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and Clay and accepted by Poinsett as the guiding principle of the relations of the American states.11

The influence which Poinsett was so pleased to see in control of affairs remained dominant. Some three months later he reported to Clay that the executive had openly avowed a change in policy from the centralista party to the federalista. Poinsett's agency in bringing about the change, he said, had drawn upon him the odium of the centralistas. They were declaring, he continued, his purpose to be to gain such influence that the government would consent to any proposal he might make regarding limits.2 There was probably little if any truth in the assertion; but if he was trying to do so events proved that he failed signally in this purpose. What he really did toward bringing about this change was known only to the few most intimately concerned in keeping it secret. Some things, however, became known, for, as he said in another connection, "there are no secrets in Mexico." The uninitiated naturally suspected much more than existed, hence the criticisms and attacks that shortly began so seriously to embarrass Poinsett.


The displacement of English sympathizers in the Mexican ministry by what Poinsett called an Amer

41 Much interesting light remains to be cast on this matter of the conflicting interests of England and the United States at the Mexican capital and the conflicting intrigues of Poinsett and Ward, by a careful study of Ward's correspondence with his government while chargé in Mexico.

42 Poinsett to Clay, January 4, 1826, MS., Department of State, Despatches from Mexico, I.

43 See below, chapter on Texas and the Boundary Issue.

ican party had nothing to do with England's rejection of the Mexican treaty. The conferences at which Canning declared the treaty inadmissible occurred late in July, 1825; and the change in the Mexican ministry did not take place until late in September. It is probable that news of the rejection of the treaty reached Mexico about the time of the cabinet upheaval; but this is not certain." If it did, it doubtless had much to do with the sudden change from sympathy with England to sympathy with the United States.

The messengers from Mexico bearing the treaty reached London July 16. On July 27 at a conference which Rocafuerte had with Canning and two other British officials the treaty was discussed at length. At the close of the conference Canning declared that the seventh and eighth articles would have to be radically changed, or the treaty would have to be rejected. Rocafuerte did not have sufficient author

44 Rocafuerte to Secretario, 21 de julio de 1825, announcing the arrival at London of the messengers with the treaty bears a marginal note indicating that a reply to it was sent 29 de septiembre. There is nothing to indicate how long it had been in the office before the reply was sent. Neither is there anything to indicate the date of the receipt at Mexico of Rocafuerte to Secretario, 2 de agosto de 1825, telling of the rejection of the treaty. But it was probably late in September or early in October. MS., Relaciones Exteriores.

Alaman's resignation was accepted on September 27. See above, note 36. The reorganization of the cabinet in favor of the American party took place between this and October 12, the date of Poinsett's long cipher despatch telling about it. See above, note 35.

ity to make the necessary changes. The seventh provided that a ship should be considered Mexican if two thirds of its crew had been admitted into the service with the knowledge of the government. There was no requirement concerning citizenship. Article eight embodied the "flag shall cover the goods" principle which England had never admitted in her relations with any nation. Canning declared that, in case of war between England and the United States (or any other power), by combining the privileges conceded to Mexico in the two articles in question, all enemy property could be carried in what were really enemy ships but had been transformed in a night into Mexican ships. This he declared would be too great an advantage for England's enemies. A clause stipulating that merchant vessels of either nation should under no circumstances be embargoed in ports of the other, without the payment of full indemnity, was also strenuously resisted.45

Morier, who with Ward had negotiated the treaty that was rejected, was sent back to Mexico with strict instructions to negotiate a new treaty which should not contain the objectionable clauses. He reached Mexico about the end of the year, 1825. Until


45" Memorandum de una conferencia tenida en Londres el 27 de julio de 1825 entre los señores Ministros el Honorable Sor Jorge Canning, Ministro de Relaciones, el Señor Planta 1er secretario del Ministro de Relaciones, el Huskisson, Ministro de la camara de comercio; y Don Vicente Rocafuerte," MS., Relaciones Exteriores.

46 Poinsett to Clay, January 4, 1826, MS., Department of State, Despatches from Mexico, I.

about the middle of December Poinsett seems not to have learned of the rejection of the treaty in England.47

Neither England's rejection of the treaty nor the Mexican cabinet upheaval changed entirely the feeling of gratitude to England for the stand which that power had taken in supporting the interests of Mexico (and other new Spanish-American states) against the projects of Spain and the other reactionary European powers. On the first of January, 1826, President Victoria, in his speech at the opening of Congress, declared that the month of January of the year just closed was worthy of eternal commemoration because it was then that Great Britain had announced to the powers her intentions to recognize and enter into relations with the new American states, and thereby defeated the designs of the continental powers. He said: "Thus has been revealed the secret of their ulterior intentions, and they have been forced to confess that they renounced for the future all armed intervention in subjects relating to the insurgent Americans." He dwelt on the value to Mexico of this generous act of Great Britain, which was the more flattering because it met with the general approbation of the English nation. He then mentioned the exchange of diplomatic agents between Mexico and England and the arrival, two weeks earlier, of Morier who came to revise the treaty.48

47 Poinsett to Clay, December 16, 1825, MS., Department of State, Despatches from Mexico, I.

48 Victoria's message to Congress, January 1, 1825, enclosed

But to the great satisfaction of Poinsett, Victoria, after finishing his review of relations with European governments, continued: "With respect to the nations of the happy hemisphere of Columbus, justice and gratitude compel us to mention, before all others, the most ancient state of America, and the first of the civilized world which solemnly proclaimed our rights, after having preceded us in the heroic resolution of shaking off a dependence on the mother country. The United States of the North, models of political virtue and moral rectitude, have advanced under the system. of a federative republic, which, having been adopted amongst us, by the most spontaneous act on record, exalts us to a level with the country of Washington, and establishes the most intimate union between the neighboring countries. A plenipotentiary from that nation accredited to our government is commissioned to conclude treaties which, without delay, shall be laid before your chambers. The most urgent point is the definitive regulation of the limits between the two nations; and the government is preparing surveys which will facilitate the conclusion of the negotiation on the unalterable bases of liberality and good faith."4" This virtually announced the supremacy of the inwith Poinsett to Clay, January 4, 1826, cited in note 46 above; also British and Foreign State Papers, XIII, 1067. Ibid., 1104, is a memorial of the Secretario de Relaciones to the Congress, some time in the month of January. It gives a brief account of relations with England during 1825. The same was enclosed with Poinsett to Clay, February 18, 1826, MS., Department of State, Despatches from Mexico, I.

49 British and Foreign State Papers, XIII, 1069.

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