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(1809-1894) Brethren in Unity ....... 3962 Washington ......... 3961 WEBSTER, DANIEL


The Union of 1776. ...... 3963 England's Drumbeat · · · · · · 3945 | WISE, HENRY A.

(1819-1869) Liberty and Union - ...... 3951 "Dark Lanterns » in Politics · · · 3944 Popular Government · · · · · · 3955 WOODBURY, LEVI

(1789-1851) Public Opinion ........ 3956 The Tariff of 1842 · · · · · · · 3964 Secession in Peace Impossible : 3957 WOOLWORTH, JAMES M.

Sink or Swim, Live or Die.... 3958 Individual Liberty ....... 3964 WEED, THURLOW


Good Enough Morgan · · · · · 3946 Continuous Life and Everlasting In-
Williams, GEORGE H. (1823-)

crease in Power · · · · · · · 3965 Pioneers of the Pacific Coast · · · 3955


(1484-1531) WILMOT, DAVID


Extracts from His Sermons During (Fanaticism ) and Property Rights » 3963 | the Reformation · · · · · · · 3965



PAGE Daniel Webster at the Grave of Shakespeare (Photogravure)

Frontispiece Marie Antoinette in Prison (Photogravure)

3689 George Washington (Portrait, Photogravure)

3736 Washington and Lafayette at Mt. Vernon (Photogravure)

3740 Daniel Webster (Portrait, Photogravure) Departure of the Mayflower (Photogravure) John Wesley Preaching (Photogravure)

3873 George Whitefield (Portrait, Photogravure)

3884 William Wilberforce (Portrait, Photogravure)

3891 William Wirt (Portrait, Photogravure)


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SASTRE compilers of a recent Dictionary of Names' call Clement SVESR L. Vallandigham an American Democratic politician, leader care of the Copperheads during the Civil War.” This is intended to be invidious, but it may be accepted as without prejudice to a man who stood for one extreme of principle as emphatically as Wendell Phillips and William Lloyd Garrison did for another. · The great Whig leaders of Europe in the eighteenth century, the great Republican and Democratic leaders of America in the first quarter of the nineteenth, taught that the world cannot be forced to become civilized – that coercion in the hope of advancing civilization involves and necessitates reaction, and that every war forced as a mode of propagating ideas supplants progress with reaction as far as its influence goes. They held a theory which afterwards came to be known as “Evolution,” — the idea that progress is a mere mode of mind and morals, and that it must come from slow growth, - the patient, charitable, long-suffering propagation of moral ideas with full confidence in their ultimate triumph. As a corollary of this, they taught the nonintervention of one people in the affairs of another and, that each people might be evolved most effectively by pressure from its own environment,” they advocated “local self-government,” the disbandment of standing armies, the disuse of naval armament, and the utmost possible reliance on moral rather than on physical force. Cobden and Bright advocated this theory in England in connection with the agitation for universal free trade. In America the “ Copperheads of the North represented it with an obstinacy often as devoted and daring as that John Brown showed when he invaded Virginia as an exponent of the conflicting idea that it is the highest duty of every brave and manly man to compel his neighbors, at the peril of his life and theirs, to be just, and just at once. The Copperhead of the North, the Abolitionist of the South often represented the highest type of individual courage, standing, the one and the other, isolated in the community, and vindicating each his ideas of right at the risk of liberty and fortune, if not of life itself. Such an individualist was Vallandigham when he made his speech of February 20th, 1861, against Centralization, and, accepting him as the leader of the Copperheads,” it is as such that posterity will judge him.

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