am indebted to Weather Bureau dollars' worth of property. In severity officials of Mobile and Pensacola, through it was one of the worst storms of mod- the courtesy of Prof. Henry. ern times.
Through the efforts of Prof. Moore, This destructive hurricane originated Chief of the U. S. Weather Bureau, at in the Caribbean Sea, and moved north- the time of the Spanish war, in 1898, west through the Yucatan Channel and twenty West Indian weather stations across the gulf in a north-easterly direc- were established, and they have been tion, striking the United States coast a continued. These stations, in co-operlittle west of Mobile, Sept. 26 (1906), ation with other West Indian observers, where it developed greatest energy.
It are able to forecast accurately the apthen moved northwest into the upper proach of a storm several days before its eastern corner of Arkansas, thence to
appearance on our coast, and the Bureau Eastern Missouri, where it subsided.
is enabled to send out its warning bulPensacola was caught by its eastern edge, letins. The forecast of the recent Moand not a house escaped damage, Fort bile hurricane was given out at least 48. Pickens being partially destroyed. The hours before the storm appeared, and property losses in Louisiana, Alabama proved to be accurate in every particular. and Florida are partially estimated at Thus greater disasters are avoided.
ZUST peas! Think of it- the growing vines are cultivated like so
three thousand acres of much corn, the cultivator running bethem, requiring an army tween the double rows in the space which to cultivate them, another was left for this purpose at planting time. army to harvest them, When the harvesting comes at last a
and sending out the prod- most interesting sight is presented. The uct to thousands of people all over the wagons for the gathering of the crops beworld! Truly an agricultural novelty, is gin their journeys to and from the fields. this, at Longmont, Colorado, where de- It is not unusual for two hundred wagons mand and opportunity have joined hands a day to bring their loads first to the to create the world's greatest bed of this scales outside the cannery and then to useful little vegetable. And the handling deliver them into the mouths of threshof this crop illustrates a new movement ers. Instead of cutting the vines above toward specialization in farming. the ground as grain is cut, the harvest
The system is complete. At a central ing machinery severs them just Leneath point in this vast pea-garden is an im- the surface of the soil. The weight of mense cannery, the capacity of which is one such load as is shown in the photosixteen thousand cans per hour. Every graphs is about two and a half tons. pea in the big bed is within a radius of The next operation after unloading is four miles of this cannery. Peas may be one of separating the peas from the growing on the vines in the center of a vines. As high as twenty loads an hour four hundred acre division of the three are fed into the threshers, ingenious inthousand acre bed and thirty minutes ventions which break open the pods and later be undergoing the first processes of loosen the peas as nicely as the housebeing made edible at the cannery.
wife would prepare them for a noonday The peas in this garden are sown with meal. An equally interesting feature of drills. A space nearly two feet in width this invention provides for the yielding is left between each double row. When of the tender peas under this process first the sprouts begin to make their appear- and the fully developed ones later. ance, the ground is harrowed and, by threshing device proper consists of a repeating the operation several times, large cylinder, which is filled with perweeds are kept removed. A little later, forations. Inside the large cylinder is
water, and afterwards into one which revolves in cold water. Mechanical graders separate the peas into five distinct sizes. Subsequently they are carried upon a broad belt between two rows of girls, who watch them closely as they pass and pick out any split, yellow, or hard peas.
In canning, the cans are automatically delivered to the filling machines where each one puts itself nicely, in position beneath the hopper.
The filling ma
chines measure and deMECHANICAL GRADERS THAT SORT THE PEAS ACCORDING TO THEIR
liver RESPECTIVE SIZES.
the right just
amount into each one. another cylinder of much smaller dimen- As the can passes on, a girl puts the lid sions. To the inner cylinder rubber cov- in place. The soldering is done by an ered paddles are stoutly attached. As automatic invention which first arranges the vines are fed into the larger cylinder the can in position, next applies the solder they are both slapped by the paddles and and then the soldering iron. Steel baskets drawn through fingers, the fingers being next transport the cans with their conattached to the outer cylinder. The peas' tents to iron retorts. Several hundred drop out of the cylinder through the per- cans are placed in each retort and the forations heretofore referred to.
lid of the retort bolted down. Steam From the threshers the peas are next
is driven into the retorts and the peas are automatically carried to a tank of run- allowed to cook for at least fifteen minning water. The whole peas sink to the utes. They are then ready for labeling bottom of this tank and the broken ones and shipping come to the top, where they are easily Meantime, the vines and pods, from skimmed off. The next destination of which the threshers have separated the the peas is the pneumatic cleaning ma- peas, are conveyed to stacks like so much chine. A little later, their weight is au- hay and, as a bi-product of the industry, tomatically recorded, they go into a per- have been found to make excellent enforated cylinder revolving in boiling silage. This ensilage is shipped in train loads to the surrounding towns and width and thence in laterals to the cities.
head of the rows in the highest parts of The vast acreage of peas at Longmont the field.
the field. Furrows, made between the is watered by irrigation ditches. The double rows of growing vines, conduct water from a mountain stream is con- the water to all parts of the bed so that ducted into a ditch some forty feet in each vine is provided with moisture.
New Search for Unknown Lands
By J. Mayne Baltimore
NE of the most important that the Duchess of Bedford bears the expeditions in the hyper- greater part of the expenses, and for borean regions-away up that reason the vessel that bears the adinto the Polar Sea—is now venturous party of explorers into the ununder way. This expedi- known Arctic regions, was named in
tion is under the personal honor of the English noble lady. command of Captain Ejnar Mikkelsen, The primary object of the expedition formerly connected with the Danisin is to seek a large stretch of undiscovered Navy.
land believed to exist in the Beaufort Recently the expedition sailed from Sea, northwest of the Alaskan Coast, and Victoria, British Columbia, in the little incidentally to conduct geological, geovessel, Duchess of Bedford. This craft graphical, ethnological and other scienhad been used in the general fishing tific works. business in Alaskan 'waters under an- Capt. Mikkelsen is a Danish navigator other name.
But the vessel was pur- of some fame, who has made two prechased and rechris
vious polar expetened The Duch
ditions. Mr. Erness of Bedford,
est De Koven Lefand thoroughly
fingwell, a Chicago overhauled and re
geologist, who was fitted with special
also in company of reference to her
Capt. Mikkelsen. long cruise in polar
when a member of waters.
the Baldwin expeThis important
dition, is a memexpedition is
ber of the present known as the “An
expedition. glo-American Arc
The party liketic Exploration,"
wise includes Ejand is under the
nar Ditlevsen, an general auspices of
artist; Zoologist both the English
George Howe, of and American
Harvard, and Geographical So
seven members of cieties, each shar
the navigating ing a part of the
crew — making a necessary: expenses
total of eleven. of the expedition.
Ernest Stefalssen, CAPT. EJNAR MIKKELSEN. It is understood Daring searcher for new lands in the northern seas.
also of Harvard,