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warrant the effects they produce, such as the moon will not rise till after midnight-a fit time for deeds of darkness.' He often usurps a dignity wbich hardly belongs to him, and then again relapses into a degree of vulgarity quite inconsistent with his late dignity, and needless for any purpose of deception. His constant allusions to him, who alone knew him, but ill agree with his habitual caution ; and the useless tricks that he plays, merely to astonish the natives, are often quite unaccountable; as where he calls to Dunwoodie to stand or die ;' informs him that he wants nothing but his good opinion (which he certainly took a novel way of securing ;) warns him of some impending danger without explaining what; and finally concludes with the very superfluous manœuvre of firing his musket in the air, throwing it at the feet of Dunwoodie, and vanishing in fumo.

But we must put a period to remarks which have already swelled our article to unlooked for dimensions. We have to thank our author for having demonstrated so entirely to our satisfaction, that an admirable topic for the romantic historian has grown out of the American Revolution ; although we still think it a less prolific source than our earlier history. If he has not done all that man could do, he has at least exhibited powers from which we have every thing to hope.

The Spy of the Neutral Ground is not the production of an ordinary mind, and we will not presume to set limits to that capacity of improvement, which the author of Precaution has evinced in this second attempt. He has the high praise, and will have, we may add, the future glory, of having struck into a new path—of having opened a mine of exhaustless wealthin a word, he has laid the foundations of American romance, and is really the first who has deserved the appellation of a distinguished American novel writer. Brown, who is beginning to attain a merited distinction abroad as well as at home, although his scenes are laid in America, cannot be said with truth to have produced an American novel. So far from exhibiting any thing of our native character and manners, his agents are not beings of this world ; but those dark monsters of the imagination, which the will of the master may conjure up with an equal horror in the shadows of an American forest, or amidst the gloom of long galleries and vaulted aisles. His works have nothing but American topography about them. We recognize the names of places that are familar to us and New Series, No. 11,


years, in one infant colony, as I may call it, in an obscure nook of the new world; and this replied to and refuted, witl one voice, and with an evidence the most consenting and astounding, by all ages and countries, by all sects of religion and forms of government, that were ever heard of or devised.'

But in order to ascertain whether the above remarks contradict Mr Malthus' position, it is well for us to recollect precisely, what is the position he assumes. His words are, that 'population, when unchecked, goes on doubling itself every twenty-five years.' He does not affirm that such has actually been the rate of increase at all times, and throughout the world; and this Mr G. must have known, for a great part of Mr Malthus' book is taken up by the inquiry into the nature of those checks, which in different parts of the world have kept down population so much below its natural level. It is not pretended by any one that there is any material difference in the natural fecundity of the human race in different countries ; at least Mr G. is very strenuous in insisting that there is none. It would seem therefore neither unfair nor unphilosophical to take the ascertained rate of increase in any one country, as proof that the human race is capable of that rate of increase. The inquiry is, in what period will population, when unchecked, double itself. We look at the United States, where the usual checks have operated with less force than in any other part of the world, and we find the period there is twenty-five years. Now it would be of no consequence, if it could be proved that in every other nation on earth the rate of increase is so slow, that it would require a hundred, or even a thousand years, to double the population. The fact is proved, that the human race can increase so fast as to double in a period of twenty-five years. It becomes, it is true, a very important question, why population does not increase as fast in other couptries as in this. What are those checks which have in them operated with such terrible effect against the powerful tendency of human nature ? Into this inquiry Mr M. has entered, and has executed his task in no hasty or superficial manner. Perhaps the larger, and by no means the least important, part of the essay on population, is devoted to this subject; and it would have been well for Mr G. (if he were able) to have pointed out any incorrectness in this part of his opponent's statements and arguments. But whilst he has not done this, his angry railings against Mr M. for assuming his



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