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We should have been pleased to have had a more particular account of these boulders, which Mr Schoolcraft speaks of having seen upon the borders of the northern lakes, and which from all accounts, are scattered very widely over those regions. If the facts in regard to them were collected, they might throw some light upon the history of these inland seas, and possibly afford some grounds for determining the period of the great catastrophe, by which they were formed. Were they closely examined, they might probably be traced to their original places, as those upon the Jura and the banks of the Aar have been; perhaps they would confirm Mr Hayden's theory of a great northeast current. The appearances around Green Bay, particularly near the rivers which it recieves from the chain of mountains in which the Ontanagon rises, indicate very decidedly that copper abounds in the angle between lakes Superior and Michigan. A brilliant specimen of native copper, ten or twelve pounds in weight, was brought to Mr Schoolcraft by an Indian, who related that passing in his canoe during the afternoon of a beautiful summer's day, across Winnebago lake, when the sun was just visible above the tops of the trees, and a delightful calm prevailed over the face of the waters, he espied at a distance in the lake before him a beautiful form standing in the water.

Her eyes shone with a brilliancy that could not be endured, and she held in her hand a lump of glittering gold. He immediately paddled towards the attractive object, but as he came near he could percieve that it was gradually altering as to its shape and complexion; her eyes no longer shone with brilliancy--her face lost the hectic glow of life,--her arms imperceptibly disappeared ; and when he came to the spot where she stood, it was a monument of stone, having a human face, with the fins and tail of a fish. He sat a long while in amazement, fearful either to touch the super-human object or to go away and leave it; at length, having made an offering of the incense of tobacco, and addressed it as the guardian angel of his country, he ventured to lay his hand upon the statue, and finally lifted it into his canoe. Then sitting in the other end of the canoe with his back towards the miraculous statue, he paddled gently towards the shore, but was astonished, on turning round to find nothing in his canoe, but a large lump of copper, which I now present to you.'

How can it be said, that the aborigines of our continent are a stupid race, when they have a thousand such fictions showing the liveliest imagination ?

The principal geological and mineralogical facts, which we learn from Mr Schoolcraft's Journal, are these—that the secondary region extends along the whole chain of lakes, which is mostly limestone and sandstone, and the latter chiefly around lake Superior—that beyond the portage of St Louis river, the few rocks, which are seen in situ are granitic, and that the same formation extends from thence downward along the Mississippi to the falls of St Anthony—that copper and iron are abundant near lakes Superior and Michigan, and lead throughout the whole limestone basin of the Mississippi. But a few earthy minerals are spoken of, and those mostly silicious. It would now be interesting and important to determine where the primitive range commences, which runs north of the lakes, and to what depth the secondary strata extend.

On the hundred and twenty third day from the time of his departure from Detroit, Mr Schoolcraft returns to it again, having made a complete tour of the northern lakes, and north of them to the sources of the Mississippi and down that river to the Ouisconsing, and thence across to Michigan, and again down the Huron to the St Clair. The whole distance travelled could not be far from three thousand six hundred miles. The narrative of this journey contains much valuable information upon the natural history and the geographical features of those unknown parts of our country, and also upon the manners and character of the savage tribes, who inhabit them. All who are interested in these subjects are much indebted to the author for the knowledge he acquired at the expense of so much toil and hardship, and for the fidelity with which he has communicated it. But it has been the defect of all the expeditions of this kind which we have sent out, not to be provided with the instruments necessary to make the requisite observations upon the country, which they went to explore, and it appears to have been the case here. We learn from it nothing to be relied on about the height of mountains, the currents in the lakes, the fall of the rivers, the temperature of the waters, and the latitude and longitude of remarkable places. If it were reasonable to complain of one who has done so much as Mr Schoolcraft, because he has not done every thing, we would say that his descriptions are too loose and indefinite ; we are not sure that he has seen one new animal, or plant, or mineral, as he has never marked those, which he supposes to be new, by any characters which decide them to buried in their own dust and covered with the growth of a thousand years, forcing upon the imagination the appalling thought of some great and flourishing, perhaps civilized people, who have been so utterly swept from the face of the earth, that they have not left even a traditionary name behind them. At the present day, enough is known of our aborigines to afford the ground-work of invention, enough is concealed to leave full play for the warmest imagination; and we see not why those superstitions of theirs, which have filled inanimate nature with a new order of spiritual beings, may not be successfully employed to supersede the worn out fábles of Runic mythology, and light up a new train of glowing visions, at the touch of some future wizard of the West. At any rate we are confident that the savage warrior, who was not less beautiful and bold in his figurative diction, than in his attitude of death, the same who suffered not the grass to grow upon the warpath,' and hastened to extinguish the fire of his enemy with blood,'tracking his foe through the pathless forest, with instinctive sagacity, by the fallen leaf, the crushed moss, or the bent blade, patiently enduring cold, hunger, and watchfulness, while he crouched 'in the night-grass like the tiger expecting his prey, and finally springing on the unsuspicious victim with that war-whoop, which struck terror to the heart of the boldest planter of New England in her early day, is no mean instrument of the sublime and terrible of human agency. And if we may credit the flattering pictures of their best historian, the indefatigable Heckewelder, not a little of softer interest might be extracted from their domestic life.

Instead of wearying our reader with a formal disquisition on the characters and scenes of the third epoch, we beg leave to introduce him, without farther ceremony, if he has not already made the acquaintance, to Mr Harvey Birch, better known by the name of the Spy of the Neutral Ground; whom we greet

, as doubtless the reader does also, with the greater satisfaction, in that he has taken a world of trouble off our hands, doing away the painful necessity of establishing by syllogism and inference this part of our proposition, viz, that the American revolution is an admirable basis, on which to found fictions of the highest order of romantic interest. This trouble is taken off our hands, however, not because the work before us is a perfect model of its kind, but because, whatever other deficiencies or deformities may appertain to it, want of interest, the only unpardonable sin of romance, is not among them.

the rock. It is owing, however, to those partial disturbances, that we are enabled to perceive the columnar form of the trunk,its cortical layers—the bark by which it is enveloped, and the peculiar cross fracture, which unite to render the evidence of its ligneous origin, so striking and complete. From these characters and appearances, little doubt can remain that it is referable to the species juglans nigra, a tree very common to the forests of the Illinois, as well as to nost other parts of the immense region drained by the waters of the Mississippi. The woody structure is most obvious in the outer rind of the trunk, extending to a depth of two or three inches, and these appearances become less evident as we approximate the heart. Indeed, the traces of organic structure in its interior, particularly when viewed in the hand specimen, are almost totally obliterated and exchanged, the vegetable matter being replaced by a mixed substance analogous, in its external character, to some of the silicated and impure calcareous carbonats of the region. Like those carbonats, it is of a brownish grey colour, and compact texture, effervesces slightly in the nitric and muriatic acids, yields a white streak under the knife, and presents solitary points, or facets of crystals resembling calc spar. All parts of the tree are penetrated by pyrites of a brass yellow colour, disseminated through the most solid and stony parts of the interior,-filling interstices in the outer rind, or investing its capillary pores. There are also the appearances of rents or seams between the fibres of the wood, caused by its own shrinkage, which are now filled with a carbonat of lime, of a white colour, and crystallized.'

This description is very correct, so far as we can judge from a small specimen sent to the mineralogical cabinet at Cambridge by Governor Cass, which we have been permitted to examine. In this specimen the calcareous spar in the centre, the seams of pyrites and white carbonate of lime in the outer rind are distinctly seen. But there are distinctive characters in it, which Mr Schoolcraft has only slightly hinted at, in another part of the memoir, where he speaks of the exterior rind and bark having acquired a blackish hue, from an effect analogous to carbonization. We look upon it to be not merely analogous to carbonization, but the thing itself. Throughout the mass, wherever its fibrous structure remains, it appears to be perfect anthracite, becoming ignited by the action of the blowpipe, yielding neither flame, nor smoke, nor bituminous odor, and bearing a large portion of grayish white ashes; also soiling the fingers and having a dull blackish trace. Instead therefore of regarding this tree as petrified

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and converted into a lithoxyle, we look upon it as carbonized and converted into the substance above named, into which calcareous matter has entered by infiltration, and filled up the fissures formed by the decomposition of some parts, and the shrinking of the fibres, with sulphuret of iron here and there disseminated. A single glance at its cross fracture shows that its vertical layers are not calcareous. It was probably carbonized in some of the coal fields, with which that region abounds, and then swept into the river, where it now lies, and afterwards filled up with the calcareous matter which now constitutes so large a part of it, and enveloped in the alluvial sand of the river. Calcareous lithoxyles are exceedingly rare; in fact we know of none, unless some of the petrifications observed by Riche, Peron, and Le Sueur in their voyage to the terres australes, may be so considered. These are our conjectures—they may be wrong, and it looks somewhat like vanity, we confess, to sit here in our attic, and presume to know what is done on the Illinois, better than those who have been on the spot to examine.

W. H. Garcuier ART. XII.- The Spy, a tale of the Neutral Ground. By the

author of Precaution. 2 vols. 8vo. pp. 537. New York, 1821.

We have long been of opinion that our native country opens to the adventurous novel-writer a wide, untrodden field, replete with new matter admirably adapted to the purposes of fiction. Our views on this subject have already been partially developed, (N. A. Rev. No. 31.) and our conviction has not been staggered by any arguments we have heard opposed to them. That nothing of the kind has hitherto been accomplished, is but a poor argument at best-especially when taken in connexion with the fact, that nothing has as yet been attempted. We are told, it is true, that there is among us a cold uniformity and sobriety of character ; a sad reality and utility in our manners and institutions; that our citizens are a downright, plain-dealing, inflexible, matter-of-fact sort of people; in short, that our country and its inhabitants are equally and utterly destitute of all sorts of romantic association. We are not so foolhardy as to deny the truth of the theory on which

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