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an ethnologist, has started for Herschel which, acording to the theory of the exIsland to meet the vessel at a rendezvous plorers lies to the northwest of Alaska, agreed upon, where the party will make in a wide expanse at present unknown. a brief stop.
The explorers base their theory on the On leaving Victoria, the Duchess of drift of the ill-fated vessel Jeannette, Bedford has sailed direct for Kadiak. and other North Pole bound vessels, and From there the route was laid to Siberia the known flight of migratory birds, the for the purchase of some Eskimo dogs discoveries of Eskimo remains, and the to be carried on the trip. The vessel will stories of the natives who tell of land in enter the Arctic through Bering Straits, the direction where they intend to exskirting the shore to Bankse Island, plore. . where a depot will be established from After Captain Mikkelsen and Mr. Lef
fingwell shall have started on their trip over the ice, the Duchess of Bedford will bring the other members of the expedi.. tion down to l'ictoria, and there report the results of the cruise to date. Soon after, the vessel will sail again for the north in charge of Dr. MacLaren, of Glasgow, to find the other two explorers, and bring them back to Victoria.
When the search for unknown lands is successful, or the decrease of their stock of provisions renders it necessary to return, Mikkelsen and Mr. Leffingwell
will strike across the ice towards WranTHE DUCHESS OF BEDFORD.
gell Island for the North Siberian coast This is the ship that is carrying Capt. Mikkelsen on his voyage of discovery.
where they expect to be picked up by
the rescuing vessel in the fall of 1907. which various scientific expeditions will If the unknown land sought for shall be taken over the vast fields of ice. be discovered, a larger and much more
In the spring of 1907 Capt.: Mikkelsen complete expedition will be organized at and Mr. Leffingwell will leave the vessel once to make a thorough exploration of and other members of the party, to jour- those Arctic regions. ney over the ice in a northwest direction. It is unnecessary to add that the retaking sufficient provisions to last for 140 sult of this Anglo-American Arctic Exdays, already prepared in compact sol- ploring Expedition will be awaited dered cases. These men will take with with great interest by the members of them several strong dog teams, the in- both Geographical societies, and the *tention being to kill dogs for food for scientific world generally. the other animals as the supplies gradu- The last message received from the ally decrease.
party was a brief letter which arrived at This separate expedition will be taken Vancouver, B. C., from Capt. Mikkelby the two men for the purpose of mak- sen dated Port Clarence July 20 last. ing soundings through the ice cracks, Mikkelsen writes that the Duchess of with the hope of locating the edge of the Bedford would sail that night on her continental shelf and the stretch of land mission to the vast unknown North.
German Wireless Kite the kite to earth is fastened to a bridle
on the kite. . PORTABLE wireless outfits are con- The illustration shows an experiment
sidered part of the necessary engi- being made in wireless telegraphy by a neering equipment today in all. European German scientist. The kite, it will be armies. Under ordinary conditions, the observed, is of good size, being considexigencies of actual warfare will not al- erably taller than the man who is suplow the use of the permanent mast sta- porting it preparatory to its flight. The tions. Balloons and kites are therefore long wires or "antennae” with which the called into use to raise the aerial wire. machine is equipped, are plainly visible. When the breeze is light the tailless kite This is the very method employed by known as the Malay or Eddy is used. Marconi for sending messages across the When the wind is blowing at thirty Atlantic. The greater the distance of or forty miles an hour the box kite the wires above the earth, the farther the is employed. The string which holds distance the message may be sent. Hence
KITE USED IN TRANSMISSION OF WIRELESS MESSAGES IN GERMANY.
Marconi secured better results in all just outside the rim of the excavating probability by this method than he would wheels. The buckets have a top and have obtained had he used a permanent back, but no bottom. They are shaped station. For in the latter event, he somewhat like the bowl of a dragwould not have had the advantage of scraper; and, in fact, they act very much great altitude which the employment of like a drag scraper in digging, for as the kites offers.
excavating wheel revolves, each excavating bucket cuts off a slice of earth which
fills the bucket. When the excavating Ditcher Displaces Men bucket reaches the end of the arc near
the top of the wheel, the dirt falls out of W ITH a small traction ditcher, two the bucket upon a belt conveyor.
men can do the work of fifteen This trench excavator cuts the full laborers working with spades and shov- depth of the trench at one stroke and els, and of 100 men when the large trac- leaves the bottom exactly in the grade tion ditchers are employed.
desired. The operator sights along the The traction ditcher consists of a trac- sight arm at the targets on the flag poles tion engine, on the rear end of which is provided, and operates a hand wheel that mounted an excavating wheel provided raises or lowers the excavating wheel with excavating buckets fastened to its until the sight arm is at the proper level. circumference, as shown in the accom- In this way the operator has perfect conpanying view. This excavating wheel is trol over the depth to which the excavatopen, that is to say, it has no axle, but it ing wheel cuts and he can keep the botrevolves upon anti-friction wheels placed tom of the wheel within a fraction of
an inch of the desired grade.
By the use of this modern machinery three lineal feet of trench can be dug per minute in ordinary earth a depth of three feet, and at this rate, one machine would dig 180 lineal feet per hour, or 1,800 feet per working day of ten hours.
Outdone POTASIMITE is a
new explosive, perfected in Monterey, Mexico, and first used with success upon the construction of a Mexican Central Railroad branch with wonderful results, for it is pronounced safer, cheaper, and more powerful than dynamite. Those explosives based upon nitro
and are built diagonally with two wooden skins, with a waterproof skin between them. This boat operates at a uniform speed of sixteen knots per hour, and has maintained a speed on a number of official trials, sufficient to guarantee the quality and design of the vessel. These pinnaces are equipped with engines of the highest class of torpedo
boat machinery. The engines operate at a speed of from 530 to 600 revolutions per minute.
As noted in the illustration, a protected lookout and pilot house is provided in the bow of the pinnace, and the whole boat is well protected so that it can stand the heaviest weather.
ENGLISH Torpedo Boat. Latest addition to British Navy.
gen produce a gas that necessitates abandoning closed works, such as a mine or tunnel during the explosion, and the laborers cannot return to work for a long time thereafter, depending upon the facility for carrying off the gas. Potasimite is said to produce no noxious gas, the only precaution necessary in its use being that the workmen get out of the way of the flying particles of blasted rock.
Result of Collision THE tremendous weight and momen
tum of large ocean liners when under way, make it necessary that the greatest care be taken in docking these great ships, or great damage is done not only to the boats but to the piers, in case of the slightest collision.
The accompanying illustration shows the severe damage sustained by the Hamburg-American Liner Deutschland due to a collision with pier in Dover Harbor.
High Speed Pinnace
shown in the accompanying illustration,-a 56-foot vedette boat constructed for the English navy. A similar pinnace was constructed at the same shipyard at East Cowes, Isle of Wight, for the United States, as a sample boat, and others have been built for various foreign navies. These high speed boats are constructed of mahogany and teak,
Electrical Relics Alcohol Torpedo Boat THE illustrations show the beginnings TORPEDO boats of a type new to 1 of those electrical devices that have naval warfare are soon to be manurevolutionized the mechanical and engi- factured by the International Power neering sciences. From the early dyna- Company. The vessels are to be opermo of Faraday have sprung mammoth ated by alcohol motors. It is said by generators and a multitude of devices to naval constructors that the use of alutilize their energy. This inventor by cohol motors will enable the manufacthis discovery of the law of induced cur- urers to make a torpedo boat of the same rents laid the basis of modern electrical length and the same tonnage as any science. The Wheatstone bridge ren- steam-power boat, with a saving of onedered possible the comparison of elec- half the weight and one-half the draft. trical resistances, and
That saving would be Prof. Daniell's load
of great advantage. In stone has played also
the first place it will a most important part
enormously increase the in scientific progress.
radius of action of the boat. At present, the coal supply will not enable a boat to make a cruise of more than 400 miles without recoaling.
ELECTRICAL RELICS. In center, Prof. Daniell's lodestone with Faraday's induction coil; in the foreground, the original Wheat.
stone bridge, on the sides are two of Prof. Henry's original induction coils.
British Cross the Seas
mercial world is the recent establishment in the United States of branch factories by British concerns. Within the last year there have been four of considerable importance; one for the manufacture of weighing machines, at South Milwaukee ; a chemical concern at Niagara Falls; a fancy cotton goods mill at South Norwalk, Conn., and a button factory at Baltimore.
This move was due to the conviction of each concern that they would be better able to hold their trade in America by manufacturing the articles on the ground, and thereby saving the freight and tariff duties imposed on English goods.
It is asserted that the alcohol motor boats will be able to make the trans-Atlantic trip very easily. The saving in draft will permit them to go up shallow rivers and assist, for instance, in forcing a landing for marines ; and the saving in weight will permit the carriage of a torpedo boat by a battleship. The enactment of the free alcohol bill by Congress will cause a spurt in the manufacture of alcohol motors of all kinds, and will practically insure the success of the alcohol motor torpedo boat. The possibilities of alcohol as a fuel have so recently been discovered that one would think that the many uses to whicli it is being put were experimental, which, however, is not the case.